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THE EVENING STAR With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON. D. C. WEDNESDAY May 21. 1024 THEODORE W. NOYES Editor Thf Evening Star Newspaper Company KuoiDPKfi OffliT. llih Bt. «nd I’ennujlTsui* Are. New V<irk Office: 110 K*st 42nd St. I'hicaso Oflle: Tower Ituildin* t'nropean Office: 16Ke*eu! St.. l,»ndoB. England. The Eren.ng Star, with (he Sunday moraine edition, in delirered by carriers within the city at WO cents per month: daily only, 45 cents per month: Sunday only. 20 cents per month. Orders may be sent by mail or tele phone Mli.t .ViOO. Collection is made by car ners at the end of each month. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. .Maryland and Virginia. Daily anti Sunday..l yr. $8.40 ;Imo . 70c Daily only 1 yr, $6.00; 1 mo, 50c Sunday only 1 yr, $2.40 ; I mo., 20c All Other States. Daily and Sunday.! yr. SIO.OO ; 1 mo., 85c Daily only 1 yr, $7.00; I mo . BUc Sunday only I yr, $3.00 ; 1 mo.. 25c Member of the Associated Press. The Associated ITess is exclusively entitled to the use for republloalion of all news dis patches credited lo il or not otherwise credited .n (his paper and also (he local news pub lished herein. All rights of publication of •pecial dispatches herein are also reserved. Vicious Legislation by Rider. The fundamental vice of legislation by rider on an appropriation bill is the coercion which it involves, some times of the Senate by the House or vice versa, sometimes of the President by Congress. The appropriation acts supply the money to maintain the government in accordance with the requirements of existing law. They must be passed j promptly and regularly every year to j keep the machinery of government ; running. if attempt is made to change the law by smuggling into the appropria tion bill a legislative rider, the house making the attempt must convince, iversuade or coerce the other into as sent or the attempt fails. And if both houses agree to the rider, the Presi dent must then, if not convinced of the merits of the new legislation, be coerced into withholding his veto. In such case coercion of one house by the other is possible through I threat of the body attempting the ir- I regular legislation to defeat an ap- I proprialion bill and bring to a stand- j still pan of the governmental ma chinery unless the other house yields its convictions concerning the merits of the proposed legislation and assents to the enactment of the vicious rider, j Coercion of the President is made pos- * sihle by the fact that he cannot segre- I gate and veto separately a legislative 1 rider which he finds unjust and of- : fensive. but must either sign under ( duress or must veto the whole appro- I priation bill with infinite diversified * resulting injury. The norma! procedure of wise Amer- j lean law-making is for the proposed | new law to receive, first, thorough j consideration on its merits by the ap- j propria te committee, after full and | fair hearings of those whose rights or interests will be affected by the change: then to be thoughtfully con sidered and put into the best shape •possible by the House or Senate, whichever takes the initiative; then after enactment by one house to be sent to the other for similar careful consideration on its merits in commit tee and in the full body; then if it still survives but in changed form through amendments to he discussed in con ference committee and the issues be tween the two houses settled by mu tual concessions or reported as hope less, resulting in the death of the bill; end. finally, if it passes the two houses the bill goes to the President to be signed or vetoed by him. in accord ance with his convictions of his duty. Rv this procedure each new legis lative proposition in order to become law must be approved on it* distinc tive merits by House. Senate and President, or h\ two-thirds of House end Senate in spite of the President’s disapproval. The House cannot cram Ir down the throat of the Senate, or the Senate dcwi the throat of the House, rr Congress (unless by a two thirds votei down the throat of the President. Os course, this wise principle of American law-making is repudiated .to the public injury if a legislative propo sition which is so offensive in itself that it would be killed either by House, Senate or President if con sidered separately on its merits is per mitted to sneak from the open field of regular legislation, where it must de fend itself against the assault of rea sonable criticism, and to skulk as a rider behind some great appropria tions bill in its necessary, regular and almost perfunctory course through Congress. The application of these observa tions to the lump-sum payment rider which alters radically a vital financial provision of the organic act of 1922 is obvious. A civilization which permits every citizen to select the laws it suits his personal convenience to observe must in the course of time come to be re garded as more or less impractical. The danger in presenting a cam paign slogan thus early is that events may so shape themselves as to enable e rival glee club to set it to music and sing it the loudest. x 1 Potomac Power Bill Hearing. The special sObcommittee of the House District committee named to consider the Potomac power bill is ob taining at its hearing ample testimony from government engineers and others familiar with hydroelectric matters that the proposed development of the upper Potomac is practicable, that it promises advantages to the govern ment and the Capital and that the work, according to the Tyler plan, could be done within the estimate of cost. So far there is agreement between the government experts that the ernment should undertake this work. Reasons are given why the task will probably not be undertaken by private interests. Discussing that point. Gen. Black. formerly chief of engineers of the Army, and who is as well . ac quainted with the Potomac River as old resident* are. laid that “The gov ernment can profitably make this de velopment where It would be un profitable for private concerns, be came the private companies would . * have to pay as much as 8 per cent for money, while the government could get all the capital needed for 4 or 4H per cent, and the difference represents the spread between success and fail ure.’’ There seems also to be agreement between the expend thai the govern ment, after transforming the Potomac into a power stream, should not go into the business of. retail delivery of electric current, but before undertak ing the work should have contracts with local public utilities that they would buy all the current produced and use it or distribute it to private consumers. Gen. Black said he could see no objection to leasing the plant to a local distributing company such as the Potomac Electric Power Com pany. The water power of the Potomac has been under discussion many years, and ever since the development of hydroelectric power the falls and rapids of the Potomac have been looked at approvingly by engineers, but. the estimates of cost were always in big figures, and a few years ago there was no assurance that all the current produced could be sold nearby. Meanwhile the coal-power electric plants have reached remarkable ef ficiency and have prospered, and a few years ago there was little or no difference between the cost of generat ing electricity by steam power and the estimates for doing it with Potomac water power. With the rise in the cost of ccal has come quite a wide differ ence in the cost of coal and water power electric current, and it Is likely that the difference will become greater. Now for the Tax Bill. Sow that Congress has had its way in the matter of the bonus for ex soldiers by overriding the President’s veto, it should endeavor to frame « tax-revision bill that will both effect reductions and will assure the govern ment of a sufficient income to meet its expenses, thus enlarged by the bonus requirements. The bill is now in con ference. Certain features of it are sub ject to change. Indeed, in some vital respects it can be materially modified and altered from its original form. A spirit of accommodation and of real accomplishment should prevail. The President is pledged to tax re duction. Congress desires to effect tax reduction. The President recommend ed reduction based upon the condition of an economy of government ex penses. without a bonus. Congress has seen fit to put the bonus on the statutes. The original program of re duction cannot be carried into effect without involving a deficiency. A com promise is required This is not a political question. It is a matter of federal financing. It is a matter of business. If an unsatisfactory tax-revision measure is enacted into law responsi bility will rest upon Congress and not upon the President. There will be no political advantage to either party in a revision that throws out of gear the machinery of government financing, although it assures an immediate les sening of the tax burden. Mr. Coolidge wants to sign a tax revision bill, for the sake of the public welfare. Some of the features of the bill as it passed the Senate are par ticularly objectionable, the corpora tion tax provisions and that for the publicity of income tax returns. If these, for which there is no justifica tion, are eliminated the bill will stand as a reasonable tax revision, with at least a fair chance of assuring suf ficient revenue to meet the ordinary expenses and the bonus charge as well. , Only a few more days remain before Congress will, according to schedule, adjourn for the session. There is time for the necessary adjustment. The bill, however, should not be left to the last days and put on Its final passage in the rush of work at the close of the session. A well arranged program will per mit the Cleveland delegates to trans act business in short order and still have plenty of lime to listen to the in cidental concerts and the complimen-’ tary vice presidential speeches. A large amount of persuasion was required to convince Hiram Johnson that he was not. a candidate. The truths that come nearest home are often hardest to discover. The song of the nightingale has been successfully broadcast by radio. This is a case of ultra-modern mechan ism getting back to first art prin ciples; as far from Jazz as possible. Preparations are being made to have New York strictly dry during the Democratic national convention. It is hoped that all the bellhops are reading the newspapers. ■■■■ It is Trotsky’s evident opinion that Lenin must be remembered as a very fine man. if only because of tfce com pany he kept. Saturday Half-Holiday. A news announcement states that Saturday half-holidays for federal and District government employes will be gin June 15 to continue until Septem ber 15. The Saturday half-holiday during the hot months has been ef fective in government offices in the District since 1914, and it has been said authoritatively at the White House that the executive order of June, 1914, creating the half-holiday for three months is looked upon as a continuing order from year to, year, "thereby making it unnecessary for a new order to be issued each year.’’ The government’s Saturday afternoon rest in summer is looked upon by many thousands of people in Wash ington as a highly desirable thing. The week end rest spell gives one the chance to have a full-day rest day on Sunday. It gives the chance for work ing in the garden on Saturday after noon and for more play at golf and tennis and for week-day boating and fishing. Its advantages are many. The Saturday half-holiday has been taken up by great numbers of people who do not ijork for the government. Private employers heard the demand for a shorter Saturday work day and answered it affirmatively be fore the government caught the idea, and half-Saturday cldfctng of atone THE EVENING? STAR. WASHINGTON, D. 0„ WEDNESDAY, MAY 21, 1924. and offices has become general. With many persons Saturday was the most uncomfortable day. Shops were kept open until late at night, and it was custom of large numbers of people to sleep late on Sunday go “catch up" with their rest. When the early-closing idea began to spread It was argued by many persons that it would hurt busi ness. It seems to have benefited busi ness and all those who work at busi ness. The 5-5-3 Ratio. There is cause for gratification over the announcement in the House yes terday by Chairman Butler of the naval affairs committee that the House will be asked to vote May 28 on his bill appropriating $150,000,000 for modernizing the Navy and bring ing it up to the strength authorized by the 5-5-3 treaty. The bill has the indorsement of President Coolidge and Secretary of the Navy Wilbur and should be enacted into law. The nation was shocked when it was asserted that the naval strength had fallen below the ratio authorized by iht treaty. Thai qatio was thoroughly satisfactory to the advocates of lessened armament, for it realized the tints of iiatriotic Americans for ade quate defense of the country, preserva tion of our commerce on the high seas and maintaining the dignity and safety of the United States before all the world, while at th.- same time limiting the constantly increasing ex pense of armament. Il has been claimed in some quar ters that the assertion that we have fallen far below the treaty ratio is un founded. Chairman Butler, who is in touch with the Navy authorities, in formed the House yesterday that the actual ratio is 5 for Great Britain, a fraction over 4 for the l.’nited States and 3 for Japan. He said the proposed appropriation would raise the I’nited States to the authorized 5. The ve.suels lo be provided lo bring the ratio up would be the construction of eight new scout cruisers of 10.000 tons, reconditioning of six first-line battleships and construction of six gunboats of 400 tons each for far east ern service. This does not smack of "militarism." It is good common sense and patriotism. No radical movement is likely to gain very serious momentum. The average radical soon loses enthusiasm when he finds himself under the or ganization discipline with which even radicalism cannot dispense. When Jules Verne wrote "Around the World in Eighty Days.” he creat ed a wonderful work of imagination. He could have made it even more thrilling if he had known about the airship. Success in holding down rentals will lead to the hope that a large number of other items in the high cost of living can be placed under judicious restraint. Fairness compels recognition of the fact that Mr. Bok’s prize plan for world peace has thus far proved itself quite as Influential as any suggestion offered. Welcoming the first straw hat is a matter of less popular interest this year than the farewell to the um brella. Photographs can be sent over tele phone wires. An indignant subscriber may have to disguise his facial ex pression as well as his tone of voice. In addition to its other complica tions the housing problem may de velop an intricate system of lawyers' fees. it is confidently expected that in a short time the oil investigation will he gone—but not forgotten. SHOOTING STARS. KT PHIIANDKR JOHNSON. Excursion. A cloud boat in the tranquil sky. With Fancy at the helm, May swiftly carry us on high To an enchanted realm. So let us. on a distant shore. Forsake the weary grind And for a little while explore The Land of Nevermind. A. little time to rest and dream— Then homeward with a smile.' Our duties oft so irksome seem And yet make life worth while. So. comrade, let us sail away And leave our cares behind. We’ll seek—nor grudge the brief de lay— • The I,and of Nevermind. Restraint. “Don't you find it rather difficult to think of new ideas for your speeches?" “No,” answered Senator Sorghum. “What keeps me busy is eliminating the novel touches until some more venturesome talker has tried 'em out and shown whether they are liable to be popular.” Jud Tunkins says a good politician will always extend sympathy, but what he expects from you is practical assistance. Moonshine. The moon bestows a mystic light. It soothes the eye lo follow it. The moonshine's really all right Unless you try to swallow it. Cleverness Handicapped. "Weren’t you afraid to play poker with that magician who did such won derful tricks with cards?” "No,” answered Cactus Joe. "We figured the advantage was all our way. That feller was too smart for his own good. He simply had to lose in order to show that he was honest.” Different. “Things are different since we’ve had prohibition." "Entirely.” agreed Uncle Bill Bottle top. "We used to call the patrol wagon. Now it’s the ambulance.” "Some mert talks so continuous,” said Uncle Eben, "dat dey don’t give deirsclfs time to find out anything wuth telling _ m ,mX m mm America’s Future and Problems NO. VII. Lifting of Tax Burden and Aid for Country's Farmers Essen tial, Declares Democratic Presidential Possibility. BV SAMI KI, M. RALSTON, railed Staten Senator From Indiana and Former Loveraur of Indiana. 1 am not expert enough to give a full answer to the question, “What can be done to Improve the economic condition of the United States?” 1 am willing Co suggest, however, that business will not materially improve in this country until our government quits ignoring the principle that “just taxation is limited to the need* of the government economically adminis tered." That maxim means that "public of fice is a public trust." and that otfi- I cials who are ele ’ted to serve the people shall not exercise the power to lax to benefit one class of persons to the detriment of other classes. It seems to me that the process which has been followed in this country of taxing the people for the benefit of favored classes has been carried on until our whole governmental system Is demoralized and that now the whole idea of the paternalistic ad vocates Is to stimulate the portions of the community or country which have been injured by ft by still further perverting ihe legitimate functions of government. ** * * The fanners, for example, have been taxed for the benefit of everybody, and are still being taxed without re gard to the iniquitous effect of the rate and system of taxes imposed upon them. Most of (he remedies that are now being offered to relieve them of some of their unjust burdens are along the lines of temporary re lief in the form of loans and con cessions of various kinds As a member of the committee on agriculture and forestry. 1 have lis tened for weeks to witnesses testify ing to the deplorable condition of the farmers in the northwest, and I have been astounded to see how they ail, with very few exceptions, cling to a high protective tariff as the farmers’ greatest safeguard, notwithstanding that under such a policy the farmers of this country have come to the very precipice of absolute ruin. Appar ently these witnesses were most so licitous that there be nothing done by our government to develop foreign markets for the surplus of our farms ] that might in any way weaken the high protective policy of the Repub lican party. ** * * So strongly are they wedded to high tariffs that they are willing to IN TODAY'S SPOTLIGHT BY PAIL I'. COLLISS. A mass meeting was held last Sun day under the auspices of the Wash- < ington Board of Trade and presided over by Chief Justice McCoy of the District Supreme Court. The topic under discussion was how to Ameri canize the 18.000 aliens residing in the National Capital, who are neg lectful of their privilege of becoming American citizens. It was announced that the Board of Trade was putting on a thirty-day campaign of naturalization, with the view of demonstrating to these aliens their shortcoming in failing to take out their citizenship papers. The dif ficulties of the board's task appear greatly enhanced by the necessity es explaining to these potential "voters" that they will have the privilege of exercising their franchise in the Dis trict of Columbia just as soon as the native sons gain the same privilege, and that it is their manifest duty to make ready. A distinguished sociologist has de fined Americanization as it is gen erally practiced, as being "something done to somebody by somebody else.” The alien is taught how he should think in America, and how he should put out of his mind the ideals and teachings of his native land. He is to become inoculated with the ideals of America before he can be melted down and molded in the cast of a real. or. rather, a naturalized Amer ican. ' ** « * This may not be the process pro posed in the thirty-day naturaiiaztion campaign in Washington. It seems a slow and tedious process to apply to 18,000 aliens who should ail be in duced to become non-voting natural ized American citizens within thirty days. At the Sunday conference upon this subject Miss Aiton, who has been doing brilliant work for several years as the head of the Americanization School of Washington, called attention to the fact that the foreigners coming lo us have something lo give, as well as something to take, and that we should meet them and take what they are so willing to give, for "one of their endowments is culture.” It is often a great surprise to Ameri cans to discover that broken English is not the invariable sign of crude ideals or lack of appreciation of taste and knowledge of the finer things in life. It is also true that the immigrant is not the greatest sinner in lacking patriotic instincts and a yearning for the better things in government. ** * * Two boys were overheard disput ing as to which one was the happfer In the love of his parents. One was , the son of devoted parents: the other | had been a waif adopted into a house hold. The first taunted the adopted ! boy: “Your parents don’t love you like , mine do me , for my father and I mother are my real father and moth er. You're just an adopted boy.” “Y-a-a-s.” faltered the waif, "but your parents had to take you; mine chose me..” What have been the dreams, the ideals of freedom, the instincts of love of a country that would vouch safe opportunity, which have drawn the thousands of every nationality to choose the United States of America? What rebuffs have the immigrants experienced from the moment they landed and fell into the hands of in terpreters and sharks who fleeced them and turned them adrift in a foreign land! It has been officially stated that 80 per cent of the Immi grants are thus cheated upon landing, and when, after their early experi ences. they will develop patrotic feelings for the "land of the free,” how much greater is their loyally than that of the native who has known no such rebuffs and yet neg lects to exercise his legal rights and perform his lawful obligations as a citizen! Not half of the authorized voters of America exercise their franchise, and probably not a quarter attend political meetings, read politi cal debates or have even a hazy com prehension of the living issues on which the electors are expected to pass judgment. *♦ * * According to the 1920 census, there were in that year 22,000,000 men en gaged in manufactures and farming, and 4,250,000 in merchandising—a to tal of nearly 27,000,800 men,' presum ably all voters. There were as many women—all voters. That makes a total of about 84,000,000 potential voters, yet there were cast for Mr. Harding's election 16,152,200 ballots and for Mr. Cox, 9,147,358 votes, and ior the problfeiUoaizt, Socialist and have this government ignore con stitutional limitations in order that it may help the farmer through un wise and unsafe legislation. I con cede that farmers have every right that any other Industry has to have our organic law violated in their in terest, but no Industry, in truth, has this right, and I would emphasise the fact that disregard for constitutional safeguards Is always followed by dangerous consequences. Every witness who has stood for the policy of the special interests knows that the protective tariff pol- I icy of the Republican party enhances I the price of every spoon of sugar, every thread of clothing, beds and carpets used in the farmer's home and makes \he price of his farm im plements and machinery almost pro hibitive. Beside*, this policy affects the farmer’s surplus in two ways. First, it makes it cost him so much that he cannot sell it in a competitive for eign market: and. secondly, if he could produce his surplus as cheaply as his foreign competitor produces a like surplus, the tariff which lie would have to pay to this government on the goods which he would get in ex change for his surplus would make the transaction a losing one to him. ** * * In these two ways, therefore, and there are others, our high protective tariff bars the surplus of the Ameri can farmer fr,om foreign markets. It does more than this. By our system of forcing an increase of agricultural prices at home, even without profit to our farmers, we have encouraged the development of new fields of agri culture abroad, until Australia. South America and parts of Africa and Asia and Canada have become formidable competitors. Unquestionably, if the United Slates regains its foreign markets for agri cultural products. onc« so profitable to our people, it must cheapen pro duction at home and the only feasible modes of doing that which nave been presented for consideration are cheapening transportation, cheapen ing fertilizers and relieving the farmer of the unjust burdens of tar- I iff taxes on most of the articles that Ihe is compelled to use. This would materially "improve the economic condition'of the United Slates." (Copyright. 1924, in I'nited Slates and greai Itritaio By North American Ne»»pai»er Al liance. All rights reserved i Farmer-Labor candidates about 1, - 250,000 ballots That is a total of 'about 26.000.000 ballots, and leaves about 25.000.000 "slacker'’ Americans who care so little for their govern ment that they fail to indicate wheth er they want it to follow the ideals of our forefathers or drift into_ so cialism. or anarchism or chaos. While Americanizing aliens, who will start a school lo Americanize Americans? * Sf * * There are many milions more of Americans who fail to vote than the i total number of aliens who neglect to j become naturalized. What has become of the old-fashioned patriotism ex pressed in Fourth of July orations or even in town meetings where all the community would meet _to disucss | matters of public policy? What other nation would tolerate the propaganda emboided in some of our school his tories undermining loyalty and per verting truth and belittling the ideals of our forefathers? ** * * Americans have reason to be proud of the fact that this is the oldest un changed government in the world, as well as the most prosperous nation In an article published March 1 in the Literary Digest it was recorded; "Since the year 1789. we are told, when the American system of gov ernment and the federal Constitution went into effect, the government of every important nation on earth lias undergone such radical and at times revolutionary changes as to reconsti tute it in the form of a new one, thereby leaving the Constitution and government of the United States the oldest of any great nation of the present day." But 28,000.000 American citizens are self-disfranchised and therefore are enduring that state which their fore fathers so resented that they re belled against taxation without rep resentation. If these millions had be come men without a country, against their wills, if some conqueror hud robbed them of their American cit izenship, what would have been the.T course? Americans seek to "natural ize” the comparatively few aliens within our boundaries, but who will re-Americanibe our 28,000,000 cit izens who are without the spirit of serious patriotism? While we rejoice at the stability of America, is there no warning in the facts cited in the Senate by Sen ator Pepper a little over a month ago, when he presented a table show ing the mutability of nations. Since 1907 one-half the nations—twenty three out of forty-six—have suffered revolutionary changes in their gov ernments. There are today influences in Amer ica openly plotting revolution, which can be opposed effectively by the non-voting American citizens. His tory may repeat: “Put none but I Americans on guard!"—not exclusive ly native-ohrn. but Americans—for. paraphrasing St. Paul, “He is not an I American who is one by law. but he is American who is that of the heart, ] in the spirit and not in the letter.” J (Copyright, 1824, by P«ul V. Collins.) Decries Bonus Bill As Aid to Veterans To tbe Editor of The St»r: I have a son who would be a "beneficiary” under the soldier bonus law. He has a wife and family. The Lord knows he needs the money. He works for the government, and there fore gets small pay compared with hodcarriers and bricklayers and such. Most ex-soldiers are In the same condition. The question is: Would such a law benefit or Injure him (or them)? And then there is the larger ques tion —that of justice. . The benefit will not accrue for twenty years. In the meantime all the money to be paid out must be raised by taxes. These taxes must oome out of increased prices—not merely the amount of the taxes, but several times as much. The one who primarily pays a tax always adds it to his prices, and something more be sides. And also in the meantime these higher prices will, when he needs It most, deprive him and his family of much they need and would otherwise be able to buy. If the money to be raised to pay the bonus were raised in such away as to force down prices Instead of raise them such a law would be a blessing to all, instead of a curse. For Instance? A penalty of $1 per acre-foot per annum laid on all de posits of coal held out of use would raise all the money needed to pay the ex-soldiers, and would also force down the price of coal to less than half what It now is. It would settle the soldier bonus question and break the coal monopoly. Do you want to do both: C. B. HSIONOWAT. Politics at Large DT M. O. MESSENGER Politicians In both parties are dip cussing the probable effect upon president Coolidge's political fortunes next November of the desertion of him by a section of his party in Con gress on the bonus veto. The ma jority opinion seems to be that the votes he may lose from having vetoed the bill in the first instance will be counterbalanced many times over by the support he will get from people who were opposed to the bonus on the economic grounds set forth by the President and the Secretary of the Treasury. Any one can judge for himself whether this is a safe assumption by what he hears his neighbors say upon the subject and the comment of the "man in the street." ** * * Aside Irom this is also the question of the ei'ect of the rejection of his leadership by the senators and representatives who registered their difference with him on the bonus bill. Possibly of more impor tance is the effect upon the political fortunes of those senators and rep resentatives themselves who went against him as the sentiment of the country crystallizes on their action. Many predictions are heard that the President will be applauded for his courage and criticism will fail upon the individual statesmen for their course, which will be impugned in many cases as having been a mis taken policy adopted for purely po litical reasons. ** * * The suggestion is made that the temper of tlie majority sentiment of the republicans of the country on the bonus was shown in the practically unanimous demand for the nomina tion of President Coolidge. His posi tion on the bonus was made clear in his message to Congress, in which he declared that he was against grant ing a bonus. That was said before the campaign for delegates was under way. it was a (lat-footed stand on the issue. His only opponent. Senator Johnson, took the other end of the proposition, declaring in favor of the bonus. Every one knows the result. The President swept the country, save for South Dakota and three or four scat etring delegates. Was there no sig nificance in that? ** * * Senator Hiram W. Johnson's action in releasing the delegates instructed for him in the republican national convention is construed by the poli ticians as indicating that he is not intent upon making further trouble for the party in the campaign for the election. They do not see any dramatic bolt from the party by Sen ator Johnson, although they admit the doubt of his coming actively to the support of the national ticket in view ol the things he has said about President Coolidge and the dominant organization of tile party in his los ing campaign for the nomination. They say that if Senator Johnson continues in public life he "would make a killing" for himself by "tak ing his medicine" like a good sports man and supporting the ticket, but some of his friends are of opinion that lie is tired of politics and will gradually withdraw irom activity. '-if * * * The Democratic viewpoint of tire effect of President Coolidge's vetoes, past and prospective, is that "they i will result, in so far as they are effective, in further spoiling the showing made by the Republican i Congress during its session of nearly six months. ’J his is stated as the opinion of "neutral bystanders in Washington." although it is sent out with the caption of the Democratic national committee and signed by the chief of the national committee's publicity director, so its “neutrality" j can be taken with a grain of salt.' "Besides that," the Democratic na tional committee's statement goes on to say. "the President's quietus on bills which Congress has enacted after months of work and worry will emphasize and extend the cleavage between the Republican executive and the Republican legislative branch of the administration. The vole recorded on the President's veto of the pension bill and his disapproval of the soldier bonus merely reveals to the country that a majority of Republican senators and representa tives are in sharp disagreement with him and unwilling to accept his guidance in respect either to econ omic or political questions.” ** * * Then the Democratic national com mittee statement, wiih unction, makes this prediction'; "This divergence between the Re publican Congress and the Republi can I’resident will become even more obvious and significant when the campaign to exait him above his parly and his official associates shall have progressed a little further. If the President is convinced that he can assure his election only by re pudiating his parly and his Congress a great many Republicans in the House and Senate are equally con scious that they can win only by dis avowing him. "When both the President and these congressmen begin to act according to their convictions there will pe little of co-ordination or cohesiveness in the forthcoming campaign." ** * * The main topic of interest in Democratic circles is the rapid gains "W illiam G. McAdoo seems to be mak ing in his campaign for the presi dential nomination and the increased activity in the combinations which are trying to stop’ him. it is con ceded that lie has been evidencing growing strength in the pass few weeks and this is confirmed by the vigor with Which his rivals are be stirring themselves. The hope of the opposing aspirants for the nomination and of that ele ment in the party which is irrecon cilably determined to keep Mr. McAdoo from getting the nomination,* although not decided upon who shall have it, is in the possibility of elimi nating Mr. McAdoo in the early bai .ioting. This hope is somewhat clouded by the tact that Air. McAdoo is con ceded to possess at this time the support of a greater number of dele gates than any other candidate— "birds in the hand”—who naturally will have something to say about this "process of elimination." ♦* ♦ * The hackers of Gov. Alfred K. Smith of New York, Senator Under wood of Alabama and former Gov. James M. Pox of Ohio are reported to have conferred together in New fork this week and after comparing notes and counting noses were con vinced that Mr. McAdoo has not the number of delegates claimed by him and that the McAdoo boomers "are running the bluff." which can be ex ploded 'early in the balloting. The anti-MoAdoo managers say that the "bluff" is made possible by the existence of so many uninstructed delegates, a great number of whom are keeping open rwind on the can didacy, but are being “claimed” for Mr. McAdoo. ** * * It is a subject of comment among the politicians that there are two elements among the Democrats, one just as bitterly Intent upon defeat ing Mr. McAdoo as th«y other is upon resisting Gov. Smith. These two candidates thus face a block of irre concilable enemies which it is thought will be large enough to withhold the vole necessary to make the two thirds majority, and many thought ful leaders think that the bitterness which exists precludes the probabil ity of either «C these candidates win ning. . , , ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY hREDERIC J. HASKiy Q. Are the dogs that Perry save the Zoo still alive?—-C. K. A. The National Zoological Park says that the dogs which Admiral Perry gave the Zoo are dead. The last one died over a year ago. Q. From what country do immi grants i-ome that most seldom go back?—H. C. I. A. From July to November, 1923, 1.187 Uuthenians were admitted to this country and during the same pe riod only two left the United Stales. By far the greatest number emigrat ing from lh<- United States were peo ple from south Italy. There were ',*.079 "checking out,” while 30.327 were admitted ly. At what times are the Presi dent of the United States and cabinet members paid?—F. G. K. A. Ail of the cabinet members are paid twice a month, on the Ist and 13th. The President of the United States is paid on the Ist of each month. y What is the geographic dis | lance between the Tropic of Cancer ; dna the Tropic of Capricorn? —A. I - . . A. This distance between the j tropics is 46’ 54‘, which at sea level is 3,223 statute miles. y. Is "The Iron Heel," by Jack Hondon a true story?—O J. K. A. Mrs. London calls attention to the fact that it could not be. since the story is placed in the future. y. How many kinds of equipment are used bv a telephone company.— A. 15 G, A The Telephone News says that 1!0 ono dissimilar parts are produced and assembled. An automobile—for sake of comparison—contains about 3,000 dissimilar parts. y What motion picture companies have the Famous Cor poration absorbed? —F. 15. A. This company was incorporated in 1916, acquiring stock of Famous Plavers and Jesse I* Igisky Feature Play Company. It soon added Oliver Morosco Photoplay and Bosworth, Inc., which, with Paramount Pictures. Artcraft Pictures, Cardinal Film and Charles Frohman. Inc., make up the present corporation. Q What two months in the year is Mira visible? —J- P- T. A. Mira is always visible through a telescope, except in part of April and Mav, when it is in the vicinity of the sun. 1-arge irregularities occur in the times of maxima and also in the mag nitude at maximum. At maximum Mira is a naked-eye object and may even be brighter than a standard sec ond-magnitude star. Maximum bright ness occurs, on an average, every eleven months, and will next occur about the beginning of 19.a. O. How many cows does the Her shev Company have to supply mils for their products? —P. V. A. The Hershey Company says that its herds do not supply it with all lh * milk required in the manufacture ot the chocolate, but that it receives a large quantity from the country Wlth J in a radius of fifty miles. Th « m * lk is gathered at forty-five branch re ceiving stations. On the Hershey farm, at the present time, there are approximately lO.OOU head of slock. y How long does it take for a hu man body to become a skeleton. H. B. S. A According to the text book on "Medical Jurisprudence" it takes from one and une-half to two years for Mt. Tacoma Is Favored. Writer Urge? Change of Name for Majestic Peak. To the Editor of The Star: In your issue of last Sunday. May 11. on the editorial page. 1 read with interest the comments of one of your columnists anent the pending Senate joint resolution No. t>4. which passe* the Senate without a dissenting vote April 21. 1924, and which is now pend ing in the House. Knowing that your great publication is at all times fair and open to its readers of all sides of a question. 1 am taking the liberty herewith of calling a ft*v salient points to your attention. The State of Washington passed a memorial in 1917 urging that the name Rainier be removed from the most majestic natural eminence and Oiat there be substituted therefor the most suitable adaptation ot the abo riginal appellation for the mountain, which bv common consent was then and is now agreed to be I a com a This memorial passed both houses of the legislature by a vote of nearly o to 1. but in the face of it. Hr « Hart Merriam of the National Geographic Hoard refused to remove the name Rainier. This resolution was re ported out of the senate public lands committee favorably ' v ‘ d * h jeport I am inclosing) and passed the .senate unanimously. I read your writer ■> humorous comments on the tact of changing names and citing the reso lution of Representative Miller wuh approval, which resolution, in child ish retaliation of the Mount lacOma resolution, proposes to change all tor eign names in this country. Repre sentative Albert Johnson tßepub lican. Washington*, in whose district the mountain is actually located. has introduced an identical resolution to that of Senator Hill s m the louse Your writer would find that this resolution does not appear ludicrous to the people of the great Mate ot Washington. All of the newspapers of Iht' slate, outside of .Seattle*, sup port this proposed change oi nam * The Governor of Washington. 1.. I Hart: Mayor Brown of Seattle. May or Fawcett ot Tacoma. Mayor klem ing of Spokane and Mayor Baker of Portland. Oreg . favor this change of name. The National Encampment of the G. A. R. m Indianapolis in 19.0 almost unanimously passed a resoiu- , tion asking for the removal of the, name Rainier. The State Chapters of the H. A. R. and s. A. R. in Cantor nia have passed resolutions indorsing the proposed removal of tht name , i Rainier by Congress and the substi tution of the aboriginal name lico ma therefor. Heading citizens of Se attle favor the name. The Seattle Chamber of Commerce is at present bitterly opposing the change of name. Rainier has been canonized in Seattle. Kvervlhing from its most exclusive club‘to its leading taxicab company has been named Rainier. Seattle s golden opportunity to placate her old lime rival, the neighboring city. Ta coma fas pointed out by Col. Blethen in the Seattle Times) was at hand. Hut the board of trustees of the Seat tle Chamber of Commerce passed a resolution to* light the Mount ma resolution on the ground, mind you that some beneficial advertising might attach to the city of Tacoma bv giving: the mou n tain the same name, when as a matter of fact the city had been originally named after the mountain. . This controversy should be of pe culiar interest to citizens of the Dis trict of Columbia because of the pres ence of Takoma Park and Mount Rainier suburban sections. Just who is this Rainier after whom the mountain was named- in 1792 by the British explorer Van couver? In Robert Beatson s Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Brit ain 1727-1783" (Hondon. Vol. 4. pp. 404-405) we find that Capt. Peter Rai nier commanded the British sloop of war Ostrich, which, on July 8, 1778, attacked the American ship Polly, then a part of the South Carolina navy, hound from Port au Prince to Boston with molasses, and captured it after killing at least twenty-three men. including the captain, taking some 130 prisoners or more, who were transferred to the unspeakable British prison ships and there left to die of disease or starvation as the case may he. Where else in Ameri ca do we name our great scenic land marks after men who fought to de stroy us? Certainly it seems rather absurd to name the greatest and most beautiful mountain in America, sit uated in the only state named after a a body to boqo.ne so decomposed as T to Rave notn.ng but the skeleton. However, if the body has been em balmed it will slay in a preserved condition indefinitiy. y Into what kind of eontainers is w * leri * n use in dirigibles?, A. Inner gas cells, aetuaily con tatning the lifting gas, are made of gold-beaters' skin, a derivative from' cattle. it is practical!v without! > pores and contains gas better than’ any other material. y How many kinds of anthrapujd apes are there?—H K. O A. The anthrapoid apes are the orang-utan, the chimpanzee, the go rilla and the gibbon. All of these ap proach and some exceed man in size and ail are more or less at home in an erect attitude. y. How much power does an elec tric fan use?— (l. I). <• A. The bureau of standards says that an electric fan uses from twenty to fifty kilowatt hours per month, running twenty-four hours a day’. The variation is due to difference fn size of fan and difference in effi ciency of the motors used. Q What is moam bv marinating a salad?—l. A. M. A. This means the pouring of a dressing over a salad a half hour be fore using, thus allowing the n aV or of all ingredients to blend. A French / dressing—two parts oil, om tart vinegar or lemon, salt and red pepper —is usually used for marinatinc The salad is drained at serving tint- and a mayonnaise dressing added. Q When was the first university club establislied. and how many are there now?—S. J. ■ A. The University flub o' y>»- Vork City is the oldest organization of the kind in the United States Since its founding, in 1863 about sixty similar organizations hav h.-en established. Q. Os what caliber is the Meijt rifle'' K. M. ! A. The Meiji or Arisaka rifle c a * ! breech-loading rifle of .256-inch cai j iber. having a magazine holding five cartridges, loaded from a clip This rifle was used by the Japanese in fantry in the Russo-Japanese war. Q I have an accumulation of post cards and envelopes such as are oft*-! inclosed by business houses. Gan these be redeemed for their stamp value? —R. C. H. A. The Post Office Department sa' i that post cards and envelopes can not be redeemed. Q. Can a man who has served a prison term he naturalized? —W u. A. The naturalization bureau stau that aliens who have served » ie-p in prison must prove five years' coon moral character after their rebas, before they ran become naturalized Q. Is it true that cases of hydro phobia are unknown south of th equator?—<7. M. | A. The public health service saj - ■ that hydrophobia occurs in all part" jof the world. There is no truth in i the statement that it does not exß j below the equator. I ( Take artvanl age of the free in form a i tion bureau. which thi/t newspaper ma-n --’ Inins. If there is a question you, wav' ‘ answered don't hesitate to use this serr. i ice. All replies are sent direct to the •«- j qntrer. Address Frederic J. Hash in. I) f- I rector. The Star Information Bterea" ' 12!0 Sorth Capitol street. Inclose ~ rents i in stamps /or return postage. > Writer Rebukes Borah. Deplores Senator’s Stand on Recognition of Russia. To the Editor of The Star; Your issue of today contains a very interesting article, the first of a series by Senator Borah, in which, among other things, he advocates most ear nestly our reeognition of the present government of Russia. I have a very high regard for Senator Borah, be cause 1 believe he is honest, sincere and of high moral courage and capa ble o* tremendous good and useful ness as a national legislator—bis only limitation being that he sometimes gets wrung, and so frightfully wrong, on vital public questions. For ex ample. he stands with a mere handful of lawyers of no weight in the legal , profession who. are advocating the curtailment by ‘legislation of the powers of the Supreme Court to nul lify unconstitutional laws. Now he wants us to recognize the soviets, accepting them upon terms of equality with the most honorable and enlightened governments, when h> knows that this government was shapened in iniquity and conceived in sin. and that the afflictions of the Rus sian people are the inescapable fruits of their transgressions and iniquities. A government that has repudiated God and the Decalogue: that declares It will be bound by neither moral or legal obligations, and whose avowed purpose is to destroy every government in the world that does not conform to their hellish princi ples. A government that has spent hundreds of millions of dollars in prop aganda to achieve the overthrow of our government and others, and who. if recognized by us. would be free to establish in our country a legation, consular offices and commercial agents, all of whom would be but centers of unmolested propaganda among our own people, for the over throw and destruction of our insti tutions. I do not agree with the senator, nor do 1 believe that the present regime in Russia represents the Russian peo ple. It took advantage of the dis organized and demoralized state of Russian society and secured its power by murder, assassination and terror ism. without conscience or pity, and are perpetuating themselves in power ! todav bv the same methods by which i they"achieved it. Can we with honor or safety take in recognition, frater nitv and association the hand of the murderer, the assassin, the rcpudiator of God and religion, and of those who have no sense of moral or legal obli gation. and who in their hearts are the sworn enemies of our institutions and social order? To ask the question would seem to answer it in the mind of every right thinking man. ALEXANDER SIDNEY I-A NT HR an American patriot, after the man who did his best to defeat Washing ton’s efforts to achieve independence for the colonies. . , . . Dord Bryce, the brilliant late la mented ambassador from the court of St James, refers to the peak in the third edition of his 'lAmerican Commonwealth" as “Mount Tacoma (Vol. 2. page 835), and in 191- at Bal timore, in an address before the Na- . tional Parks Association; Mount Tacoma—no doubt the name given by Rainier —but which used when I first explored its forests to be caJled_by the more sonorous Indian name ta coma." The late President Roose velt. with characteristic unequivocal candor, declared: “Why should we Americans abandon the splendid In dian name Tacoma, in order to can our noblest landmark after an ob scure foreigner, whose only tion. with history was that he fought against us when we were an infant nation?" Mayor Curley of Boston said recently: "The naming of Wash ington’s groat mountain tnfc British Capt. Rainier is a grave and stupid error.” , _ „ The resolution pending in the House is intended to remove the name Rai nier from this majestic peak and sub stitute therefor the euphonious In dian name Tacoma, the Great White Mountain, a name at once meaning ful. redolent of aboriginal legends, beautiful. It would appear that the. retention of the name Rainier longer were unjustifiable in the light of the foregoing. Tacoma seems to be th« right name. 1 hold it is the mani fest duty of patriotic Americans to champion the removal of the tainted name Rainier. JOHN M. COFFEE.