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THE EVENING STAR With Sunday Morning Kdition. WASHINGTON, D. C. IRIDAY July 11, 1924 THEODORE W. NOYES Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Blame** Office, Dili St, nnrt Pennsylvania Are. New Yoik Office: no Rant 42nd St. Chicago Office: Towel Kiiilcling. European Office: 111 Keren! St.. London, England. Tlie Evening Star, with the Sunday m>rnins edition, in delivered by carriers within the city »t 60 rents per month: da'ly only. 45 rents per month; Sundry only, 20 rents per month. Orders mrv t>e sent by mail or tele rhone Main 5000. Collection Is made by car riers at the end of each month. Kate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday..l yr., $8.40 : 1 mo.. 70c Daily only 1 yr„ SO.OO ; 1 mo.. 50c Sunday only # 1 yr., $2.40 ; 1 mo., 20c All Other States, Daily and Sunday.l yr.. SIO.OO ; 1 mo., 83c Daily only 1 yr., $7.00 ; 1 mo., 60c Sunday only . ...lyr., $3.00 ; 1 mo., 25c Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is exclusively entitled to the use for republlcatfon of nil news dis patches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news pub lished herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein are also reserved. The Stage of Cross Currents. Now that all the nominations are made, except that of the La Follette party for the vice presidency, the cross currents of campaign adjustment are in evidence. Indorsements, expres sions of satisfaction and fealty and pledges of support are coming from various Democratic sources. Certain ■ groups" are manifesting doubt on the score of the Democratic nominations. The La Follette supporters are exult ing in the nomination of Davis as cal culated to drive Democrats over to the support of the Wisconsin candidate, while they are also rejecting the nom ination of Bryan as Davis’ running mate on the score that he is not satis factory as a progressive. Organized labor is cited as hostile to the Madison Square Garden platform. The execu tive committee of the Farmer-Labor party, which held a recent convention at St. Paul, has refused to indorse La Follette, and has so recommended to a conference of the Workers’ Party of America at Chicago, which indorsed F«»ter ar-d Gitlow. Eugene V. Debs has expressed happiness in the nom ination of his old friend and former at torney, John W. Davis. It will probably take another month to resolve all these elements into the steady stream of what is known as the “campaign trend.” The actual work of organization is still under way. The Republicans have nearly three weeks’ advantage in this. Mr. Davis, it is ex pected, will name his close friend and former official associate, Frank Polk, as the manager of his campaign. La Follette has named his manager, but everybody knows he will be his own campaign boss. Questions are being asked that must be answered in some measure of clear ness. How do candidates stand on the Klan? How do they stand on the league of nations? How do they stand on the prohibition question? These three are the important questions of the campaign, made so by the New York proceedings. They transcend in public interest the matter of the oil scandal, which for partisan advantage was “sprung” too early to be dom inantly effective in the contest. Mr. Davis has resigned his partner ship in the law firrp which has rela tions with large interests, but this is not an acknowledgment of impro priety, but a necessary step in view of the fact that his time will be com pletely occupied for several months as candidate. Still, the fact may be seized upon by some with narrow vision as an effort to be rid of an embarrassing connection. In this stage of the campaign the chief labors of the Democratic party managers will be to placate the disap pointed, to bring into line the followers and supporters of McAdoo and to hold the allegiance of the Smith contingent. Mr. Davis’ own efforts in this direction will probably be more effective than those of others. He has had diplomatic experience, and his abilities in that di rection will doubtless be applied in this emergency. , The real activity of the campaign is not likely to become manifest before the Ist of August, when with both major campaign committees in full operation speechmakers will be sent forth by the hundreds into all parts of the country to “make the welkin ring” and to arouse the voters to the Importance of saving the country from destruction. Difficulty may be experienced by Mr. McAdoo in avoiding an impression that his defeat was largely due to Man hattan's determination to treat his candidacy as a local issue. Delegates passed a resolution of thanks for their entertainment with out effusive assurances that they would be back soon to see all the folks. The vote of Gov. Ritchie was not as large as that of Mr. McAdoo, but it was quite as steadfast. The La Follette Purpose. Consideration of the possibility that La Follette may deadlock the presiden tial election involves two factors which it is important to consider. The elec toral vote of • state is cast for the candidate who secures the greatest number of votes, which may not be a majority, but is merely a plurality. But the election is effected only by a majority of the electoral college. For a candidate for the presidency to suc ceed himself he must secure at least 266 electoral votes. He may get these votes, however, by carrying the neces sary number of states by pluralities. The La Follette movement is de signed, so it is understood, to cut off enough electoral votes, by carrying a few states, to prevent either of the major party candidates from getting the necessary 266. That would, as has been already stated, throw the election into the House of Regfesentatives, where, as the state delegations now stand, no choice can be effected, and leave to the Senate the choice of a Vice President, to serve as President. In a certain area there is a pos sibility that La Follette may carry a few states. The practical question is whether he can so reduce major party vote* In other stales as to change them from their former allegiance. For Instance, can he poll enough votes in Illinois to throw the electoral vote there to Davis, or enough in Kansas to throw it the same way. or enough in lowa to wrench that state from its unbroken Republican allegiance? Inasmuch as the La Follette strength is greatest in states that have hitherto with few exceptions voted for Repub lican candidates, his candidacy is to be rated as an anti-Rcpublican move ment. The Democrats are now figur ing on the possibility of a sufficient Republican loss in that area to bring tt'h Ccolidge electoral vote down to the point where the loss of New York, In diana. possibly New Jersey and Con necticut directly to the Democratic column may give a Davis majority in the electoral college. For the Demo crats there is small solace in the pros pect of a deadlock of electoral votes. Their only hope in that event would be the election of their vice presiden tial candidate by the Senate, which could be effected only by the aid of votes of the La Follette bloc. Thus the campaign will center in those eastern and middle western states where there Is in normal cir cumstances a possibility of Democratic success, and those northwestern states whore there is a possibility of La Fol lette success. This is on the assump tion that the south will remain solidly Democratic, which some observers re gard as not altogther certain in view of the new issues that have arisen. From Ballots to Bathers. It is related that nobody was more delighted with the conclusion of the Democratic convention in New York than Tex Rickard, leasee of Madison Square Garden. Tex is not a politician, but a sporting promoter. Nominations as such mean little to him. but posses sion of Madison Square Garden meant much. He is the lessee of the great amusement hall, and he had sublet it to the New York committee for the purpose of the great meeting, expect ing that the session would last per haps a week, maybe ten days. He had plans all ready for the transformation of the Garden into a great swimming pool, probably its last use on a large scale before Its destruction to make room for an immense office building. When the convention ran along over the first week and the second week and into the third week Rickard was distraught. He was losing, report says, about $3,500 a day in prospective profits from the swimming pool. So that he was watching the proceedings with an eagle eye. and the gavel of the permanent chairman had hardly fallen for the last time in signal of the final adjdurnment of the convention before Tex was on the job with a gang of workmen, and in a remarkably short space of time the transformation had begun. Already the floor where assembled the shouting multitude of delegates, alternates and partisan onlookers is disappearing. A great void yawns where once trod the demonstrators and the processions. With feverish haste the work is pressed to build a tank where New York may disport it self in cooling waters for the re mainder of the summer. Soon the place will resound with splashes as “bathing beauties” dive into the depths and shouts of merrymakers will be heard In place of the chants of “We want Smith” and “McAdoo ’ll do,” the splut ters of the Inexpert will sound in the corners that once reverberated with the reiterated announcement, “Ala bama casts 24 votes for Oscar W. Un derwood” and the stentorian tones of the spokesman for the Lone Star state in proclaiming that “Texas casts 40 votes for William Gibbs McAdoo.” Thus New York on the scene of the Democracy's great one-ring circus will in the same spot proceed to “keep cool with Coolidge” or perhaps “dive with Davis.” Rock Creek Interceptor Sewer. In preparing estimates of expendi tures for next fiscal year the District Commissioners, according to report, will include the item of $60,000 to com plete the Rock Creek interceptor sewer. Completion of that great sewer means the building of it from its pres ent north end to the District-Maryland line. The building of this trunk sewer has lagged over a period of years, and the current District appropriation bill sets aside $60,000 for continuing work on it. Approval of that sum by the budget bureau and by Congress was not secured without apprehension by District authorities, because for sev eral years appropriations for sewer construction were far below the needs and sewer construction in new-built sections of the city was considered of more importance than the northward extension of the Rock Creek inter ceptor. Extension of this sewer to the District line has for one of its aims the saving of Rock Creek from pollu tion by sewage of Maryland villages. With completion of the interceptor the sewer systems of Montgomery County will be connected with it by special arrangement. Taking care of sewage in the upper valley of Rock Creek and the vales of tributary creeks that this sewage shall not pass into Rock Creeks fits the plan of the commission authorized by Con gress "to provide for systematic and continuous development of the park and playground system of Washing ton.” That commission is “to preserve forest and natural scenery in and ad jacent to the District and conserve the stream flow of Rock Creek and other creeks and prevent pollution of the Potomac, the Anacostia and tributary creeks near the Capital.” In addition to complimenting vari ous favorite sons, the Democracy honored W. J. Bryan by putting a favorite brother conspicuously in evi dence. Deadly Things. Much commendation has been given the comparatively safe and sane ob servance of Independence day. The list of children and adults killed or maimed was shorter than in other years. Before common sense came into play In the celebration of the nation's birthday newspaper columns were filled with news of death and fire. But in these July days following close upon the Fourth newspapers ore recording a number of accidents due to firework* and other explosives. There was the cage, of poisoning of a little child in Washington by eating the contents of THE EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON, D. 0.. FRIDAY, JULY 11, 1924. one of the "harmless” species of fire works. It was said that the compound contained mercury. It was also said that some “harmless” fireworks are labeled "Poison.” T|jere is no way to keep all little children from putting things in the mouth, and to give chil dren playthings which are labeled "Poison” or playthings containing poison and which are not marked with skull and crossbones is indiscreet, to put It gently. A recent dispatch from New York tells that one boy was In stantly killed and another suffered such injury that he died on the way to a hospital when a giant firecracker which they had found in a shed, and with which they were playing, ex ploded. One of the boys was nine and the other eight years old. It ought to be conceded that a giant firecracker is not a safe plaything. Os course, chil dren are killed by playing with pistols and shotguns, and perhaps many chil dren are yet to be killed by giant fire crackers. There ought to be a tighten ing of regulations of the sale of such things. There are many persons who will hold that the manufacture of such things should be prohibited. All per sons having any degree of intelligence should exert themselves to keep dead ly contrivances out of the hands of children. Air Mail Saving and Safety. Here is a practical illustration of the value of fast mails carried through the air: At a meeting of the Illinois Bankers' Association Col. Henderson, assistant p istmaster gen eral, stated that the saving of time by air mail service would yield an annual saving of $809,589 in interest charges on transactions between the New York Federal Reserve Bank and eleven other federal reserve banks or branches. Air-borne mail is, of course, quicker than train-carried mail. If this mail contains currency or securi ties time is saved and interest, con sequently, is saved as well. But, it may be suggested, this is not as safe a method of transport as by rail. Yet Col. Henderson states that the ratio of mail destroyed to that safely trans ported has been only 120 pounds to 360,000 pounds, which is a much better record than that of any other form of mail transportation. Recently a large scale mail train robbery was accomplished near Chi-, cago and valuables worth more than $2,000,000 were taken. The train was held up by the use of false signals and the guards were overpowered by armed men, the mail clerks being rendered helpless by gas bombs. It Is hard to conceive such a crime being committed in the case of an air mail transport, unless the mail robbers used higher powered, armed planes to effect the disablement of the mail carriers. But even such enterprise would be highly hazardous and doubt ful of success. The only way to cap ture a mail plane would be to cause it to crash, and there would be scant chance of a bandit plane finding a landing place close enough at hand to reach the scene of the wreck ahead of rescuers and defenders. This question of the greater speed and greater safety of air mall In volves many considerations, some pos sibly fantastic. In view of the deter mined efforts by criminals to loot the mails this matter of security of air borne postal matter is of moment. Apparently all Senator Walsh is asking for the present from an admir ing public is the privilege of a brief much-needed rest. It is seldom that so courageous an umpire remains so popular. The plan for a referendum on the league of nations may be assisted con siderably by a study of the files of Mr. Bok under the label "Peace Prize.” Mention for a vice presidential can didacy may now be used as a compli ment to fair daughters as well as to favorite sons. To other admirable qualities Gov. A1 Smith joins that of being a wonder ful booster for his home town. Should C. W. Bryan ever hesitate in his oratory he will have a splendid prompter at his elbow. SHOOTING STARS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Grand Finale. Among a nation’s famous men Os qualities commanding, A little mlx-up now and then Brings better understanding. At last the music of the bands Discordant words will smother, With everybody shaking hands And cheering one another. Self-Interest. “Would you advise me to go into politics?” “Yes,” answered Senator Sorghum. "Every man and woman ought to be in politics. Only we need more people who will study how they ought to vote instead of how they can get voted for.” Popular Disfavor. We once discussed Augustus Tate In terms of discontent. He could not be our candidate. He never earned a cent. So Gus turned in and worked his way. His bank account grew fat. Again we shook him. Folks might say He was a plutocrat. Jud Tunkins says although a party platform keeps men awake at night while It is being written, nobody loses sleep over It afterward. Inevitable Objection, Oh. for a man whose praise we’ll sound Unanimous and hearty! From history, with grief profound. We learn there’s no such party. Achievement. “He says he Is.confident of a bril liant and successful future,” remarked the helrees. “He’s quite right about it,” answered Miss Cayenne, “provided he succeeds in marrying you.” 'Tollin' a friend ’bout where he’s wrong,” said Uncle Eben, “ain’t near as liable to make him lose his faults os It is to make you lose a friend,” Answers to Questions BY FREDKIUC J. IIA SKI* Q. What do the letters "W. U I. C.” on a tablet over the door of the build ing back of Poll’s on 15th street rep resent?’’—W. P. I*. A. The building is Poll’s Theater, although the entrance is now on Pennsylvania avenue. The Initials signify “Washington Light Infantry Corps," a battalion of infantry then known as an “independent" organ ization. It erected the building now known as Poll’s Theater and occu pied the basement as an armory and rented out the upper floors. Col. Wil liam G. Moore was In command and he later became superintendent of police of this city. This military or ganization became affiliated with the National Guard of the District of Columbia on the organisation of the National Guard by act of Congress in 1889. Q. Is it possible to grow tea in any part of the United States? —-O. I. G. A. The Department of Agriculture established a small tea-growing plan tation near Summerville, S. C., In 1880, and experiments have also been made in Texas. While it was found possible to grow good teas and cure them satisfactorily it was apparently Impossible to produce them in compe tition with the teas of China and Japa.i, cured by cheap oriental labor. Q. Is the American Museum of Natural History located in Washing ton?—W. 1. H. A. It is a New York institution, founded in ISS9, and located at 77th street and Central Park west. New York City. Q. AVhat was the dale of the King ston earthquake?—W. W. T. A. January 14. 1907. Q. I saw in the paper that one of the delegates to the Democratic national convention voted for the presidential nomination of a reporter who Is only twenty-five years old. He couldn't have been nominated and elected, could he? —I. H. C. A. There is nothing in the federal Constitution fixing the qualifications of candidates for the presidency. A man of any age might be nominated, if his party decided to nominate him. and he might be elected, if he secured the requisite number of votes, but no one can qualify and be inauguarated President unless he be a natural born citizen of the United States at least thirty-five years of age. Q What is the- difference between evidence and testimony?—D. B. E. A. In general, testimony is the evidence given orally by a witness in a legal proceeding. Evidence, how ever, may be documentary and ob jective as well as oral. Q. Does strong electric current make copper wire porous or rotten? —E. B. K. A. The bureau of standards says that copper wire does not become porous or rotten as a result of use to carry high voltage electric current. If used .in overhead construction it may become fatigued as a result of repeated wear by the wind and other weather conditions. Q. Will teak wood float?—W. T. F. A. Green teak will not float, but if seasoned evenly and completely the logs will float easily. Q. When did the prohibition movement start in this country?— L A. D. A. Legislation against liquor In America daks from 1642, when the colony of Maryland passed a law making drunkenness a misdemeanor. The first local option law was passed by Indiana 4a 1832. Q. Just what makes a house a tenement? —B. K. T. A. The legal definition varies in different cities. In some cities a tenement is a house for two or more families; some the line is drawn at three families. There is no legal dis tinction between a tenement and an apartment. Q. What is meant by "being put in counter?”—A. A. A. This is probably an allusion to the Counter, an ancient name given two prisons under the rules of sheriffs of London, England. One of them was in Wood and one in Poultry street. The name was the object of'frequent jokes and puns in the plays of the seventeenth centurV dramatist. Q. What is meant by the "loop dis trict" in Chicago?—C. R. W. A. This is the portion of the busi ness district of Chicago that is within a loop made by the elevated railway. Q. Where do we get the expression "cold shoulder?” —J. G. R. A. In medieval days in France it was customary to serve hot roasts when entertaining guests. If the guests outstayed their welcome, a "cold shoulder" was served Instead of hot meat. Q. What was the trade of the Apostle Paul? —A. A. A. Paul (Saul of Tarsus) was not one of the twelve apostles. His trade was that of a tent-maker. Q. Where is the largest bull ring in the world? —M. S. A. The one at Lima, Peru, is said to be the largest in the world. Q. What do the initials R. N. A. S. stand for?—M. C. V. A. These initials mean royal naval air service, which is the aeronautic service of the British navy. Q. How many people suffer from flat feet or fallen arches?—A. L H. A. The only compilation that would give light on the subject is that made upon examination of men when en listing in the world war. The War Department says that 10.94 per cent of th“ mer. examined for the Army suffered from fallen arches or flat feet. In addition .63 per cent suffered from pronated feet, a trouble similar to flat feet. The combination is a to tal of 11.57 per cent. Q. Are the gray moths that gather outdoors at night the ones which eat clothing?—L H. W. A. The biological survey says that the gray moths that are seen out-of doors at night are not clothes moths. Q. What voltage is used for street cars? —C. G. R- A. The voltage used in street cars is 500. Q. Which is the largest city in Africa? —S. H. A. Cairo, Egypt, is the largest city in Africa. It ranks as the largest seaport of the continent. Q. What is meant by the "duty of water?” —H. V. V. A. This is the ratio between a spe cific quantity of water used in irri gation and the area of the crop to which it is applied. Q. What are "lay brothers”?—H. H. P., A. This name is applied to a class of monks, not in hoiy orders, but bound by monastic rule and employed as servants in monasteries. (If you have a question you want an swered send it to The Star Information Bureau, Frederic J. Has kin. Director, Hat and C streets northteest. The only charge for this service is 2 cents in stamps for return postage.) At one stage of the balloting it looked as if they might begin vot ing for Andy Oump.—Des Moines Tribune. . , We wonder how many of the York delegates were sufficiently fore* handed to buy return tickets.— Portland Express. Women used to change their mints and now they change their votes.— Albany News. The country needs more good his torical novels and fewer hysterical onea—St. Joseph News-Press* IN TODAY’S SPOTLIGHT BY PAUL V. COLLINS There appears to bs more or less mystery In the attitude of Prime Min ister MacDonald of Great Britain re garding the Dawes plan for the col lection of reparations from Germany. Three weeks ago Ihremler Herrlot of Prance went to England, where he spent a day at Chequers, In confer ence with the prime minister. Then M. Herrlot visited Brussels, where he discussed with the Belgian govern ment the obstacles raised by England. Last Monday Mr. MacDonald went to Paris, where he was coldly received by the populace, although the officials maintained an air of cordiality. When he alighted from the train he was not greeted with cheers, .hut hailed with cries: "Vive la paix!” as If In answer to something England was doing which would jeopardize peace. A formal conference Is booked to be held In Icndnn July 16 between Eng land, France, Belgium and Italy— “and possibly the United States’’—at W'hlch, It Is hoped, all differences will be Ironed out. ready for th e Imme diate application of the Dawes plan. It la not believed In Washington that this country will participate In any conference, since the American policy has been declared from the be ginning, to keep out of all such en tanglements. The Dawes commission was chosen for the study of the situa tion because of our neutral relations to the whole subject of reparations. ** * * The Dawes plan has been unquali fiedly accepted by all the countries concerned including Germany which. In itself is conceded to be the most remarkable triumph of states manship in this generation. Then why must there be so many confer ences before It is put into operation? A very prominent Frenchman in Washington explains the situation: “Mr, MacDonald simply blundered, and is now trying to correct his blunder. It he cannot get along with the so cialistic government now In power In France, what sort of a government could he agree with?” ♦* ♦ ♦ In a speech in the House of Com mons, following the Chequers con ference. Prime Minister MacDonald undertook to explain that his con ferences with Premier Herrlot “must not be taken to mean that the Inten tion was to make any exclusive ar rangement between any two powers and that the discussions would be re ported to the prime ministers of Italy and Belgium, to whom they were anxious that no decisions should be reported as having already been taken.” In answer to Lloyd George, Mr. MacDonald said that "certain obli gations imposed on Germany by the experts’ report (the Dawes commis sion’s) were somewhat outside the obligations imposed on her by the treaty of Versailles, and the ques tion remained for consultation with Belgium and Italy, in pursuance of the consultation which had taken place this week end (between Eng land and France) as to how best to bring Germany in. to make her a willing partner in sharing those obligations. The business at the interallied conference would be the Dawes report. As soon as that re port was put Into operation they would go on to discuss and. he hoped, to arrange, the other outstanding matters between France and Eng land, including interallied debts. He hoped the house would be very clear about this, as he could assure it he was perfectly clear himself—there was going to be no mixing up or Interallied debt questions with the putting into operation of the Dawes report.” ** * * There is reported to be absolute agreement between France and Bel gium, for “the one definite con clusion was reached that there must Sending Oil Cases to Courts * Pleases Editors of Nation Indictments returned by the federal grand jury against Fall. Sinclair and the two Dohenys, transferring the naval oil lease scajidal from the po litical to the judicial field, meet the approval of the American people If editorial comments reflect the public sentiment. Because of the political cast given to these cases probably more than the usual interest attaches to the court action. Editors generally express the hope that justice will be secured and that the rights of the people will be protected. "To a public which could not fall to believe that where there was so much smoke there must be some fire," the Newark News (Independent) declares, ‘‘the indictments come as a welcome assurance that government is func tioning even when those affected are in high station.” Two valuable re sults, the Milwaukee Journal' (inde pendent) claims, ‘‘are already attain ed.” because “the country knows now that the investigations were amply justified.” and it gives “a fresh re minder that the cost of good govern ment is eternal vigilance.” The chief result to be hoped for, the Detroit News (independent) argues, ‘‘is that at last the complete facts shall come to light, separated from buncombe end partisan emotion, sifted by a court of law and delivered to the people in an orderly manner.” The Indict ments, the Omaha World-Herald (in dependent) is confident "are the suf ficient justification of the Senate In vestigations that were opposed by the administration and sneered at in the Cleveland convention.” * *♦ I* ♦ The Lansing State Journal (independ ent) regrets that the trial is to be post poned until October, because “this means the oil scandal will continue to be a political issue,” therefore “it should be decided prior to the national balloting, so that the campaign may be waged upon the constructive and important is sues of the present and future.” No matter when the trials come there is one thing sure to the Springfield Hepub lican (Independent), that is “Messrs. Doheny and Sinclair will contribute nothing this year to the funds of either party,” for “acceptance of either man's money by a political party would spell suicide.” Since the Indictments have been returned, the Reading Tribune (in dependent) holds, the political connec. tion should be ignored, and “the case henceforth should be considered the same as any other criminal case.” “The Indictments of these men are welcome because they are necessary If any standards of honesty in public life and equal Justice are to be preserved in this country,” in the opinion of the Hart ford Times (independent Democratic), which insists "they will not, even if they result in convictions, absolve the Repub lican party from the necessity of ex plaining its complicity Jn the oil scan dals.” The indictments, the Brooklyn Eagle (Independent Democratic) is con vinced, “should end. once for all. the charge that the oil investigation is a political plot engineered by the wicked Democrats to injure the Republicans in the forthcoming campaign,” and ‘‘the pressing of these cases by the Coolidge administration also disposes of the charge that Mr. Coolidge is inclined to shield those who may be guilty of wrongdoing,” furthermore the Indict ments “are a great personal triumph for Senator Walsh.” ♦♦ ♦ ♦ The average citieen, continues the Charleston Post (independent Demo cratic), ‘‘will read In the Indictments of Fall, Doheny and Sinclair for con- be the least possible delay in putting the Dawes report into effect." Whether the correspondents can verity with official authority their statement that a full agreement has been arrived at between France, Bel gium and England regarding their collaboration and mutual enforce ment of the penalties provided in the Dawes plan, in case Germany de faults. cannot be positively proved, but, optimistically, they declare from Paris that "should Germany fall to carry out her obligations under the experts’ plan. Prance and Belgium would find Great Britain at their side, as she was during the war.” Belgium states frankly that “In her view the Ruhr can only be evac uated when Germany, loyally carry ing out the plan of the experts, has substituted for the present pledges the alternative pledges mentioned in the Dawes report—that is to say, the railways, the factories, etc.” ** * * It will be recalled that the Dawes plan is fqr the railroads of Germany, which arc now owned by the govern ment and are valued at 26.000,000,000 gold marks, to be turned over to a private corporation, which is to Is sue 11,000,000,000 marks of gold bonds to the reparations account. The rail road corporation is to be controlled by non-German directors. Also the government is to allot to all indus tries the burden of 5,000,000,000 gold marks total, to be issued in bonds, which also will go to the allies. Other provisions supplement these for binding ail interests In Germany to an ultimate settlement of the ob ligations of the Versailles treaty. Just what Mr. MacDonald means in saying that "the Dawes plan im poses additional obligations outside of the Versailles treaty upon Ger many" has never been explained. Germany has not voiced any such a claim. ♦♦ * ♦ Prance has accepted the Dawes plan without any reservations or amendments. In France there appears upon the question of German repara tions and defense an era akin to what was known in America In Mon roe’s time as “an era of good feeling.” AH parties unite upon the one policy of making France safe and of en forcing the Versailles treaty. Before Premier Herrlot isune into power he promised evacuation of the Ruhr, but since he took the responsibility he has announced a change of policy and that the Ruhr will never be evac uated until Germany substitutes oth er guaranties equally safe. In the Chamber of Deputies recently reso lutions sustaining the government were passed, in part as follows: "France expressly repudiates any thought of annexation or of conquest. What she desires is security in dig nity and independence. What she de sires is peace, for herself first, and for the other people also. “It is necessary to speak without ambiguity. Our democratic govern ment will defend the rights of our country as inscribed in the treaties. We have the right to reparations. We want them in the name of jus tice. The new international order which' we hope for could not be founded on injustice. • ’ • • We are opposed to the policy of isolation and force which leads to occupations and the taking of territorial pledges. In face of the present state of Ger many. and in view of the necessity of forearming, not only France, but all peoples, against an aggressive re turn of national pan-Germanism, we do not consider it possible to evac uate the Ruhr beforq the pledges con templated by the experts, whose re port we accept without arriere pen see (mental reservation) have been constituted, with just and effective guarantees of execution, and handed over to the international organiza tions designed to work them.” It will be remembered that in 1871, when Germany occupied Prance, she withdrew from each section only as fast as she collected specified in stallments upon the French in demnity. (Copyright. 1924. by P*ul V. Collins.) spiracy to defraud the government confirmation and illumination of Sen ator Walsh’s ‘prosecution 1 of the Re publican party.” * There should be from now on, according to the New York World (independent Democratic), “less foolish partisan depreciation in any quarter In Washington or in the Republican press of the Walsh com mittee and the service it rendered the country - by its tireless investiga tion Into the truth about the oil leases.” for, "it was diligent and effective in the performance of its duties when Daugherty's department was worse than negligent.” At any rate, the Little Rock Arkansas Dem ocrat (Democratic), suggests “the government fired its first big gun; let us see whether it develops into a great broadside against this gang of oil men, who, aided and abetted by a spineless cabinet member, dragged the name of democracy in the dirt, or whether it is but the puny pop of a cap pistol.” “The indictment by a federal grand jury,” the Oakland Tribune (inde pendent Republican), is a sure means that “a legal investigation of the manner in which oil leases were mede is to be undertaken with that thoroughness promised by President Coolidge." As the Seattle Times (Independent Republican) sees is: “Now that criminal and civil pro ceedings are under way, the Amer ican people will not be affected by the clamor of self-seeking politicians. Only in the courts of competent juris diction can these questions be settled and there will be no disposition to prejudice the cases. The tendency of the American nation will be to rely on the statement of President Cool idge that the prosecutions will be both speedy and just.” While the oil Investigation “had a pronounced par tisan bias and centered public atten tion too largely on the inquiry’s mud-slinging by-product," the New York Herald Tribune (Republican) points out “now the plain facts will be developed in a judicial atmos phere.” The Pittsburgh Gazette Times (Republican) considers “it is well that there has been deliberation in bringing the cases to the notice of the grand jury,” because “it re moves the possible charge of snap judgment promoted by public clamor; time has been given the counsel also to gather the evidence on which the prosecution will be based, and we may await the trial with assurance that Justice will have way.” In view of the action taken by the adminis tration. the Buffalo News (Republi can) concludes “the citation on this case in the Democratic platform now means nothing.” In a Few Words. 1 The chief cause of nearsightedness is not near work, as is generally supposed, but mental strain. If all lessons could be made interesting and teachers and parents were paragons of love and patience, then myopia would be wiped out of the world’s defects. —DR. CLEMENT JEFFERY. It is admitted that the Steinach alleged rejuvenations do not prolong life. It is longevity that interests me and not the ghastly prospect of see ing all the moribund people bustling about and pretending to be gay young dogs. —GEORGE BERNARD SHAW. The Germans are a people bom to follow an aristocratic leader. Restora tion of the monarchy is the only way to solve Germany’s problems. —BARON FRBTTAQ LORRING venhol THIS AND THAT BY C. K. TRACKWKLL. "Man, proud man, Drest In a Httle brief authority. Most ignorant of what he’s roost assur'd. His glassy essence, like an angry ape, Pla>« such fastastic tricks before high heaven As make the angels weep." So Shakespeare. He did not have In mind some of the members of the Washington police force when he wrote It, of course, but It applies somewhat to some of them. It ap plies to all of us, from time to time, as far as that goes. Truly, we are all human. Recent events have called to at tention the fact that a few members of the local police use rather high handed methods in dealing with the public. Now this is no new thing. It has been going on for a long time, and will go on until somebody In au thority in the police department sees fit to stop it. No one is expecting the cops to turn into teachers of etiquette. Policing a great city is not a parlor Job. It is a business that requires rough and ready men, men of stamina, men who are willing to plunge into a dark hole after a vicious fellow who may be lurking there with a gun. That the police of Washington, in general, are such men is something of which the whole city is proud. In innumerable instances they have put their heads down and gone into the jaws of danger in the dark night, when there was nobody around to see and afterward praise. They knew their duty, and did it. That’s the essence of a man, nor is it "glassy," with all due respect to the great bard. It takes a two-fisted bird to handle a criminal. *♦ * * This being granted, there yet re mains the fact that policemen have to do daily with the general public as well as the crooks. For every low-brow with a mental twist that makes him try to get a living out of the world in what he thinks is an easy manner the police men meet daily hundreds and thou sands of men and women who are honest, upright, “square shooters” in every sense of the term. The government service is full of them, the streets are filled with them, automobiles carry thousands and thousands of them. Everywhere you go you meet honest people. So does the policeman. Now the sad part of it all, from the officer’s standpoint, is that he is un able to tell an honest man from a crook. No. you can’t do it by looking at a man. Maybe a 110,000 a year psy chologist might, but a cop is not get ting SIO,OOO a year salary. Old Socrates once admitted that his face bore the marks of all sensuality and crime, but that Tie had something in his head—his brain —that over balanced his appearance. ** * * So, not being a psychologist, nor yet a mind reader, the policeman owes something, certainly, to the thousands of decent and respectable men and women he meets each day. He owes them courtesy, respect and normal civility. There isn’t a cop in Washington, reading this, who will not agree to every word of It. Yet the next time he gets "out among them” here is the way he is likely to act. ♦* ♦ * Mrs. Jones owns a fine home on the corner. She has thousands of rose bushes and plants of all descriptions. Along one side of her grounds she has a hedge. Coming along the other day, she noticed a couple of boys drinking out of a bottle. They were leaning back into the hedge, crushing its branches. Alongside stood an officer, laugh ing with the youths. “Officer, will you please make those' boys get off the hedger’ asked the woman. "1 suppose you own this house?” he retorted. "It just happens that I do,” she replied. "I guess you own this bottle of hootch, then?” inquired the officer. "These boys found it under your hedge.” ♦* * * The above incident, which hap pened in northwest Washington re cently, reminds one of the flippant conversation attributed to a Judge in the west. He fined a young man for some offense and the fellow reached into his pocket. "I have that in my jeans,” he said, proudly. "And two years in ‘prison.” re torted the judge, nettled. "Have you got that in your jeans?” Such incidents must make the blood of the angels boil, as it does that of every decent man and woman who is bent on doing the right thing and ex pects to gel similar treatment from others. There Is probably no man used to going around the city who has not, at some time or other, ran into police incivility. During the funeral of the late President Harding officers in the vi cinity of the Capitol were unneces sarily rough toward women in the crowds. Newspaper men carrying police badges six inches across were un ceremoniously swept off the streets by policemen w’ho thus would not honor the signature of their own chief. I saw a police captain run and shove colored men and women like a mad creature, when he could have accomplished much more by putting them back more quietly. ♦* * * These things are instanced to call attention to something that can be corrected as easily as It can be al lowed to run on unchecked. "Authority intoxicates And makes mere sots of magistrates; The fumes of it invade the brain And make men giddy, proud and vain." The poet, with poetic stretching of the ease, has made that a bit strong. Certainly authority has not made our magistrates aught but eminently fine men, and a billy and a badge has not made all our policemen giddy, proud or vain. Those it has made a bit up stage” should be brought down speedily. World’s Strongest Boy. An extraordinary display of strength was shown recently by a London boy. He crushed a firm, rosy-cheeked apple to pulp between his fingers, drove a nail at one blow from his hand through two thick planks, broke a chain with his teeth, made a horseshoe out of an iron bar fourteen inches long and, lastly, allowed five men, two trolleys and an anvil, a quarter of a ton In weight, to pass over boards supported solely by his chest. Slight In build, he looks ranch younger than his years. He attributes his great strength to his chest development. As a boy he was puny, and after his father died of consumption his mother urged him to do chest exercises, which he did with simple homemade apparatus, consisting of a single elastic strand with a metal ring at either end. But his chest muscles alone do not make him keep his title of the "World’s Strongest Boy,” as he showed when he lifted an ounce weight with his ear. Standing with feet apart he hardened his muscles and the ring at the end of the clip, which had pulled the top of his ear downward as he stood easy, gradually rose until the ear was upright. He repeated the feat several times, each time bis body relaxed the ring fell agaig. SAO PAULO GROWS COFFEE EWORLD State Where Revolt Is in Progress Is Richest in Brazil. Sao Paulo, Brasil, scene of the rebel uprising, is the source of the morning aroma from millions of steaming coffee cups all over the world, a bulletin from the Washing ton headquarters of the National Geographic Society says. "Sao Paulo, the city, is the pros perous and beautiful capital of the richest of Brazil’s twenty states. The city has half a million people. The state of Sao Paulo is larger than all New England and Pennsylvania com bined. It comprises only one-thirty, second part of Brazil’s vast area, but contains one-eighth of the country’s population. Enormous Coffee Bill. ‘To the visitor it seems as if the state had two major products, coffee and—statistics! Its aggregate acre age of coffee trees exceeds the com bined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. There are more than seven coffee trees in the state for every man, woman and child in the United States. At 30 cents a pound, the world pays Sao Paulo about $340,- 000,000 annually for her 1,135,000.000 pounds of coffee produced. As a spe cialized wholesale grocery, her cof fee business is only to be compared with Cuba’s sugar crop. "Geography, religion and romance are strangely blended in Sao Paulo's coffee. Solomon, for all his wisdom, overlooked a potential source of great wealth, for coffee is generally believed to have originated in Abys sinia, where Solomon’s descendants reign to this day. It was not intro duced into Brazil until 1723. "A Portuguese sailor was the Capt. John Smith of Sao Paulo. He mar ried the South American Pocahontas, daughter of the chieftain. Tibirica. That was about 3600. Then came Jesuit missionaries, who are accred ited founders of the state, and when they celebrated their first mass on the anniversary of the conversion of St. Paul, they named the country for that apostle. Corn and Potato Movt VoitK. "Curiously enough, coffee rules in Brazil, while two indigenous South American crops, corn and the ‘lrish’ potato, are mainstays in North Amer ica. "Sao Paulo, the city, is purposefully modern, so much so that some of the social and engineering projects were put into effect there while they were still ’paper programs’ in North America. **Kor years now. when a new school houFe is built in Sao Paulo, the school physicians have passed upon the lighting, the kinds of seats to be used and other hygienic details. Indeed, they must even approve the type and its spacing in text books before they are adopted! "An unusual sight of the city is the snake farm. The snake bouses* look ing like beehives, cover a large tract. The snakes are the sources of serum used to treat sufferers from the bites of rattle snakes, the deadly jaracas and other venomous reptiles. Famous ‘•Coffee Railroad.” "The railroad from Sao Paulo to Santos, the worlds foremost coffee port, is famous among engineers the world over. There is a drop of 2,600 feet in seven miles over one section. Steel cables, stationary engines and especially equipped locomotives are required for the thirty-five-mile run between the two cities. There are thirteen tunnels, but the trains emerge from each to disclose some surprising new panorama of wooded mountain, valiey of banana or coffee trees, torrential stream or gorge of dizzy depth. "The road is said to be one of the best paying in the world. Since the dividends are limited by law, Its earnings have gone into sumptuous stations, fine rolling stock and per fected equipment, until one visitor remarked that all remaining to be done was the gilding of the tops of the telegraph poles. "The steep railroad climb from Santos to Sao Paulo gives a hint to the peculiar geography of the state. For nearly 400 miles along its coast is a low belt, narrow in the north and widening to about eighty miles in the south. Here the weather Is hot and moist and the crops are ba nanas, cocoanuts, vanilla beans and cacao. This lowland is marked by a line of hills, back of which is an undulating plateau, cooler and dryer, where the coffee finds ideal growing conditions. Notable for Architecture. "Sao Paulo is notable for its varied architecture, ranging from chalet types, Moorish palaces and buildings of the French renaissance period to modern office structures. Its outly ing streets are as plenteously planted with trees and as well interspersed with flower-planted parks as Wash ington. "The port of Santos Is given over principally to shipping, but lacks the squalor of many older ports. It has a beautiful beach, where the sand is packed so hard that automobiles may drive to the water's edge. "The city has a remarkable theater, with a telescopic roof. By means of an electric mechanism this roof may be removed In ten minutes and the building converted into an open-air auditorium. The orchestra chairs are removable, so that shortly after the curtain falls a ballroom is avail able for dancing.” Little Wounds Hold Greatest Menace To the Editor of The Star: It is now generally known that a blister can become a serious injury. It is unfortunate that a life must be taken to teach the mass of humanity the importance of taking the same care of a scratch or blister that would be given to the wound made by an ax. The ax wound looks serious and is treated as such, consequently the danger is removed. The little scratch or blister is passed off by the usual expression, "My skin heals quickly.” The skin that is scrubbed with a sterile brush, hot running water and soap for ten minutes is not surgically clean. That being true, how much more dangerous to life would be the foot covered with an unclean stock ing, soiled by perspiration and bac teria-laden dust that gets into the shoe? The salve box of the home may be the source of infection as every member of the home sticks their fin gers into it. The plaster usually used seals the unclean wound. In either case both retard nature's effort to close the wound. "The simplest method to do its part is as follows: At once apply tincture of iodine; do not be afraid to let the wound bleed as it may carry out of the wound foreign material that has been forced Into it. Clean with anti septic solution and then use antisep tic powder such as aristol or boraolc acid, cover with sterile gauze. No home should be without tincture of iodine. Use it immediately on wounds and send for the doctor if serious in jury has been done. B. a BICB. ML D. .