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!THH EVENING STAR With Snnday Morning Edittoo. i WASHINGTON, D. C. yKTT>*V Inn. 20, 1924 HDBODOBB W. NOYES... .Editor The Bveaxtng Star Newspaper Company Mm Office. Util St. and Pennnlrania Are. Stew Tort Office: 110 Beat 420 d Bt. Chicmao Office: Tower Buildlsf. Wat aptaa Office: 1« B**ent St. .London, Bn aland. Tta Brentn* Star, with tbe Snnday moraine •dltleß. U dellreped by carrier* within the city at 00 cents per month; daily only, 45 easts per month: Sunday oaly. 30 cent* per —ntfc Orders mar he sent by mall or tele phone Main 5000 Collection is made by car riers at the end of each month. Bate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday.,l yr.. $8.40 ; 1 mo., 70c Daily only 1 yr., $6.00 ; 1 mo., 50c Sunday only 1 yr., $2.40 ; 1 mo.. 20c All Other States. Daily and Sunday. 1 yr, SIO.OO ; 1 mo., 85c Daily only 1 yr. $7.00 ; 1 rr.o., 60c Sunday only ....lyr, $3.00 ; 1 mo.. 25c Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclnalrely entitled to the n»e for republlratlon of all news dl»- Stehes credited to it or not otherwise credited •his paper and also the local news pub lished herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein are also reserved. The District's Plank. Delegates from the District of Co lumbia to the Democratic national convention will endeavor to secure the Adoption in the party platform of a plank favoring national representa tion for the citizens of Washington. They will not be deterred from this ef fort by the failure of the delegates to the Republican convention, but will perhaps work the harder because of that failure. They have a good case, a better case even than four years ago, for the District has just been treated in Congress with ruthless dis regard for equities and without the least measure of representation. What is wanted is a simple state ment of the fundamental American principle that the people who pay taxes and conform to every require ment of citizenship, contributing to the cost of the federal government and to the defense of the country, should be represented in the law making body and in the procedure of electing the federal Executive. The formula has been succinctly stated on repeated occasions: Repre sentation for the District in Congress and the electoral college. The process of obtaining this right has been like wise definitely and briefly put: Pro posal by Congress and adoption by the states of an amendment to the Consti tution enabling Congress to enact legislation granting these rights. The specific thing required at this stage is the submission to the states of an amendment to the Constitution. Resolutions to that effect are pending before Congress. The hope is that the party platform adopted at New York will declare in favor of the adoption of the amendment. There is no controversy on this question. There is no partisanship in it. The people of the country, as far as they have been informed of the matter and have expressed them selves, are uniformly favorable to the enfranchisement of the District. We of the District are confident that when the question is submitted to the people At large, in the form of an amend ment, they will answer it overwhelm ingly in the affirmative. We only want that the chance be afforded our fellow Americans to render their verdict. To that end hope is felt that the Demo cratic party will recognize the prin ciple in a specific indorsement of the national representation proposal. Retired Teachers’ June Pay. Owing to the failure of the deficiency bill at the recent session of Congress there is a deficit of funds available to pay the annuities of the retired teach ers of the District schools for the cur rent month of June. Unless some ex traordinary measures are adopted, possibly by the business men of Wash ington, or sfime executive authority is given for the use of other funds for this purpose, sixty-nine of the elder ex-teachers in the District schools will be without money with which to meet their expenses at the end of the month. In most cases these annuities Are the sole resources of the retired teachers. Failure to receive their monthly pay checks means acute dis tress. Without question this deficiency will be made good next winter, perhaps immediately on the reconvening of Congress in December. Beginning the fiscal year monthly pay checks will be forthcoming under the,new appro priation act. But the August payment and the December deficiency allow ance will not pay the bills on the Ist of July. Is there not some means by which this fund can be raised as a loan to the teachers by the people of Wash ington? The active teachers are hard ly in a position to contribute to such a fund. They have need of every penny that will lie coming to them at the end of this month to meet their ordinary expenses and to carry them over the vacation period. ‘ The amount due is estimated to be $5,600, a veritable trifle for the com munity. but a large sum for the an nuitants. Can it not be raised by pub lic Subscription, with the assurance that every dollar will he reimbursed when the deficiency funds are voted In December by Congress and the re tired teachers get their belated checks? «■ * * Os recent years no summer has been so warm as to preclude an occa sional reminder that It would be pru dent to lay in next winter's coal. Rhode Island's Deadlock. Rhode Island’s legislative deadlock, protracted for several months and marked during the last few days by violent disorder and finally by chlorine gas attacks, is reminiscent of a fa mous affair of more than eighty years ego in the same state. That was Dorr’s rebellion, which, though a local incident, nevertheless had an effect the fortunes of the Whig party of the period. The Dorr revolt, like the present blockade in the state Legis lature. grew out of an effort to effect a change in the constitution of the state. Thomas W. Dorr headed a group of citizens who were discon tented with the existing government and its limited suffrage. The state had, after the Declaration of inde pendence, retained its old charter, un der which the right to vote was re stricted. After a series of mass meet ings a convention was held In October, 1841, and a constitution was drafted and submitted to a popular vote. The state government denied the right of the petitioners and delegates to this unofficial convention to put the draft before the people. A poll was taken, however, and the Dorr party claimed, upon the basis of the returns, that the constitution had been adopted. May 3, 1842, the Dorr or “suffrage” Legis lature elected under the constitution assembled at Newport, with Dorr as governor. The established government denied the legitimacy of the constitu tional administration, and Gov. King proclaimed martial law. The suffrage party appealed to arms and made a show of defiance. Their cannon, how ever, failed to discharge and they fled. Dorr escaped, but was afterward cap tured and was convicted of treason and sentenced to life imprisonment. In 1852, in response to a widespread feeling of sympathy, he was pardoned and eventually was restored to the rights of citizenship. Such was the “Dorr rebellion.” It was not long-lived and it was blood less. But it laid the foundations for the final liberalization of the suffrage. It was not a futile gesture. The pres ent controversy grows out of the effort of the Democratic members of the Legislature to secure a constitutional convention, to effect certain changes in the fundamental law. The proceed ings have been lively from the outset, in January, but have finally reached a climax near to tragedy. The spirit of Dorr evidently prevails today in “Little Rhody.” McAdoo-Smith Tactics. For some reason closely following Mr. McAdoo’s arrival on the New York battle ground tal.k about abrogat ing the two-thirds rule ceased. It is Intimated that he found that the op position to his nomination, expressed mainly in the Smith boom, was def initely determined to fight "from the drop of the hat” on this point, and that he could not perhaps muster his entire delegate strength to support a demand for the majority rule. It was pointed out to him by friendly per sons, it is reported, that a frontal at tack on the rule would probably lose and would cost him seriously in pres tige. So tactics have been changed. There is to be no direct drive against the rule. Perhaps something may hap pen to bring about an amendment. However that may be. the new plan is to concentrate upon the largest pos sible showing of strength on the first few ballots, gaining perhaps on the second and third as ephemeral local son booms are exploded, and thus pro ducing a “hand-wagon” effect. If enough wavering delegates can be per suaded that McAdoo victory is prob able the totals will be swelled from ballot to ballot. The psychology of mass accretion is worth recognizing. Claims of McAdoo strength are strangely variable. Five hundred, 550, 600, 632 are mentioned. A majority Is 549. with 732 as two-thirds. If McAdoo Ijas 600 votes assured he has a very good prospect for the nomination. But nobody knows exactly, it would seem, how many are pledged, directly and indirectly, to the California candidate. The policy of the opposition, it would seem, is to keep Smith, the leader of the opposition, but not to concentrate on him all the possible anti-McAdoo votes. A straight-out tug of war between the two might leave Smith in such a decided minority as to start the band-wagon movement upon which the McAdoo management is counting. A deadlock, to he effec tive, must leave a field of other pos sibilities. So the Smith tactics will. It Is said, be to trail along with a com pact and perhaps a slightly increasing vote until McAdoo’s strength begins to falter, then to pick up the strag glers and possibly gradually move on to first place In advance of the flag ging Californian. The test, then, would be of the fidelity of the last ditch McAdooites. in turn holding the balance of more than a third. This is a game in which masters of political strategy are engaged. No body knows what the outcome will be, or when it will be reached. Perhaps the final factor in the case will be exhaustion of the revenues of the less affluent delegates. If the weather is hot and the prices remain high the convention may reach a decision sud denly after a furious contest of a few days. So far as oil investigation is con cerned. both parties are about ready to find satisfaction In the fact that de spite early agitation everything passed off quietly. A German Invention will transmit opera into the home by telephone. People will keep on going to the the ater to see the comedian and the chorus. As the temperature rises the wear ers of abbreviated attire appear to have the really logical side of the bathing suit argument. Both Mr. McAdoo and Mr. Smith have made considerable progress in demonstrating to each other that they are both on the political map. Summer Drowning. An eleven-year-old boy on the first day of school vacation, and close to the first day of summer weather, drowns in the Eastern Branch. A life Is lost, a fanfily grieved beyond ex pression and a mother and father re ceive a wound from which they will not recover. Yet boys will go a-swlm ming. Shining water is a great tempta tion on hot days. The argument is for bathing pools and swimming beaches. The experiment in building a bathing beach has been an Immense success. It cannot accommodate the thousands of persons who go there, or would go there, even from distant parts of the city. No provision has been made for pub lic bathing and swimming in the East ern Branch. Bathing pools ore con templated In that port of the Ana costia Park to be built north of Ban ning bridge, but work on that part of the park has not been begun, and its completion is probably a good many years away. In time we will come to tfee point of giving boys and stria a, THE EVENING BT£R. WASHTNGTCEN. TE V., FRTDXY. TUNE 30. 7924. chance to learn to swim and a reason ably safe place where they may swim. Before the days of the bathing beach in the tidal basin there were many drownlngs in summer In the Wash ington and Georgetown Channels. Men and boys would go swimming from the wharves and would dive from piles, scows and boats. Many boys drowned. The bathing beach now draws thou sands who without it would take chances In the river. Another result of the bathing beach is that a larger part of the population takes the water than when there was no bathing beach. The Eastern Branch, though most of it has been filled, still takes the lives of many young persons. It has been doing that through all the years since civilized people settled .on Its banks. Nearly every old Washingto nian can recall many Eastern Branch drownings. Hundreds of boys have gone to their death from the Asylum trestle, from the old bridges and the wharves. It is not a treacherous river, am/ is. perhaps, as safe for swimmers as any river can be where the water is deep In places. But bathing beaches under control of the public authorities are more - nearly safe than a river. When Mr. Thomas H. Marshall is quoted as saying that what the coun try needs is a good flve-cent cigar, he enrolls himself among the philos ophers whose work Is not complete until the commentators have had their fling. A learned chapter could be written in the interpretation of Mr. Marshall's metaphor as a protest against reckless expenditures and in sincere valuations. The idea of pleading insanity is emphatically rejected by one of the defendants In the Franks case. This attitude may be mentioned by the alienists as strong evidence of defec tive reasoning powers and a morbid Indifference to the Instinct of self preservation. It is difficult to spoil the argument of an alienist, no mat ter which way it is going. Every time a historic piece of jewelry is sold, it is assumed that the purchaser is a rich American. The guess is usually correct, as this hap pens to be one of the few countries in a position to appreciate Jewelry more than its equivalent in ready cash. Bandits held up a motor car in De troit and took nearly $25,000 which was Intended to meet a pay roll. The “wild west” has disappeared, and the road agent makes himself perfectly at home In the large city. France, while discussing many questions of policy and sentiment, never takes her eyes entirely off the market quotations relating to the franc. Before exact harmony can be at tained it Is usually necessary to have a definite understanding as to who is leading the band. It would be a bold statesman who would assume an attitude implying obligations to referee the deliberations of a Farmer-Labor conference. The farmer honestly wants relief and will keep a watch on radicals whose ideas promise only greater troubles. Instead of "broadcast” the word "radiocast” is proposed. The language mutilators can still say "radiocasted.” SHOOTING STARS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Uncompromising Veracity. Oh, Mias Thermometer.' Always speaking true! Why couldn’t you disguise the facts For just a time or two? Why not he generous. With polite deceit? Can't you make a zero mark Apply to summer heal? Why not be affable. When the flowers fade. Designating winter chill As ninety in the shade? Oh, Miss Thermometer, Painfully exact. Couldn't you invent a fib And show a little tact? Unjust Accusation. “The defeated candidate is now charged with having used money in his campaign.” “That money wasn't used,” rejoined Senator Sorghum. “It was wasted.” Wrong Direction. The pipe and the faucet In service may fail. Ingenious device is of little avail. In mute resignation we look to the sky ,For a superabundance of water sup ply. Jud Tunkins says the harsher an automobile horn sounds the better it expresses the ideas of a reckless driver. Hall to the Chemist! Now let the gladsome news be told! Put Joybells in each steeple! We're using gas to cure our colds And not for killing people! Publicity. “That bootlegger didn’t seem tc mind being arrested.” "He's right enterprisin',” replied Uncle Bill Bottletop, “and gettln’ ar rested now an* then is the only way he can advertise his business.” Well Associated. “Mosqultoei carry deadly germs.” “Well,” commented Farmer Corn tossel, “It serves ’em both right.” Spellbinding. The demagogue his way must go, From statesmanship apart. And yet he'll find a means, we know. To exercise his art. So long as there cure things to sell, The public so Immense Will gladly compensate right well The gift of eloquence. “De man dat’s always In a hurry.” said Uncle Eben, “may be workin’ hard, an’ den again he may be tryin’ to disguise de fact dot be sin' workin’ M at- . The Painleve Defeat BY FRANK H. SIMONDS The fate which overtook the Pain leve candidacy for president of the French republic is precisely the fate which might befall the MacDonald government In Britain in one of two conceivable contingencies, if, by any chance the Tories and Liberals could agree on any common action, or if the extreme radical faction of Labor should break skill of MacDonald has so far lain In making no fatal mistake, which would produce a Tory-Liberal alli ance to oust him, while he has. with some difficulty to be sure, held hts extremists so far. The defeat of Painleve also car ries a definite warning to Herrlot, who will now step Into Poincare’s shoes. Herrlot quite clearly saw that it was hardly the wise thing to pur sue Mlllerand. His own inclination and judgment opposed the step, but he was dragged Into It by two different forces, by his Socialist allies, who have been gunning for Mlllerand for years, ever since he left their ranks to slide into conservative Quarters; by Hriand and his moderate group ever since Mil lerand called him back from Cannes and upset his last ministry. ** * * Driven to attack Mlllerand, Herrlot risked defeat, had the Senate stood by the president. But the Senate, while disapproving of the, whole pro ceedings, decided against a real con stitutional crisis such as would have resulted had there been a break be tween the two chambers, one backing the other, attacking the president of the republic. But. having yielded gracefully, the Senate took its revenge promptly electing Us own president “chief executive of the nation. A . tion between the Senate. w * ll ?£ solidly for Doumergue. and the h oc National in the Chamber of u *‘e“ thus brought disaster to H er^ ot . an J hla coalition on the supreme triumph In the battle with M HerrioL who never had much repu tation as a political J?.°" comes to power with hla prestige badly shaken. Moreover I he is weak ened in two directions. Ftrst. because he has failed in his first consider able effort to achieve something post tive. namely the selection of I am* leve, and secondly, because he has been driven by the extremists in his coalition to expel Mlllerand. prance was apparently willing to get rid of Poincare, but saw the attack upon Mlllerand with disquiet, accentuated by the emphasis to the affair given by the Communists. ♦* ♦ * One must recall that while the bloc of the Left was surprisingly suc cessful in getting members In the Chamber of Deputies. It did not actu ally obtain a majority In the elec torate and it therefor© had small jvarrant for any extreme course. Yet without the 104 votes of the Social ists. Herriot, with 141 Radicals and IN TODAY’S SPOTLIGHT BY PAUL V. COLLINS Any mathematician will testify that three points fix a plane. Gen. Charles G. Dawes, therefore. has al ready fixed the plane of the campaign with his three points; Hell, Maria and the demagogues. Just what he purposes to do with the first two Is immaterial, but in his first speech he declared he thought the campaign should be directed to driving out the demagogues. Some people have more points than one. ■ M. Clemenceau declared that the famous “fourteen points” beat the ten commandments —at least as to numbers—but Gen. Dawes reverts to just one point and it is likely that he will make many folks “see *he point” before the campaign is ended “Drive out the demagogues? - What is a demagogue? When Edward VI, then Prince of Wales, visited Amer ica. he heard Philadelphians talk so much about what the Biddles had done and were doing and should be expected to do. that he asked in cu riosity, “What's a Biddle?" Some of our readers hearing Gen. Dawes ex patiate on driving out the dema gogues will Inquire, ,r What's a dem agogue?” *♦ ♦ ♦ In classic Greek, there are ninety six of that species in the Senate and even more in the House. “Honorable men—all —all honorable men.” A ! demagogue is a “leader of the peo ple." for the dictionary says s®. When Hon. Pat Harrison spellbinds the faithful in the convention next week, the high compliment will be paid him by Democracy: “Ah. what a mag nificent demagogue!”—a leader of the people by his superior eloquence or oratory. Os such were Demosthenes and Soc rates. But, Just as many other things which began life in a worthy way, “demagogue" has lost caste as a compliment. A second definition in the dictionary would not fit many to whom the original meaning was well adapted, and Gen. Dawes will save much misapprehension when he ex plains what sort of demagogues will become the objective in his great summer drive. The secondary definition is: An unprincipled and factious public orator, who obtains an influence over the mob by great professions and by suiting his addresses to the prejudice of his hearers.” Mr. Macauley says: “In every age the vilest specimens of human nature are to be found among demagogues." So even ad hering to the original meaning, or combining both definitions, it might still be said in a complimentary way that “our own party" in the Senate consists of worthy demagogues, while “amongst them” are the “vile specimens” of other parties. Surely Gen. Dawes should specify as to which definition he adheres to, or some readers, in utter confusion, will ••box the compass of his points.” ** * * There have been demagogues and demagogues from the oratorical con tests of Athens to the interstate ora torical contest of Continental Hall. There were ‘the jewelers, who started the hue and cry of the Athenian mob: "Great is Diana of the Ephesians’” The mob became wild through the eloquent oratory of its leaders —not through compre hendfng any logic. What attribute of Diana made her great! The jobs of the profiteering jewelers. Have there been no modern in stances of wild running after such demogagism, with no more compre hension of Its vacuity as to logic or truth’ Is not the chance that dema gogism will give unholy profits to somebody the stimulus of all the "shouting and the tumult ? The dem agogue thrives only when he car rles his hearers off their feet with his specious eloquence. The greatest performance of mod ern demagogism was that of the Scotchman, John Laws, who origi nated paper inflation of cheap money,” and therewith demoralized both England and France. He was the first to exploit the Mississippi valley, and somehow the “Mississippi Bubble” Just burst only to reform more Iridescent than before. It is with no invidious but in the f thirty-five Republican Socialists, can not stay in power, and even this com bination does not give him an abso lute majority, although he was able with the Communists to muster 329 votes against Mlllerand. The tactics of the bloc National are quite clear. They were not able to save Mlllerand, they would not have been able to defeat any candi date who could command the united support of the bloc of the lieft, but when the Woe of the Left quarreled and split up, the majority support ing Painleve and the minority Dou mengue. then the bloc National had votes enough to elect Doumergue. And In electing Doumergne they not only defeated the Left, but they got for president a mat) much more mod erate than Painleve. Herrlot starts his premiership now with the obvious handicap of having been defeated Ip the matter of the presidency and having been disclosed as more radical, from necessity rather than choice, than the country or the majority of Parliament. Any moment when the bloc National can make a combination with any moderate fac tion in Herrlot’s following he will fall and his successor is bound to be more conservative than Herrlot la able to be. ♦♦ * * Since Germany has declined to con tinue the Ruhr economic agreements pending the application of the Dawes plan. Herriot will find himself with a foreign crisis on his hands the day he takes office. If he. does not bring Germany to terms promptly he will invite a terrific attack from the bloc National, perhaps soon reinforced by deserters from his own party. But if he does take a high tone, he will be Instantly in hot water with his Socialists, and the target for a vio lent attack from the Communists, who count thirty-one votes. All of which makes for uncertainty In foreign policies and deity H confusion In the settlement of pend ing international problems. France has got herself tied up in a maze ot domestic politics. She is for the mo ment in the hands of a combination of incompatible political parties, whose only real Interest In common was to get rid of Poincare. Had Painleve been chosen president of the republic the French upheaval might have been comparable to the British, for Painleve, because of the Nlvelle episode. Is as bitterly haled by the bloc National as Ramsay MacDonald as a pacifist was despised by British patriots during the war. But the French swing evidently halt ed on the wrong side of Painleve, so far as the bloc of the Left was con cerned. and now we have to look for the further swing of the pendu lum back. . Some foreign success, concessions made by Britain, surrenders made by Germany, these are the only things which can save Herrlot for long or give the bloc of the Left any con tinued lease of office. As a result of the decision at Versailles the new cabinet begins with Us future already compromised, Mlllerand Is already avenged and Poincare may obtain vindication only a little less prompt (Copyrlght. 1924, by the McClure New«p»per ' 1 Syndic* le ) cause of historical truth that one records that all the Mississippi bub bles have not been blown by John Laws. Who can hold John Laws re sponsible for "What's the matter with Kansas?”—or Nebraska or even Wis consin? Is not the state of Senator Brookhart and Secretary Wallace “bubbling”? Are not Minnesota, the Dakotas and Montana playing iri descent rainbows afloat? Hercules cleaned out the Augean stables, but Gen. Dawes proposes to clean out all the demagogues from the region of John Laws' original ex ploitation! The general evidently has in mind the famous motto of our Navy: "It can't be done, but here it is!” ♦♦ ♦ ♦ Another great demagogue of his tory was John Wilkes, who was called the "pioneer of radicalism.” Wilkes had been disgruntled by expulsion from Parliament for seditious libel and obscenity. He had sought in vain the appointment as Governor of Can ada. He used his personal grievances to appeal to popular support. Says a historian; "Wilkes saw In the public discontent a chance of re newing his traffic in popularity. He always kept in view what he avowed to Gibbon—the making of a fortune by his popular agitation.” Wilkes was expelled from Parlia ment for seditious libel and obscenity, yet he was re-elected, and Samuel Johnson says; "Every artifice of sedition, since then, has been prac ticed to awaken discontent and in flate indignation. The papers every day have been filled with exhorta tions and menaces of faction. The madness has spread through all ranks and both sexes; women and children have clamored for Mr. Wilkes, honest simplicity has been cheated into fury, and only, the wise have escaped infection.” It would have been sis difficult a task for Gen. Dawes to “drive out the demagogues” In Wilkes' day as it is today. *♦ • * There was great discontent amongst farmers in America near the close of the revolution—especially in Massachusetts. Owing to the absence from home of farmers who were in the Army, crops had been neglected, and so there was no money in farm ing. Then rose demagogues who de clared that the United States was a failure and urged a return to George 111. There were profiteers In those days-r-and demagogues. Shay's re bellion resulted, together with a de mand for inflation of "cheap money.” What a chance that would have been for Banker, Dawes to "drive out the demagogues!” Were not these demagogues telling the people that the rich were plotting to establish lordship over them “by the monopoliz ing of power and position of family cliques?” Americans were arrayed ' against Americans, because the ' demagogues supporting Shay’s army were not driven out of power and 1 Influence. “What is the cause of all these I commotions?” asked Washington in a letter to Col. Humphreys, “Is it licentiousness, British influences dis seminated by the Tories, or real 1 grievances which admit of redress?” Col. Humphreys "attributed them to all three causes.”. But Gen. Dawes seems to sum the three causes into one: Demagogism. I Copyright, by P»ul V. Collins.) , The Trees of Washington ’ To the Editor of The Star: When Joyce Kilmer penned his Im j mortal lines, "Poems are made by fools like me, but only God can make ■ a tree,” could he not have been thlnk -1 Ing about the trees of Washington? ; To a lover of trees this is a paradise. Man has .planted them singly and in groups (fortunately very few in > rows), the "Lord has watered and ! given the increase.”- Now they abound in all their beauty, glory and ■ infinite variety. The giant oak, the i stately elm, the spreading chestnut, the broad beech, the silvery maple. • the cooling sycanjore, the decorative s poplar, the lacy cottonwood, the slen • der tulip, the purple beech, the frag > rant magnolia, the towering pine, the I dignified fir, the silver-plumed bal i sam and many others indigenous to i the temperate zone. Perfect specl -1 mens of leaf and body, under whose > refreshing shade -countless number? i enjoy the freedom of the national > citV WILLIAM P»-WATERS. , ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN Q. Will you pleas® give me infor mation as to what "Merkle's famous bonehead play” was?—H. T. S. A. The Chicago Cubs and New York Giants were tied at the end of the year of 1908. They were to play one game to see who would win and rep resent the National League In the series. As the game progressed Merkle was on firsthand a man on third. The next batter up hit a safe hit and the man on third went home. Merkle, instead of running for the second base, ran for the clubhouse, thinking the game was over. Johnny Evers (Cub) tagged second base and the Giants' home run did not count. Q. Why are French elections held on Sunday?—C. H. A. French elections are held on Sunday largely for the convenience of the employed. Sunday on the con tinent is a holiday and workmen are freer than on week days. Q. How did the pay of privates in the United States during the world war compare with those of other countries? —M. R. W. A. The following figures show the base rate of pay per day of enlisted men In different countries; United States, |1; Great Britain, 36 cents; France, 5 cents; Italy, 2 to 4 cents; Canada, sl, with Increase for overseas service; Australia, $33 per month. Q. What would be the result if an irresistible force came in contact with an immovable object?—W. N, G. A. Regarding what would be the consequence if an irresistible force came in contact with an immovable object, the bureau of standards says that r.ince the existence of these two conditions at the same time Is not possible. It is necessarily impossible to state what would happen if the condition did exist. Q. I have been studying about Rus sia. which seems to have no ruler. Will you explain the system of gov ernment? —L. J. A. The government of Russia at present is a federated socialist soviet republic. The head of the council of commissars, succeeding Lenin, is Alexis Rykoff. In addition to the council of commissars, the Russian Parliament named an executive committee of twenty-one members. By the new federal constitution both the council of commissars and the executive committee are vested with executive and legislative power be tween sessions of Parliament. Q. How does one fish for tuna and swordfish?—L. S. T. A. Zane Grey, In an article in Out door America, advocates the use of heavy tackle in fishing for tuna — heavier than club rules allow. For swordfishing he recommends still heavier tackle. "I had made for me,” he says, "the famous Coxe reel, much larger than the 90, and it cost $1,500. I had special lines made. 39 thread. 400 yards long. As a result we had the greatest fishing experience of our lives. We caught 40 tuna, most of which were over 100 pounds." Or. Grey and his companion also caught four great swordfish, weighing, re spectively, 262. 298, 360 and 324 pounds. “Upward of 10,000 visitors went out on the dock to look at the 324-pound fish, a most beautiful spec imen.” Q. In terms of cementing, what is a hammer dress?—H. F. E. A. A hammer dressing is a finish for concrete after it has become hardened. It Is usually done with a chisel and hammer. There are many designs, such as the bush hammer, orandaling and plain tool circuits. Q. What is the derivation and meaning of “hoipolloi?”—M. S. A. ' A. It is a Greek word meaning “the I many.” “the masses,” '‘the populace." Republican Platform Goes Through Editorial Mill V ———— in i. i ■ \ ■ The Republican platform, framed for President Coolidge and his run ning-mate, quite naturally is accept ed as a subject for serious political discussion by the editors of the na tion. For the most part it meets the wishes of the Republicans of the east and west. .There is dissension in cer tain quarters of the central west, nq|ably in the agricultural regions, but apparently on the whole the par ty critics agree it suits the candidate who inspired it The independent : press seems inclined to suggest that ' party platforms have begun to out- | live their usefulness. The Demo- | cratic attacks are sharp, and the New j York World (Democratic) says the | platform is “a public confession of i the irreconcilable* differences in the j party for which it speaJcs.” The Republican viewpoint of the ! east may be summed up in the words ' of the Springfield Union (Repub- j Mean), which suggests that "naturally the platform covers a rather wide field, but in so far as it declares for definite principles and policies, it is sound and consistent with the prin ciples and (purposes that have become identified with President Coolidge. Where it ventures into debatable ter ritory, it leaves debatable questions the outcome of which must, of course, depend upon the wise policy of the government and the intelligent pur pose of the people." As the New York Herald-Tribune (Republican) sees it, "the platform is as clear and able a statement of political policy as the party has ever had.” ** * ♦ Republican sentiment of the far west is voiced by the Seattle Times (Independent Republican), which says the platform "is worthy of the great political party for which it will serve as a pledge of faith,” and “as nearly as possible it gives the essence of po litical opinion held by the rank and file of Republicans throughout the country.” The Spokane Spokesman- Review (independent Republican) adds that "it is untinctured by radi calism or unsound and dangerous pol icies.” There is in the platform, con tinues the San Francisco Bulletin (in dependent) that “which supports the suggestion that American politics is on the way to reorganization.” ' In answer to the critic who may find the platform weak and uninspired, the Chicago Tribune (Republican) de clares "it is an audit and a prospectus which if accepted as the one and fol lowed as the other would tend to keep the country proceeding about in its normal fashion and its accustomed comfort.” Fair-minded critics, the Minneapolis Tribune (Republican) feels, "will say that the platform takes the offensive: that it lays down a well defined program of action for the next Congress and for adminis tration in the next four years; that it adheres in letter and spirit to the principles and purposes enunciated by the President." These views are up held by the Kansas City Journal (Re publican) and Sioux City Journal (Re-, publican). *♦ ♦ ♦ Disappointment in that part of the platform regarding the present tariff law is expressed by the Lincoln Star (Independent), which says it is quite easy teepee who inspired the lauda tory paragraphs about it, but “quite certainly the people of this agricul tural region had no reason for prais ing the section referred to.” Agree ing to this, the Omaha World-Herald (independent, with Democratic lean ings) insists “there are generalities, platitudes, sophistical recitals of how well off the farmer la and how much has been done for him. assurances meaningless because vague and in definite —and, beyond that nothing. Q. Are registered nurses who served In the Army Nurse Corps dur ing ths world war entitled to the bonus recently e-nacted? p. S. R. A. Nurses who served In the Army Nurse Corps during the world war are entitled to the benefits of the ad justed compensation act. Q. I have a song, “The Gypsy Trail,” in which occurs the expression “Out of the luck of the Gorgio camp." What is the meaning of “Gorgio” - ’ B O. H. A. It Is a gypsy term and means any one not a gypsy. Q Who was called “the wisest fool in the world”?—T. E. A. James X, King of England, was described by Sully as "the wisest fool in Christendom.” Q. Is It possible to make a tree live which has been deadened?—B E. L. A. A tree the bark of which has been cut all around is sure to die un less a very delicate operation is per formed on it. Skillful nurserymen have found that it Is possible to graft a twig, or a number of twigs, Into the bark, above and below the wound, and that the sap will circulate through these twigs and carry nour ishment to the tree. Q. What is meant by the word "caliber” as applied to small arms?— T. E. R. A. This term refers to the diam eter of the bore, expressed in one hundredths of an inch. Thus, a .22- caliber revolver has a bore equal to .22 of an inch. Q. Can a foreign inventor obtain a patent in the United States?—G. I). H. A. A foreigner who has patented his Invention In his own country may obtain a patent in the United States for the unexpired period which his foreign patent has to run. Q. What fit meant by right of dower? —L. V. S. A. This is a legal term which means the right of a widow to a life interest in one-third of her de ceased husband’s land. Dower does not refer to personal property. Some states have abolished dower. Q. What kind of metal does not rust underground or in water?— K. C. A. One of the qualities which makes gold one of the most valuable metals Is its resistance to water. Gold has been found in perfect con dition after having been buried or submerged many centuries. Q. How does the New York Clear ing House operate?—M. K. A. The operations of the New York Clearing House are exactly the same in principle as those of a bank clearing house, with the exception that stock certificates are exchanged (cleared), instead of checks and drafts. A sheet is made out by each member and presented to the clear ing house every day before. 7 p.m. On one side is entered the list of stocks to be delivered and their full market value, and on the other side is entered the list of stocks to be received and their full market value. Q. Ate all the dukes of the Brit ish peerage of royal blood?—C. E. A. The dukes of the British peer age are not all of royal blood When the title of "duke” was first created it was generally given only to the younger sons of the kings. From time to time, however, the j sovereigns have conferred the title j of duke upon persons who were not of royal birth. ! (Let The Star Information Bureau, \ Frederic J. Haslcin, Director. 21st and ! C streets northwest, answer your ques i tk>n. The only charge for this service ts i cents in stamps for return postage. > The incoherent and turgid and timid plank is an affront to farmer Intelli gence and to the intelligence of every citizen who realizes the seriousness of the situation.” The Milwaukee Journal (independent) takes much the same position. The viewpoint of the Democratic papers of the country generally is much the same as that of the New York Evening World (independent Democratic) which maintains: The platform will impress those who have the patience to plod through an in terminable document of high-sound i ing words and few clear-cut state ments as a public confession of the ! irreconcilable differences in the party j for which its speaks. Not a word |on prohibition enforcement. There ! is not the slightest reference to the j Mellon plan. Not a word on the I sacrifice of Teapot Dome. Not a word jon the infamy of Forbes. Not a i syllable on the multitude of nauseat- I ing scandals in the Department of 1 Justice. This the declaration of i principles of a once great, self-re j specling party on which it has the ; temerity to appeal to the people for | a vindication at the polls.” ** ♦ * It is chiefly remarkable, according to the Fort Worth Star-Telegram (independent Democratic) "for the greater or less degree of skill and naiveness with which its formulators attempted to steer clear of ‘touchy’ questions,” although “it is a Coolidge made platform in so far as it reflects the attitude of the Executive upon certain matters, notably the world court, but 1t fails to follow out this direction in other matters, such as tax legislation, the soldiers' bonus and the immigration bill.” These views are approved by the New Orleans Times-Picayune (indepen dent Democratic.), the New York Times (Independent Democrat), Cleveland Plain Dealer (independent Democratic), Little Rook Arkansas Democrat (Democratic) and the Knoxville Sen tinel (Independent Democratic). The Independent viewpoint is some what pointedly put by (he Newark News (independent), which holds the gospel of the platform “is a belated promise to follow the leadership of Calvin Coolidge.” but “as to the rest it is for the most part words.” The Indianapolis News (independent) sees In It "the usual mixture of good and bad. hf true and half true, or false.” The Detroit News (independent) is confident the platform is entitled "to the conservative sympathies of the nation, for it is a document made up equally of generalities, platitudes and specious evasions.” The Wichita Eagle (independent) holds a similar view, while the Duluth Herald (inde pendent) concludes “President Cool idge could have Written a better one, using less than a quarter as many words;” but, after all, "this is about the only time anybody pays any at tention to a platform any way.” Sad Conditions in St. Marys County. Writer Describes Utter Lack of Law Enforcement There. To the Editor of Ttn Star: Your account in The Star on June 15 and 16 of the failure of High Sheriff Abell to assist revenue officers is not at all surprising to one famil iar with that section, for the con dition that exists in that part of St. Marys County, to say the least, is appalling. Before the eighteenth amendment became effective It was necessary for the men to leave their work wlten thay wanted whisky and journey to the nearest saloon to ob tain it. Very few left, for ■ “out of EXPLAINS NEBRASKA , BACKING FOR DAWES Dr. Ellis Solves Question That Was Puzzling Politicians at Cleve land Convention. BANK AIDS STATE FARMERS Friendly Little Loans Made Year’s Planting Possible. By the Associated Press. CHICAGO, June 20.—Dr. Horace El lis, long-time head 6t the speakers’ bureau of the Republican national committee here, was credited today with having answered one of the most persistent riddles at the Pricve land convention. He told how Gen. Charles Gates Dawes, soldier, banker, connoisseur of pipes and expert on budgets amd reparations, happened to be "favorite son” of the big corn and potato state of Nebraska in the vice presidential melee. Tbc question stm was a topic of conversation in political gatherings, when former Gov. Samuel McKelvie of Omaha came to town yesterday and enlightened the world through Dr. Ellis and others. “There is many a farmer in Ne braska this summer who has a crop in the ground because Banker Dawes loaned him money when he eould get it nowhere else during the early spring,” is the explanation given bv McKelvie. Bank Credits Froren. He said: "Last February and March, when banks were closing every day in the Dakotas, the rural banks of Nebraska and some coun ties of western lowa were in a tight place because of frozen credits. Farm loans were slow, wheat prices wtr> low and the entire agricultural com munity was at a difficult period of the post-war readjustment. The big city banks were only too well ac quainted with the situation an«» money to carry us over was at a premium. "Then it was that some of our hard-pressed rural bankers found a friend in need. It was Mr. Charles G. Dawes, chairman of the board of the Central Trust Company, at Chicago. He had faith in the fanners in Ne braska and in the country. He sent out money to several banks in vari ous sections of the state, and it was loaned to folks who were needing Just that little hit of help which is so often the difference between success and failure. Gave Friendly Aid. “Dabs of dollars, fifty here> and a hundred there, helped in the program of diversification, planted new crops and otherwise helped out at a time when help from purely commercial sources was lacking. He enabled many country - bankers to take per sonal notes from farmers who needed friendly assistance. “Not a hint of this activity in be half of the wheat farmers of the transmississlppi region ever had been given by Gen. Dawes, even to some of his most intimate friends. But con vention observers who marveled at the vigor of the Nebraska cry for Dawes, both in the state caucus and in the convention proper, now arc piecing out the story of his strength in the stale which formally placed his name before the convention. “In the Nebraska caucus on Sun day, June 8, two days before the con vention was called to order. Jay C. Moose. an alternate from Tecumseh, virtually demanded that the delega tion present Gen. Dawes’ name as a vice presidential candidate. “Former Representative A. W. Jef fries of Omaha. Coolidge pre-conven tion man in Nebraska, was selected for the job. which he performed with credit, and the delegation voted solid ly for Dawes on all three ballots. Ne braska was one of the few states which stood pat following the Bow den landslide on the second roll call, when many states changed their votes to Bowden, after his nomination seemed assured. “In the night session Nebraska led the Dawes demonstration and was one of the most enthusiastic partici- pants in the celebration of victory on the floor. “Try and stop Dawes in Nebraska.” says McKelvie. triumphantly. Thanks Expressed for Oratorical Contest To the Editor of The s*tar: * Ever siftce I returned from Wash ington I have been trying to find time to write a word of congratulation to The Washington Star on its part in the national oratorical contest and on the jvonderful achievement in Conti nent] Hall where those seven young people electrified the audience with addresses on the Constitution inside the time limit of twelve min utes. To one whose business it is to write and speak on the Constitution that time limit seems very short and the achievement of the youngsters all the more remarkable in that they gave very good speeches in such a short period. Wherever I go 1 come in contact with people who listened to these speeches over the radio and who agree with Mrs. Mary Roberts Rinehart, who listened in and said she was im mensely Impressed with the value and substance of the speeches. It would be impossible to overestimate the lasting influence of the co-uperatlpn of the press with the.schools in this contest. Mr. Lloyd Taylor, pioneer popular izer of the United States Constitution, who, as chairman of the National Se curity League's constitutional com mittee, has induced twenty-eight states to pass laws requiring Consti tutional instruction in all schools, says the oratorical cop test is splen did evidence that progress is be ing made in interpreting the Consti tution. and that the co-operating newspapers are entitled to the thanks of every good American citizen for their part in inspiring the youth of our country to know and reverence our fundamental law. The co-opera tion of /he newspapers in this event Is a service to schools and country without parallel in our history. ETTA V. LEIGHTON, ibivic Secretary, National Security League. sight, out of mind.” But n<4w It is never out of sight, for the drug ped dlers of the big cities have nothing on the bootleggers of St. Marys. The liquor is carried into the fields to the farmers, to the mail boxes to the rural carriers, to the banks of the roads for the paseersby, and so on. Together with being sold in regular saloons. It is sold in private homes in the presence of little innocent chil dren, who have begun to regard the drunken wretches who patronize their lawbreaking fathers as some thing to be expected in everyday life. The writer was born and reared in old St. Marys, and 1 am sad to say that men who were never known to drink before prohibition are habitual drunkards now. Boys fifteen and six teen years of age hang around so intoxicated and their senses so dulled that ambition or work has no attrac tion for them. I ask The Star to print this for the sake of the suffering mothers and sisters of old St. Marys, for if some thing isn’t soon done to rectify con-i dltions there, then upright manhood will be something unheard of in that section in a few years hence. ; MKBT.R A, -GLAGGETT.