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THE EVENING STAR With Sunday Morning Edition. M WASHINGTON. D. C. /‘THURSDAY June 10. 1924 ' THEODORE W. NOTES Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Hxtmjtrm Office. 11th St. and Penonylvasia Are. New York Offlre: 110 Hast 12nd St. Chi.-aso Office; Tower building. Kuropean Office: 16 Regent St.. London. England. The Keening Star, with the Sunday morning edition la delivered by carriers within the ••tty at 60 cents per month; daily only. 45 enia per month' Sunday only. 20 rents per month. Orders mar tie sent by mail or tele thene Slain 50i>0. Collection is made by car riers at the end of each month. Half by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday..! yr., $8.40 ; 1 mo.. 70c Daily only . I yr.. $6.00 ; 1 mo., 50c Sunday only .1 yr.. $2.40 ; 1 mo.. 20c All Other States. Daily and Sunday. 1 yr, $10.0*; I mo., Ssc Daily only 1 yp., $7.00; 1 rro.. 60c Sunday only . ...lyr, $3.00 ; 1 mo.. 25c Member of the Associated Press. The Aaaoriated Press is exclmieely entitled to the use for repubiication of all news dis patches credited fi> It or not otherwise credited 16 this psper and also the local news pub 1 shed herein. Ail rights of publication of special dispatches herein are also reserved. The Note to Japan. Secretary Hughes, in nis reply to the Japanese government's note re garding the newly enacted immigra tion ban, sols forth the American position in the clear and explicit terms that the situation requires, without .giving affront. His letter to Ambas : tador Hanihara needs no ground for contention and effectually •‘closes the incident." Prefaced by a citation from Presi dent Coolidge s statement accompany ing the signature of the immigration act to the effect that this new' enact ment "does not imply any change in out sentiment of admiration and cor dial friendship for the Japanese peo ple," Mr. Hughes recites the pro visions of the new law and notes that they do not differ greatly in practical operation or in policy from the un derstanding embodied in the gentle men's agreement. He then proceeds to trace the history of the exclusion measures, specifically noting that the United States had particularly re served "the inherent sovereign right of either country to limit and control Immigration for its own domains or possessions." Thus was the treaty of 1311 con cluded on the basis of that specific reservation of "inherent sovereign right." The act of recent date defi nitely closing the doors in this coun try to Japanese immigration upon July i next is an exercise of that right, which, as Secretary Hughes states, releases the government of Japan from any further obligation by virtue of the previous understanding. After all. the Japanese complaint has been merely that, the United States having entered into a "gen tlemen's agreement” which left the matter in the hands of Japan tempo rarily. it has been abrogated in favor of a direct American exclusion act. The result is the same, assuming that th« Japanese government effectively And faithfully carried out its under taking to prevent Japanese migration to the United States. If there has been affront to Japan in the desig nation of the nationals of that coun try as not desired as immigrants in the United States it was committed when the gentlemen’s agreement was reached. There can be no effective reply to e note so considerately couched and so distinct in its definition of the right of the United States to proceed by legislation in this matter of ex clusion. particularly in view of Sec retary Hughes’ concluding paragraph, in which he expresses the desire "once more to emphasize the appre ciation of this government of the voluntary co-operation of your gov ernment in carrying out the gentle then's agreement and to express the conviction that the recognition of the right of each government to legislate control of immigration should not I derogate in any degree from the mu- Vtual good will and cordial friendship - which have always characterized the relations of the two countries." No man’s features are better known to all the world than those of William Jennings Bryan. This fact will en able any illicitly enterprising bellhop to avoid what might prove an em barrassing mistake. The fear of demagogues will not be come very great so long as the public continues to lake them with as little •Seriousness as has been manifested in the post few years. A.* r *" ’ Like other liquids, Teapot Dome oil becomes rather flat after being al lowed to stand awhile. The Water Supply. 1 With the coming of the "good old Bummer time” tha use of water in Washington has risen to the carrying capacity of the conduit. We are .consuming water at the rate of be ■ twoen 66,000,000 and 70,000,000 gal lons a day, or at. about the rate that water comes from Great Falls through the Conduit built three-auar ters of a century ago. From the con duit the water flows into reservoirs which hold about one day’s supply for the people of the District. These . hot June days came so soon after re pairs to the serious break in the con duit that the usual reserve has not been gathered in the reservoirs and • we ore living on a slim margin of - safety, so far as water is concerned. The engineers of the water system _MBBk that economy In water be prac ticed till the reservoirs are full. Citl .aens with a reasonable degree of cau *Hion and consideration should heed .;lhe warning. Th© lawns and flower beds are not thirsty. The water-shortage cry is often heard in Washington and it is such an old story that It does not impress .as many persons as it should- There an old, old fable of a shepherd boy who called wolf so often and no wolf can?e that when the wild beast appeared people had become deaf to the danger call. But in the ease of our water supply no other signals have been given than that people should not waste water, should not use more than they need, and that without any Inconvenience they might need a little less than they use. The figures of water consumption and supply have been shown to the peo ple that they might understand the situation. It lias been said for twenty-five years that with a great river close to us we should not be faced with water famine every summer and should not depend on a single water line, and that an old one working at capacity. After a quarter of a century of complaint and argument work on a second conduit and larger reservoirs was begun. It is going on and in about the year 1930 we will have an Increased water supply. By that time our water consumption at the present use. per capita would probably considerably exceed the ca pacity of the conduit and economies that we do not now practice will become necessary. In the meantime there, is the fire danger. The engines working on a large and stubborn Are can drain the reservoirs, for we still use filtered drinking water to put out fires. The high-pressure system for pumping river water on fires has not yet got beyond the plan stage. Hornell Gets a Thrill. Date yesterday afternoon an accom modation train rattled into the station at Hornell, N. Y., and out of it stepped a man elad in a wrinkled mohair suit, carrying a bulging suit ease. A few "distinguished citizens” were standing on the platform. They were looking for an eminent lecturer scheduled to speak that night at a Chautauqua meeting at Canisto, a few miles distant. The reception com mittee was somewhat at a loss. They did not recognize the distinguished lecturer in this descending traveler. But the traveler recognized the com mittee. Committees have a sort of distinctive quality that the eye of an experienced chautauqufln cannot fail to distinguish, and so the man with the bulging bag and the wrinkled mohair suit received the reception committee and identified himself as the expected speaker. William Jen nings Bryan of Nebraska and Florida, but immediately from Milwaukee. When his identity was established a local newagatherer immediately pounced upon him for an interview. Hornell is a little off the map and does not get many great notables, so that advent of a three-time Demo cratic candidate for President on the eve of a Democratic nominating con vention was an event. The interview was brief. Mr. Bryan declared that Gov. Smith has no chance to be nomi nated. He even said that he could not see “where there is the slightest chance of his being seriously consid ered by the convention.” After hav ing thus disposed of the chief execu tive officer of the state in which he was about to unleash the silver tongue, he was asked if he had any personal aspirations. Thereupon Mr. Bryan laughed and said: T’m all through running. I’ve had my chances. But I will tell you one thing—that convention will hear from me before it is over. Os course it will. This is one of the reasons why the Democratic party assembles, to ‘‘hear from” Mr. Bryan. As long as breath is in his body to articulate a Democratic convention without speech from him would hard ly be legal. New York’s Prize. ■ New York is really in luck in this convention business. It drew a big prize out of the political grab bag when it was allotted the 1924 meet ing. It might have got one like that of 1916, which met at St. Louis and renominated Wilson and Marshall by acclamation in record time. This one, in the current vernacular, is going to be a ‘‘humdinger.” It may even ex ceed that of 1912, which required forty-six ballots for a nomination of Wilson, or that of 1920, when forty four ballots were required to put Cox at the head of the ticket. Experi enced Democratic leaders already on the field are predicting a long contest. Preparations have been made for the protraction of the session, beginning next Tuesday, until even the 4th of July. New York likes big things, being a big thing itself. It has the tallest buildings and the biggest population and the most congested streets and its base ball games are attended by the largest crowds. Naturally it wants to have the biggest, ’longest and liveliest political convention in the history of American politics. It would like to see its "favorite son” nominated, would be overjoyed, doubt less, if he were named on the first ballot. But it will be desolatad if, after fifty-six years, it got a political convention only to have it flivver into a formality with a three-day. stay. Why, if the Democratic meeting which starts next Tuesday were to be concluded within the week New Y'ork would be bitterly disappointed. Madison Square Garden, the scene of six-day bicycle races, would be dese crated by so tame a procedure. Hotel reservations have been made in many cases on the basis of a minimum of a week. Many have been made for ten days and some wise convention attendants have reserved without limit. No question about it, the Dem ocratic convention is going to be a gathering after New York's own heart, lively and prolonged, with the end uncertain. It is worth waiting more than half a century. Whether they will be most voted for or not, Mr. McAdoo and Mr. Smith enjoy at least the present satisfaction of being most talked about. There in reason why Mussolini should escape the resignation rumor. It l» the recognised accompaniment of energetic statesmanship. Personally Conducted Candidacy. Mr. McAdoo’s progress to the scene of action from his California home has been a succession of receptions. There is really nothing like It in American political history. Hereto fore avowed candidates for a nomina tion have, with very few exceptions, kept away from the nominating con vention. Theodore Roosevelt went to Chicago in 1912, on the occasion of *» *4 TH& EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON. D. C. THURSDAY. JUNE 19. 1934. the great Republican split that led to the election of Wilson, but that was an exceptional case. Mr. McAdoo, for better or worse, has chosen to make his own bid in person lor the votes of his party, and with shrewd sense of the dramatic has made a progress from poet to post that has been val uable for publicity. Whether there is anything in this sort of a preoonventlon campaign Is a question. Those who form the committees of greeting at railroad stations and hotels on the way are not the delegates whose votes will decide the nomination. They are stay-at-homes, eager, glad to see a notable, perhaps a favorite. It may be that Mr. McAdoo would have made a better impression if he had drawn the route from California to New York quietly, or perhaps even if he had stayed at home. For there still is a remnant of the old feeling that the "office should seek the man,” and some Americana may have a linger ing prejudice against ostentatious can didacy. But i| is quite within the rights for any aspirant for the presidency— and that aspiration Is the moat hon orable an American can entertain— to go to it frankly and vigorously. In this particular case of the McAdoo boom practically everything depends upon enthusiasm. The Californian is the leader of the race. He has, it is claimed, practically a majority of the votes. He needs two-thirds, and. as others have learned to their sorrow in the past, the two-thirds point is a difficult one to reach. Momentum may be effective and the personally conducted drive for votes which Mr. McAdoo is now managing is perhape as good away as any other to gather that momentum. At any rate it pre sents a novel picture in the panorama of politics. After all, the demagogue only re sponds to an environment favorable to his species. A public that encour ages demagoguery is to be studied in this connection. The sum of flfi.OOfi that Leopold and Lo«b said they were after proves trifling as compared with the current expense accounts they are now run ning up. It will be an extraordinary summer if the weather bureau does not make “fair and warmer" as monotonous us “cloudy and showers" becajite. SHOOTING STABS. RT PHILANPRR JOHNSON'. The Popular Proxy. When the summer lime is lazy and the air is hot and hazy. Nearly everybody wants to loaf awhile. And in winter, spring and autumn, long experience has taught ’em That a life of leisure has a pleasing style. Well we know that problems thicken and a nation’s pace must quicken To take care of ail conditions that arise. So wc modestly endeavor to avoid pre tension* clever. Seeking some one more industrious and wise. Well define a high position that im plies great erudition, And a nature which dissensions can not spoil. We will offer an ovation as a slight consideration For a lifetime of anxiety and toil. We will say, "It's up to you, "air, superhuman things to do, sir. You must solve each difficulty with a breath. While we tread the merry measure through the primrose path of pleasure. You can go ahead and work your self to death.” Fire insurance authorities will agree that if women must smoke a bathing beach is os safe a place as any. Sound Statesmanship. ‘‘lsn't there a little discord in the bandwagon?” "My friend," answered Senator Sorghum, “a bandwagon is like a taxi cab. You don’t judge It by the sound of its horn, but by its reliability in getting to a given destination.” Defiance. Friend Lightning Bug, you are a scampi You carry an uncertain lamp, And, showing law still further scorn, Leave off both license tag and horn. Jud Tunkins says regulating bath ing suits by' law is goin’ to be diffi cult until the folks read law books as close as they do fashion magazines. Scientific Hope. , "Are you interested in psycho analysis?” “Very much,” replied Miss Cayenne. “My hope is that the science will be perfected so that it will be useful In preventing unfortunate occurrences instead of explaining them after it is too late.” Ingratitudes. The man who gave me good advice I hold in scant affection. His manners were not very nice, Though wise was his direction. I found acquaintances anew; But those who talked most sweetly Have sold me a gold brick or two And disappeared completely. Astuteness of Capital. “Were you playing poker?” “No,” replied Cactus Joe. "We were playin’ ten-cent limit.” “Isn't that' poker?” “Not so considered in Crimson Gulch.’ fok«r is a game where each player has a chance to win. Ten-cent limit was Invented by the manufac turers merely for the purpose of in ducing you tty wear out the cards." The New Accompaniment. I cannot sing the old songs. The tunes that I have known Grow Strangely unfamiliar „ When they hit the saxophone. “When a guest whispers me a race horse tip ’slid o’ givtn’ nie real change," aald Uncle Ebeh, “I feels purty sure he alp’ gwinter be at die hotel tomorrow." j | WASHINGTON OBSERVATIONS BY FREDERIC WILLIAM WILE There is more than meets the eye in the selection of an obscure Denver lawyer,. William V. Hodges, JLo be treasurer of the Republican national committee. It is the determination of the Coolidge high command to de tach the finances of the campaign from every vestige of suspicion of connection with ’’the interests.” Hodges is a Republican in good standing in Colorado, but, as far as can be ascertained, never before had the slightest association with organi sation politics. He comes to the G. O. P. "golddigger’s” job inexperi enced, unconlaminated and unknown. Those qualities. Chairman Butler thinks, are what the post-oil political season calls for. Hodges is in Chi cago this week, acquainting himself with the treasurer’s Job by confer ence with Fred W. Uptaam, who held it uninterruptedly for the past six teen years. ** * * Homer Cummings of Connecticut, of whom much may be heard before the Democratic national convention is o\ er. has just acquired new fame throughout New England in connec tion with a sensational murder trial- Cummings since 1914 has been state’s attorney of Fairfield County, Conn., at Stamford. In that capacity he was recently called upon to prosecute a young man named Harold Israel on a charge of killing a Roman Catholic priest. The circumstantial evidence against Israel seemed to prove him guilty. Rut the prisoner, a former soldier, was fortunate in having his case fall under the eye of a public prosecutor equipped with the knowl edge developed by modern psycholo gists Cummings proceeded on the theory that the duty of a state's at torney is as much to protect the in nocent as to convict the guilty. He insisted on studying the Israel ease so thoroughly that he came to the conclusion the defendant was not the murderer. Acquittal resulted, despite the fact that Israel had made a con fession to the police. Connecticut Is convinced that Cummings prevented a classic miscarriage of justice. ** * * Gen. Dawes met Chairman Butler for the first time In Chicago this week. They liked each other on sight. Dawes rehearsed his chief campaign speech to the Coolidge gen eralissimo. It Is directed mainly to the farmers. It will harp strongly on the note that in European tecov cry from war conditions lies the chief hope of prosperity for tlm American wheat grower, cattle raiser and dairy farmer. Dawes will argue that the Republican administration’s support of the world court and of the work of the reparations commission is a guar antee of President Coolidge’s Inten tion to help the old world get hack to purchasing power conditions. The SERIOUS PROBLEM OF PRINT PAPER SUPPLY BY WILL P. KENNEDY The print paper slippy of the I'll i ted States presents a serious problem. Our demands for paper have practically quadrupled since 1900. The pulp and paper industry of the United States depends upon the spruces, true firs and hemlocks for a large per centage of Us raw material. Careful and extensive investigation shows thal for a permanent pulp and paper industry, as well as for a permanent lumber cut. this country is dependent upon a forest experiment station to secure technical knowledge needed on methods of cutting and reforestation. This is one reason that the United States Department of Agriculture has decided to establish a forest experi ment station in the Pacific Northwest on July 1 to determine proper meth ods of reforestation, because that re gion now contains. In the states of Washington and Oregon, r.7 per cent of the total remaining saw timber of the United States, exclusive of Canada. One of the logical regions for an enlargement of the American pulp and paper industry is in these same two stales, which, with California, contain more spruce, fir and hemlock than all the eastern and lake states combined. ♦* * * If the small existing pulp and pa per industry of Washington and Ore gon is to be developed to a large size, it should by all means avoid the mis take now so obvious in the growth of the eastern industry. All new pulp and paper mills should be established on the basis of permanent supplies either from privately owned or pub licly owned land,- and such supplies can be Insured in competition with the demand for the same material from other industries only by Inten sive methods of forest management, for which a forest experiment station must furnish the basis. The opening of this new station at the beginning of the fiscal year marks another step in the Department of Agriculture’s plan to establish forest experiment stations In all the princi pal forest regions of the United States. Its work will consist of de termining proper ways and means to prevent forest destruction either by destructive logging, fire or other agencies, and to insure the perpetua tion of the forests as growing crops. After pointing out why the experi ment station was located In the northwest with a special view to building up an adequate and perma nent pulp and paper industry, Secre tary Wallace emphasizes that In that locality is one of the few remaining opportunities left in the United States to remove the original stand in such away as to get a new timber growth started immediately, and thus avoid the mistakes which In all of the tim ber regions of the east have led to the devastation of millions of acres of forest land. ♦♦ ♦ ♦ The combined lumber out In Wash ington and Oregon Is approximately 30 per cent of the entire cut of the country. Tha lumber cut for the two states in 1980 was nearly 9,000,000,000 board feat, hut under Intensive forest management it would bo possible to grow and harvest 16,000,000,000 board feet or more per year, or nearly twice the 19*0 out. In order, however, to maintain lumber production even In its present volume, the virgin stands of Washington and Oregon must he cut and removed in such away that new timber growth will be insured. Unless the technical Information which will make such cutting pos sible is secured the lumber industry of Washington and Oregon will of necessity follow the course of similar industries in. New England, New York, Pennsylvania, the lake states and, now !• process, but not so far advanced, In the south. “Tha cut will Increase to a crest gnd then fall off," says Secretary Wallace, “taking' with it a series of dependent industries which make for the development and prosperity of the region itself and of the entire country. Population cannot be sup ported, transportation as shown by the experience of other "regions will gradually dwindle and Important aourees of taxation will be cut off. "In the state of Washington* for ex smuts, timberland and the lumber industry together paid approximately vice • presidential candidate knows agricultural conditions about as well as any man in American politics. The Central Trust Company of Il linois, of which he is president, for years has had its tentacles In all sec tions of the rural west. ** * * The Princess Blbesco, wife of the Rumanian minister, is back in Wash ington after the Cleveland convention bubbling over with enthusiasm after her maiden experience of one of our quadrennial political hippodromes. The daughter of former Prime Min ister Asquith of Great Britain is, like her distinguished father, a politician to her finger tips. When she witness ed Frank O. Lowden’s renunciation of the vice presidential nomination. Princess Bibeseo said, her thoughts traveled back to Mr. Asquith’s refusal of the premiership last year, preced ing Ramsay MacDonald's accession to power. The Rumanian minister and his sprightly consort will also at tend the Democratic national conven tion in New York. They declare that Europe has nothing faintly to com pare with our great party conclaves In excitement and emotion. ** ♦ * There isn't a busier department of the United States government these days than the passport bureau of the State Department. For many weeks past it has been issuing passports at tho rate of 1,000 a day. Uncle Sam derives a tidy income from hie globe trotting sons and daughters, for offi cial credentials for travel abroad cost $lO apiece. This year is breaking all tourist records, and passport receipts in consequence were never so heavy. Our foreign service, diplomatic and consular, is always a money-maker. Th« receipts from passport and in voice fees, and from other official documents required In international Intercourse, total a larger amount than the entire cost of our diplo matic and consular service. Queer types of the civic Americanus turn up in quest of passports. One day this week a roan became quite peeved when asked to state his occu pation—a detail that must be entered upon a passport. "I haven't any oc cupation,” he replied. Tbi a con gressman.” ♦♦ * * Victor L. Berger of Wisconsin, the first socialist ever elected to Con gress, is the most consistent of “reds.” He refuses to sign his name, on any occasion, except In red ink. While Berger sits in the House his wife presides over the school board of Milwaukee, of which she has been a member for sixteen years. She was a school teacher when she married the man whom Judge Kenesaw M Landis sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment for opposing American entry into the world was. • (Copyright, 1934.1 11 pep cent of the total taxes levied in the state for all purposes in 1921. In Oregon, timber and the lumber industry paid in the neighborhood of 18 per cent of the total taxes in the same year. Outside of the cities and towns in Oregon It is estimated that the lumber industry paj's one-third of the taxes in the state, and the percentage, runs even higher in sev eral of the counties, reaching, in the case of Clatsop County, for example, over 60 per cent of the county taxes. With the possibility under permanent intensive forest management of pro ducing limber enough nearly to dou ble the present lumber cut. It wopld be possible to maintain permanently this no uroe of public revenue with out overtaxing the timber resource or Us dependent industries.'' Because of depletion of spruce and fir in the eastern part of the United States it is very doubtful if the pres ent pulp and paper industry in New York and New England can be main tained at its present size, while the industry of the lake states will do well If it holds its own during tho next two decades. ** * * The field of forest experiment sta tion include® all of the important problems relating to tho life history and management of the forest from tha seedling to the mature stand. That such investigations are essen tial to perpetuate and to secure the maximum yields from our forests is too obvious to require argument. Only in this way can accurate infor mation as to the behavior and pos sibilities of our forests be obtained. Experience in forestry as in agri culture, engineering and other fields has amply demonstrated that inten sive studies by a staff of thoroughly trained man yield practical results of more value in a shorter time at less cost than can possibly be ob tained in any other way. Moreover the experiments themselves serve as demonstration areas. By showing what can be accomplished under vari ous methods, a station can become a great stimulus to the actual prac tice of forestry by timberland own ers. The information which the forest experiment station can secure is needed by private owners, who now hold a large part of the better forest lands in Washington and Oregon, and by the federal govern ment itself as a basis for the most effective methods in the national forests of Washington and Oregon. ♦♦ ♦ ♦ In explaining what some of the principal problem® to be specifically studied are. Secretary Wallace points out that the Pacific northwest con* tains forests in which the risk from fire and the possibilities of loss are not exceeded in any other region of the United States or possibly the en tire world. Stands of great volume and of corresponding value aro fre quently in years of long droughts absolutely destroyed over immense areas. Furthermore, a succession of Area frequently follow lumbering, thereby causing damage the enormous extent of which is now little appre ciated. through practically making a new forest Impossible, except by arti ficial reforestation or after delays running into scores of years. Another important problem is the burning of the brush and debris re sulting from logging operations In suoh manner that a new stand will be insured. Altogether a number of important phases of the fire protec tion problem lend themselves to the Investigative work which can bast be conducted at a forest experiment station. An additional problem of first im portance is to determine how rapidly a forest will grow and the yields which may be expected of the dif ferent kinds of timber under varying conditions of soli, climate and alti tude. Upon such information must be based the determination of private owners as to whether or not timber growing on their particular holdings will bo profitable. Upon suoh infor mation must also be based the area of land which any individual or com pany, as for example a pulp and paper concern, must own er control. In order to insure a permanent supply sufficient to meet it* future require ment* i The North Window y BY UOhA tnCBtU “An art which is alive doe* not alone revive works o t the past; it continues them-" Thus Ernest Pelx otto quotes Rodin in support of the effort being- made at this time at the American School of Fine Arts at Fontainebleau to revive, under the direction of R, Ljl Montague Saint- Hubert the art of fresco painting. Saint-Hubert has made an exhaustive study of the medium so long left in disuse, and is now teaching it to a group of enthusiastic students, with the intent not only of "recovering the old formula of a beautiful art,” but of adapting its use to our modern ideas and conceptions so that It may have “new life and new meaning." There is great confusion and mis understanding in regard to this art The word “fresco” implies any man ner of painting on or with fresh mortar- It cannot, however, property be applied to tempera painting exe cuted on plaster or dry mortar, or to oil painting on canvas which imitates such. For Instance, Puvis de Cba vannee* beautiful mural paintings in the Pantheon at Paris, which are executed after the latter manner. “Frescoes,” Saint-Hubert tells us, as he tells his pupils in a series of lectures .recently published.by Frederic Fairchild Sherman of New York, “attained com plete flowering in Italy under Giotto and his pupils. Masaccio. Guirlandaio, Fra Angelico. Benoszo Goxzoli; then they died out, but to be reborn, almost miraculously, by Raphael, Botticelli, be fore disappearing again beneath the ar tistic exuberance without faith of the 'baroque style.’ ’’ Victor Mottea. cen turies later, rediscovered, in part, methods of execution, but H was Paul Baudoin, a pupil of Puvis’de Ohavannes and master of Saint-Hubert, who. “through stubborn and enduring efforts carried on during his whole lifetime, succeedel in pulling aside the veil which ever since the Renaissance baffiinglv concealed the secrets of fresco painting.” “At the Jme of his earlier endeavors a large nu.nber of the Italian primitives’ finest frescoes were well covered oyer with plas-er or white paint, under which Vasari hsd caused to be hidden in nu merous ct urches wonderful decorations considered as unworthy by cotemporary prejudiced fashion. The walls of Santa Crooe in Florence were whitewashed all over.” Baudoin made a point of studying ajtd reviving pure craftsman ship, “so mighty in its soberness as es tablished by the primitives and. above all. by Giotto.” ♦♦ « * The advantage of frexco painting over painting in oil or tempera is that “the petrification of the color when the reaction has been well cal culated produces an eternal youth ab solutely unassailable by either air or light-” The process is by no means a simple one. The wall must first he prepared and the rough-cast sur face applied On this the outline of the design is traced and points fixed as guides, remaining even when tho surface coat is put on. the time comes for the painting, the artist must work rapidly and ac curately. Everything roust be in readiness before the actual work be gins. It is this need of accuracy which Saint-Hubert believes to be the reason for the great number of drawings which the old masters have left —studies of figures in various positions, portions of designs, all con tributing to the accuracy of the fin ished cartoon. Comparatively few colors are used, and these must be mixed freshly each day. The painter, furthermore, must have a fairly ac curate knowledge of chemistry and chemical reactions in order to secure permanency of color Ten thousand difficulties seem to beset the fresco painter. He must never allow one color to overlap on the other, but by mean* of a very clean brush, slightly dampened, em ployed at precisely the right moment, adjacent colors may be joined to gether without diminishing their freshness. The mortar must not he too soft nor yet too hard, and if a mistake is made the only way to remedy it is to cut out the piaster •with a trowel and patiently patch. Everything seems to conduce to en danger the result, such, for instance, as the weather; and whether or not success has been attained can only be discovered when the drying process is complete. ♦* * * No wonder that as life became more complicated and to move more rapidly the art of frelco painting fell into disuse, but marvelous, Indeed, is the fact that in this present age of hurry and impatience it is finding revival. Yet in that portion of the old palace of Fontainebleau where Saint-Hubert has his studio there is today a group of enthusiastic young students mastering the mysteries of this ancient, method of painting and covering the rough stone walls with their experiments J,ust as the appren tices of the old masters in the early days of art may have covered the walls of still older buildings in Italy. ♦* * * France is celebrating this year the centenary of the birth of Puvis de Chavannes, one of the greatest mural painters of modern times. On the cover of the catalogue of the Salon of the Societe Nationale dcs Beaux- Arts is a reproduction of a portrait in relief of the great painter, and, in color, reproductions of three of his St. Genevieve series. One whole gal lery of the Salon this year is given up to examples of Puvis’ work, chiefly studies made for his great composi tions, but also including such com plete original works as his portrait of the Princess Cantacuzene and the finished study. “Autumn.” both of which, with numerous drawings, are reproduced in the catalogue. Many will recall the furore that was caused by the Chavannes decora tions in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the fun that was poked at them and the criticism with which they met immediately upon installation. The painter produced these works without having seen the place for which they W’ere destined, and it is possible that had he painted them here with this knowledge he might have made them different, at least different in tone or general cojor scheme. But be that as it may, time has proved their worth, and it is safe to believe that almost no one today who visits the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston but carries away an im pression of the decorative value, the impressive, quiet simplicity of these unusual and masterly works. *♦ * ♦ The mistake that to a great ex tent we have made in this country in our mural painting has been to re gard such as easel pictures on a large scale, whereas a mural decoration should in reality be an architectural adjunct. There Is nothing harder than to dissociate from the popular mind the Idea that a painting must Invariably be a picture, and that all pictures are works of art, A real work of art Is something which has in its execution elements of beauty: for Instance, rhythm of line, balance In composition, harmonious color combination. Color in Itself may be alluring or repellant. Some colors are muddy and ugly, whereas others are clear and delightful to look upon. It Is, as Saint-Gaudens said, the way the thing Is done, not what is'done. The art is with the individual, the producer, the artist. In a recent number of the Outlook, Albert Spalding tells of his experience lately when serving on the jury of award at the Conservatory of Music in Paris. Pupil after pupil cams on the stage and played the same com positions, all with reasonable accuracy and evidence of conscientious work and good training—a wearisome or dsal —until suddenly one, through precisely the same performance, gave evidence of a spark of genius. Then, through the delight of this rare touch, fatigue was overcome, enthu siasm revived- This was art, and II is the same in all of its manifestations —painting, sculpture, architecture, the so-called decorative art# —the di vine spark reanimates, revives and coDßtituUa § continuing tradition. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC J. BASKIN Q. What is meant by a "sane Fourth’’T—J. I* A- This moans an observance of Independence day which shall neither Jeopardize the lives nor property of citizens by the careless use of fire works and explosives, and also an ob servance of the day which, while it shall »lve expression to the patriotic feelings of Americans, shall not be a burdensome cost, or entail a foolish outlay of money by the taxpayers of the country- Q. What is the average height of American men in stocking feet?— R. C, A- The average is between five feet eight Inches and five feet nine Inches. Q. How many street car lines are there in the United States?—V'. K. A. The American Electric Railway Association says that there are ap proximately 102,000 street car lines of all types in the United States. Q. What is the temperature in Honolulu? —A. £>. M. A. The highest temperature in Honolulu over a period of thirty-four years was 80" and the lowest tem perature 52*. February is the coolest month with an average temperature of 70* and September the warmest with an average of 78*. Q. How is ‘‘cheechako’’ pronounced and what does it mean?—W. H. A. This Chinook word means "lately come” or “a recent arrival.” It is pronounced chee-chah-ko. Q. What does the difference in the way Hindoos wear turbans signify?— A. So far as the turbans differ beyond the personal taste of the wearer they indicate the province from which he came, the weaves, dyes. eta. being highly specialized in different localities. Q. Who is the Governor General of Australia?—E. C. A. The office is held by Lord Forster of I^epe. Q. How did the half-masting of the flag for mourning originate?— W. D. A. It Is not possible to say just when, where and for whom the flag was first lowered to haJf-maet. The custom is said to have arisen from the old naval and military practice <flr lowering the flag in time of war as a sign of submission. Spanish ships in the’seventeenth century dis played the flag at half-mast a* a signal of distress. The custom of flying the flag at half-mast has long been recognised in practically all the leading countries as a sign of mourn ing. Q. Was conscription or draft used in the colonies during the revolu tionary war?—G. W. R. A. Conscription was not resorted to in the revolutionary war. The first bill of this kind was introduced into an American Congress by the, conscription act of October 27, I*l4, under the auspices of the then Sec retary of War, James Monroe. This was not carried out. Q. What is the difference between jam. marmalade and butters? —R E. D. A. As a rule, only the small fruits of which the whole may be used are utilized in jam making. The fruit is crushed in the juice so as to produce a homogeneous mixture. Butters are more smooth and more mixed than Jams. For this purpose fruits which j contain a large, proportion of fleshy materials are used. Butters are fur ther characterized by the frequent use of apices and other flavoring agents. Marmalades stand midway between jams and butters. Larger Press Divided on Status of Muscle Shoals Problem The Muscle Shoals problem -will not down. The House of Representatives at its last session favored acceptance of the proposal to turn the develop ment problem over to Henry Ford, but the Senate refused to act This insured the entire question being: made one of the chief problems for the December sessions of Congress. The hearings before the Senate com mittee developed the hitter opposition to the Ford plan led by Senator Nor ris. It also opened the door for a general discussion by editors of the whys and wherefores of the shoals and the great plant included in it. On this there is a sharp division of opinion and once more the question of nationalization is debated from various angles. Newspapers which bad been op posed to the acceptance of the Ford offer approved Senator Norris' at titude toward the matter. A typical expression is that of the New York Herald-Tribune (Republican) which savs: "Senator Norris deserves ap plause for having stemmed that wave of generous emotionalism under which Congress was proposing to bribe the firmer by forcing Muscle Shoals into the reluctant hand of Mr. Ford.” Norris has brought to light “the utter absurdity of the bid of the motor manufacturer,” continues the Buffalo News (Republican) which believes Ford “never would have dared to sub mit so ridiculous an offer to men of affairs in the business world,’’ and "Norris gave the majority of the Sen ate committee on agriculture courage to deny the demand of the Detroit manufacturer for delivery to him of the most valuable public properly of the United States.” With this "most objectionable of all proposals out of the way.” the Chicago Tribune (Re publican) suggests “proponents of the Norris bill and of other projects in regard to Muscle Shoals can argue out the matter for the country’s best interests.” The defeat of the Ford bid, the Reading Tribune Undependent) claims, “marks a return to the con servationist program originally advo cated by Theodore Roosevelt’ ; fur thermore, "it connotes a desire on the part of the administration to operate profitably a plant which Henry Ford realized could be operated at a profit.” ♦♦ ♦ * Pome newspapers favoring the Ford proposal find comfort in the fact that the project was not defeated and that the matter will be consid ered at the next Congress, while oth er® condemn the delay as Inexcusa ble. The latter view Is voiced by the Charleston Post (Independent Demo cratic), which insists "the time has come when it should be determined how the power plant at Muscle Shoals Is to be made operative, whether by the government or by private capital." The Senate ma jority “muat take responsibility for this piling of delay upon delay, de dares the New Orleans Tlmss-Pica yune (independent Democratic), which is hopeful, however, that "eventual disposition is not yet wholly cast away for the country has, from Its hesitant elders, a rather reluctantly given promise of action on Mnscle Shoals when the election hazards are oast ” If none of the bid “is good enough,” the Springfield Republican (independent) maintains, "it might be worth while to have some authorita tive statement made of what would be good enough.” The question of the advantages of government or individual ownership, such as proposed by Mr. Ford, is also taken up with divided opinion. “The Ford offer is dead because Mr. Ford refused to modify it." according to the Brooklyn Eagle (independent Democratic), which points out "three years ago when he made it tho Mus fruits than those for jams are used Fruits whose pulp will not produce the smooth consistence desired In a butter are used In marmalade mak ing. By slight differences in prepa ration, the same fruit may make either a marmalade or a butter. Fo r example, if peaches arc cooked until soft before adding the sugar, the re sulting consistency j s that of a but ter. If the sugar is added at the be ginning of the operation the pulp is preserved in small pieces rather than being reduced to a smooth paste This results in a marmalade. Q. What tribes of people live in northern Africa?—D. B. A. A. The principal tribes of north ern Africa are the Arab-Berbers, the Ethiopians, the Fulah-Zandeh group and the Negrltans. Q- What is a loquat?—R. C. H. A. A loquat is a yellow, generally oval, plum-like fruit, a near relative to the medlar and sometimes, but in correctly, called the Japan plum. Q. How many officers did Lafay ette bring with him to America? — P. W. T. A- He brought with him about twelve. Q What arc the longest verses In the Old and New Testaments? —J. W A. The American Bible Society says that according to their informa tion. the longest verse in the old Tes lament is Esther. viil:S. and in the New Testament, Revelation. xx:4. Q. How should a chameleon be cared for?—W. C. Q. Chameleon should be kept in a large wooden box, in which is placed a small amount of dry sand and grass. Its food consists of any small insects, particularly flies. Meai worm? may be fed when the insects are no’ available. Q. Is George Bernard t'baw Eng lish or Irish?—C. P. G. A. George Bernard bhaw war born in Dublin. Ireland and spent the first twenty years of his life there. Since that lime he has lived tn England. Q. How was the eighteen-inco cable of Brooklyn bridge put ia place’ -dl, S- A. The eighteen-inch cable of the Brooklyn bridge wa« woven in place It would have been practically im possible to hoist it to its present position when complete. Q. Does a.n excursion boat carr ballast?—-C. C. C. A. Excursion boats are required to carry ballast Q. Did Gen. Robert E. Lee own slaves? —F. R F A. At one time he owned slave? but ten years before the war he set them all free. They remained with Gen. Lee after they were given their freedom, and even stayed on his plan tation until after the close of the civil war <3 Is the mortality less among breast-fed babies than among bottle - fed babies?—E. C. H A. Os every 100 bottle-fed babies, 2a die in the first year, while of every 100 breast-fed babies only 0 die in th* first year. Breast-fed babirt have been found to be less liable to many dis eases, such as summer complaint, con vulsions and tuberculosis. (Did non ever write a letter to Frederu J. Baskinf You con osfc our Inf ormolu, n Burea i any question of fact and get the anstcer- in a personal letter. This is a j part of that best purpose of this news paper—SEßVlCE. There vs no charge except 2 cents in stomp* for return post age. Get the habit of asking questions of The Star Information Bureau, Frrderi< J. Baskin, Director, :ist and C streets northwest.) cle Shoals plart was regarded as sr: incumbrance left from the war which ought to be sold for what ever it would bring." while ”toda> it is recognized as ore of the corn*- , try's greatest sources of w ater power, which cannot be turned over to pri vate operation without proper safe guards" Mr. Ford’s attitude "lias not been one to inspire confidence.' continues the Milwaukee Journal (in deppndentt. because "he has refused to appear before the Senate commit tee,” although "his engineer has said that 'the power at Muscle Shoals will be employed primarily in the publu * interest.’ Mr. Ford has refused to put that promise in the bond.” ** ♦ * While he may pose as a benefactor, the Sioux City Journal (Republican i observes, "the Ford offer did not meet the requirements that should be de manded in the Interest of the Ameri can people, the real owners of the Muscle tshoais.” The Topeka Capital (Republican) takes the position that the defeat of the Ford offer was jus'i fied by tho Ford indifference to tin * federal power act and the stand-pat attitude of the Ford organization a« to amendments or modifications iu any particular of the original offer. ' “Rejection of the Foal offer," tin Roanoke World-News Triemocratici says, "may mean some delay In giv ing the south the fullest immediat' advantages from the development of Muscle Shoals, but. in the long run, the electric power to be developed ai Muscle Shoals will be of far greater benefit to the south under partial or full government control than under the control of one industrialist and his heirs.” The policy of government operation of the property, the Rich mond News-Reader (independent t Democratic) holds, “is no more ac ceptable to a largo part of the Amer ican public than the virtual gift of the property to Mr. Ford would have been.’’ ** * * The Chicago Daily News (independ ent) objects to both the Ford ami Norris measures as being unsound, be cause the Ford offer violates the 1 “principles of conservation and of adequate compensation to the nation without even guaranteeing cheap fer tiliser to the farmers,” and the “Nor ris alternative would put the govern ment into a speculative business and commit It to all manner of experi meats, adventures and risks.” The Newark News (Independent) pointed ly suggests that “poor though the -picking is.” * » • “federal operation can always be abandoned for tho bet ter way of private operation with government ownership, on a sound leasing basis,” but “tire gift to Ford would constitute an irrevocable con tract, and its mischief Is incalcu lable. not only with respect to Muscle Shoals, but as to- our entire water power future.” Campaign for Calorie*. Dr. Charles W. Eliot, the scholar, is the author of the suggestion that restaurateurs should ally themselves with the reformers by making scien tific suggestions to patrons concern ing diet. Many, he believes, "kill themselves long before their time by overeating and drinking.” For rem edy: Menu cards listing in parallel columns foods for The plump and foods for the meager. But as no one ever trusts another so implicitly a* to believe hla recommendations con cerning diet, the advisory menu card would have Hie effect merely of de stroying confidence between the res taurateur and the diner without any . beneficial result. ~Df7 "EUof shoulc r withdraw his suggestion before bairn is done. After all. man dot» not live by valqries »lone> —>3t. Pau Dispatch.