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THE EVENING STAR With Sunday Morning; Kdltion. ; WASHINGTON. D. C. SATURDAY July 19, 1924 THEODORE W. NOYES Editor llir Evening Star Newspaper Company i;u»inos* Office. lllh St. nml !Vi,n»Tlv»ni» Are. New York Gflice: 110 Kust 42nd i?t. Chfriiu'o OfHc«*: Towei fltillilrijK. European Office: 1(1 Resent St..Londo.*, England. Ate Evenlcs Star, with the Sunday morning edition, in delivered l»y carrier* wltlifn the city at HO cent* per month: dally only. 41* • ent* j*er month: Sunday only. !!0 cent* pet month. Order* may be Her.t by mail or tele i'Uone Main ruiOO. Collection la umde by car tiers at the end of each month. Ua(e by Mail—Payable In Advance. Maryland and Virginia. 1 '.lily and Sunday..l yr., SS.4O ; 1 mo., 70c Dally only 1 yr., $6.00 : 1 mo.. 30c tlunday only 1 yr.. $2.40 ; 1 mo.. 20c AH Ollier Slate*. Daily and Sunday.l yr., SIO.OO ; 1 mo., 83c Daily only I yr., J 7.00 : 1 mo.. 60c Sunday only ... .1 yr., $3.00 ; 1 mo., 25c Member of she A.ssoriated Press, The Associated Press !s exolimiT* ly entitled I to the use for repudiation of all newa dla- | Pitches credited to It or not otherwise credited •n this pa:»er and also the local newa pcl>- I limbed herein. All rights of publication of 1 a.K-rial dispatches herein are also reserved. | Eadio in the Campaign. Di»?uasion of the radio as a cam paign factor, begun before the nom inating conventions had been held, is now active as the time approaches for putting into effect plans for bn ad * asting speeches fcom the spellbinders and the candidates. The radio execu tives and operatives are beginning to see the difficulties in the way of a complete turning over of the plant to the campaigners. They know the tem perament of the listeners-in, and they doubt whether there will be as much patience on the part of the folks with i the ear phones clumped over their j heads and those sitting in front of loud speakers as there was during the protracted affair at Madison Square Garden. They fear that people will tire of the long speeches that are to be expected from the orators and will simply turn off the tubes. It is evident that the radio can be tised for this purpose only to a limited extent. It must, of course, be non partisan. in that It must be free for the use of all parties. Otherwise the radio broadcasting agencies will be ac cused of interference in the campaign. It would be a serious blunder for the promoters of the new art to become Identified with either of the major parties or their little brother of dis sent. How is the time to be divided? How are the lines to be drawn between Re publican and Democratic and La Fol- Jette talkers? It is admittedly a tax ing problem. How is the expense to be computed and borne? The radio service does not alone carry the voice over great distances. In the majority of cases the phone wires are required as trunks to convey the vibrations to j distributing centers, called broadcast- j ing stations. To put this system of wires wholly at the disposal of the campaigners will lessen the utility of the service for other purposes. The Madison Square Garden affair held countless listeners-in for days, be cause it was regarded mainly as a sporting event, with an uncertain out come. The fortunes of candidates for the nomination were followed with close attention. But now the cam paign gets Into the field of argument, and everybody knows that political argument is apt to be tiresome. Few speakers can hold their audiences when face to face. Fewer still will be able to hold their hearers when they are invisible, and especially when “static” plays havoc with the hearing. The rally and the mass meeting will not be eliminated. Orators and near orators will continue to hold forth upon the rostrums, and the text or summaries of their speeches will con tinue to reach the public through the press- The radio mpy play a large part in the campaign, but it will not dominate It. Brother Charles in Trouble. Gov. Bryan of Nebraska, "Brother Charles” and Mr. Davis’ running mate on the national ticket, has got himself into somewhat of a jam out In his home State that may react badly for him and his associate can didate. The Democratic State central , committee is to meet next week and choose the nominee for governor to succeed Bryan. There are about twenty candidates in the field, and about as many more are being “men tioned” by friends. Gov. Bryan, with an indiscretion that betrays his un familiarity with the requirements of national politics, has declared that four of the twenty will be acceptable to him. Naturally, ail of the others are indignant, and they and their friends are now accusing him of in terfering in local affairs and saying that they will “get him” In Novem ber. Some of these sixteen offended ones are highly prominent and in fluential. One of those favored by the governor is a brother-in-law and ihe three others are his political ap pointees. Here is his dilemma: If he forces the State committee to name one of his four favorites he will make enemies of all the others—the sixteen avowed candidates and the twenty others who are In a receptive mood, and. on the other hand, if the com mittee refuses to follow his advice he will stand discredited in his own ’ State by his own party organization. Doubts that have been felt from the outset of the wisdom of the means adopted by New York to placate Brother William by the nomination of Brother Charles are growing in the minds of Democratic leaders. Anybody who doubts whether there Is money Jn agriculture can get posi tive information by inquiring from a Chicago grain broker. Traffic Changes. The Commissioners have decided that while Thirteenth street is being widened traffic may move two ways on that and on Twelfth street be tween Massachusetts and Pennsylva nia avenues. The order to this effect will be issued in a few days. Sixth street will be a north way between Louisiana and Massachusetts avenues instead of between Louisiana avenue and K street. Difficulties of travel on Thirteenth street have been increased. by the work in progress, and other j streets are carrying much traffic j which formerly passed down Thir teenth. That street may serve as a two-way passage when widened, and ! between Massachusetts avenue and j Pennsylvania avenue will be the most ; traveled north and south auto route ; east of Sixteenth. Fntil work on j Thirteenth street has been completed 1 no parking will be allowed on it be j tween I and Massachusetts avenue, ■ nor on Twelfth from New York ave nue to Massachusetts avenue between, i 8 and 10 oclock In the morning and j 4 and 6 o’clock in the afternoon. Dur i Ing those periods ears may stop in the I street only to let off or take on pas- I sengers. I Getting down town in the morning \ and getting out of the congested dis trict in the afternoon without having a fender bent or bumping another car is one of the problems in the life of the car owner. Finding a place to park the car or where to leave it while the car owner makes a purchase In a store are also problems. The dif ficulty and hazard of pedestrians also increase. Traffic is moving better since the number of policemen at crossings was increased, and would How still better if pedestrians would cross only at street intersections and move with the traffic. One of the char acteristics of traffic in Washington is that when the crossing policeman says, for an example. "Go” to north and south bound machines pedestri ans pass and continue to pass the crossing east and west. Changes in traffic rules are evi dence that the authorities exert them selves to improve conditions: but no traffic change ought to be made un less it is quite clear that improve ment will follow. A change, especially in the traffic direction of a street, leads to confusion. Automobile driv ers require days or weeks to learn a new regulation. There have been so many “tentative regulations” that most automoblllsts have been per plexed. and there is a saying among them that "We can’t keep up with the changes in regulations.” The Low Rewards of Crime. Chicago furnishes a fresh instance of the low dviidend rate of capital crime. Three bandits, apprised of the fact that a pay roll was due at a cer tain hour at a lime company office, held up the establishment in advance of thr arrival Os the squad escorting the saymaster, and when the latter *n«Teie guards, including a policeman, reached the place they seized the paok of money, killed the policeman and escaped. It was later found that they had secured only an envelop con taining miscellaneous change to the value of SSOO. One life taken for SSOOI The chances are that the men will be caught. Ban dits of tiiis character, who operate without masks, in the daylight, usually are Identified and found and punished. But even if they get clear away and divide their spoils they will have less than $l7O apiece for their risk and for the slaying of a man. Two men accepted a "lift” from Maj. McLeary and killed him for his valuables. Their loot amounted, it is probable, to less* than S2OO worth of jewelry and clothing. That is merely an estimate, but the whole amount taken from the victim could not have been of much greater value. One of them has been caught and has con fessed, and the capture of the other is likely. There can be no defense for their crime, and their conviction and execution are almost certain to follow. The Chicago bandits would have made a good deal more money at honest labor in a little more time than that required for their criminal hazard, which has put them under the shadow of the gallows. The two men who killed Maj. McLeary could have found employment yielding them far more in the course of a few weeks than the loot they took from their victim, who had befriended them on the road. The criminal mind has no sense of proportion. If the man with the mur derous instinct only stopped to reason he would hold his hand from deadly weapon and turn to safe. If not alto gether honest, occupation as paying better in proportion to the risk and labor involved. East of the Mississippi Democrats are expected to cheer for Mr. Davis, west of the Mississippi for Bryan. The groups of cheerers are not expected to interrupt each other, for It has long been the aim of American statesman ship to erase sectional differences. Even the District of Columbia ther mometer has made a demonstration suggesting local pride in keeping cool with Coolidge. A restful sojourn in Europe is ex pected to enable Mr. McAdoo to think up some telling arguments in favor of the Democratic ticket. A Financial “Bapoleon.” Every little while a young "Napoleon of finance” turns up In Wall street or another money center with a “get rich-quick” scheme. Some years ago a chap named Rogers—or it may have been something else, time with its numerous happenings so blurs the memory—did a "turn” In the Street with a two-cent stamp in connection with government issues and cleaned up a considerable fortune. Later came Ponzi of Boston, with his foreign ex change scheme that finally landed him in Jail, where he is today. There have been many other cases, in varying de tail, some fraudulent, some perfectly honest. Apparently cf the latter character is the case of Charles H. Greenhaus of New York, who, a few years ago a newsboy selling papers In the financial district, has learned enough of the game to take a flyer himself. Accord ing to his story, he found that some brokers had been loaded up with oil securities bought at the instance of a Southwestern capitalist who was un able to receive and pay for them. They were afraid to throw them on the market for fear of breaking It, and go they worked out a scheme of gold notes. Young Greenhaus saw a chance to make a clean-up, and, as he now claims, to do a service to the stock holders of the oil company, who have seen the quotations of their stock fall tin a fyrsentha from «A to JUS, So bo THE EVENING STAR, WASHINGTON, IX (J.. BAT GRP AY, JULY 19, 1924. bought some of these notes at a dis count and gut an option on others. Then he circularized the stockholders and offered them the opportunity to exchange their stock for the 7 per cent gold bonds. It Is estimated that if he can unload he will realize a for tune of about $1,250,000 for an actual expenditure of about $2,500. But It is not sure that ho will suc ceed, because an attempt is being made to stop him by an injunction on the ground that he cannot deliver the goods. He has gone into court with, as the news reports say, “fistfuls" of the gold notes, and lias given a per fectly straightforward explanation of the situation. Decision has not yet been rendered. In this case it would seem that no body would stand to lose by the trans action itself. Many people would get valuable securities in place of ques tionable ones, and young Greenhaus would get a large profit out of his in spiration and enterprise. If be suc ceeds in this case he is likely to be come one of the leading financiers, and the hope is that he will keep strictly within the lines of honesty and equity which he now claims bound his present transaction. Men's Clothing, The Department of Agriculture, in one of its many inquiries called "sur veys,” has found that the price of clothes is too high. Presumably the department refers to men’s clothes. Many men will agree with the detri ment, but they admit that conditions are happier than three or four years ago. Then a ready-made suit, which is the only kind most people know anything about, was quoted at a fig ure prohibitive to a married man. and a swell tailor-made suit could only be worn by a man of great wealth, great credit or great nerve. During the high cost of living and higher cost of cloth ing some of the most eminent and modest men wore patches where they had not worn them since days of boy hood. Conditions have so improved that a young unmarried man can now dress superbly and may even keep two suits at the same time. The mar ried man is still having some struggle to make himself attractive, but by careful steaming, pressing, brushing and a little darning he can bravely face the world and does not have to walk backward. We are getting more of those delightful signs in the win dows which tell that a brand-new suit, coat, vest and pants, which sold at $27.98 has been cut to $18.49. And if that rate of reduction is maintained long enough some of us will have a new suit. During the peak period a great deal of men’s mothproof clothing was bought. “Mothproof" is a technical trade term for clothes that a moth would rather die or leave his home than eat. A moth insists on a wool diet. Thus a man’s suit, though made of the highest-priced and most fash ionble sea-island cotton, is safe from moths. The new Tammany chieftain and the Governor Os New York are old friends. Their understanding is se cure. and Mr. Smith knew how far he could go without offense in asserting a claim to certain phases of leader ship. As J. M. Barrie has remarked, an impromptu demonstration should be well rehearsed. The formalities of the La Follette- Wheeler notification are simple, and in most instance dispense with an incidental musical program. These economies are considered essential, even at the risk of alienating the brass-band vote of the country. Organized labor has gone into poli tics, but has yet to discover anybody in national affairs for whom it can vote with the same persistance it has displayed in voting for Sam Gompers as the head of the federation. Having admitted that communism is a failure, Trotsky ought to give con sideration to the question whether a man who advocated it is a safe one to be regarded by the people as a politi cal success. De Valera is now preparing to de liver the speeches he had time to com pose prior to his release. SHOOTING STABS. BT PHILANDER JOHNSON. The Constant Smile. There is a man whose constant smile Suggests that he is free from guile And happy is his earthly lot; Yet it is known that he is not. For, win or lose, in any game. The smile will linger just the same, And very few can understand Just when or how to call his hand. Welcome the smile of simple jest Or even satire's bold unrest: But in that smile no joy we trace That merely marks a poker face. Typifying the Public. “What man do you regard as most closely typifying the great American public?’’ “The chairman of our national con vention,” answered Senator Sorghum. “Audiences have become very exact ing and averse to needless discourse. When I face a gathering I feel as if every person In it were propounding thq mental inquiry, ‘For what purpose does the gentleman rise?’ ” i Jud Tunklns says he’d be willin’ to join more secret societies if he didn’t already have more official positions than he can remember the names of. Radio Confession. I got Pittsburgh and Chicago And Strlngtown on the Pike In ragtime and In largo— But they sounded all alike. No Reciprocity. “We politicians are mighty sym pathetic with you farmers.’’ “Yea,” answered Farmer Corntossel; “but where’s the good? The man who served me papers about my mortgage is one of the fellers I voted to put in office.” “Some men,” said Uncle Eben, “talks like dey was sure of goin’ to heaven when dey ain’ actuary safe Jfcm kespia’ oat o’ The Library Table ; BY THE BOOK LOVER. The idea that being a woman should carry with it the natural gift of home making and of understand ing motherhood, though not as uni versal as It once was, 1« still an ac tive part of public opinion. That this idea is no more reasonable than its correlative that being a man should mean being a money maker Is the contention of Dorothy Can field In her last novel, "The Home- Maker." Evangclige Knapp, a fiery, original, ambitious woman, has for fourteen years cast herself before the grinding wheels of the Juggeranut Tradition that “the mother is the natural home maker.” and lias dragged her children with her; for. with all her efficiency', she does not make a happy home. Her failure has not been because of lack of ef fort. She has nearly killed herself trying. Her house Is spotless, her meals are perfect, her children’s clothes are marvels of home dress making, and yet her daughter Helen is pale and thin and has a cowed look, her husband and her son Henry are victims of distressing nervous dyspepsia, her small Stephen shows a sullen and almost vicious disposi tion. she herself, though robust in every way. lias a persistent nervous eczema—and all are most unhappy. She is sure, though she is too loyal to say so. that the cause of all the trouble is that her husband Lester, fine as he is in character, is a failure. He agrees with her, though he docs not talk about It. He has never earned more than SI,BOO a year. Les ter is a poet tied to a book keeper’s stool atul Evangeline is like “a i strong-flying falcon, in a barnyard.” Lester is not very efficient with his accounts, which he hates, because account keeping interferes with thinking—that is. the kind of think ing he loves. If he murmurs a line or two of poetry- some one In the office glares at him. Evangeline’s job is equally distasteful to her. She loves her children devotedly and passionately, “there is no sacrifice in the world which she would not joyfully make for them except to live with them.” In the midst of this dis-harmony. something happens and everything is changed. In a few months Evangeline finds that she can easily earn $4,000 a year In business and Lester. discovers that he has a rather wonderful gift of understand ing his children. Happiness grows out of catastrophe, but overhanging and threatening the new found hap piness is the bla<-k cloud of tradition —that "the mother is the natural home maker.” "There must be some way of escape.” There is. and Lester finds it. 4= * * * The popular ideal of Florence Night ingale as the lady with the lamp min istering to the wounded soldiers in the Crimean War is not shattered by Lytton Strachey’s sketch of her in his “Eminent Victorians.” but certain elements are added which make her seem less the saint and more the woman, Florence Nightingale was es sentially a modern and not a true Victorian. She ran against all the traditions of her age and family when she gave up country house life, Lon don seasons, continental tours and an advantageous marriage, in order to study nursing. Later at Scutari she showed no appropriate defference toward military officials, nor even to ward Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, British ambassador at Constantinople. Instead, she issued orders, circum vented official etiquette—and got re sults. On one occasion when a gov ernment consignment for the soldiers was at the dock waiting to be un packed and the official purveyor de clared that he could not open it with out a "Board." Miss Nightingale swept the protesting official aside and had the consignment forcibly opened without loss of time. She was sup posed to be in the Crimea as a nurse but she really performed the function of an administrative chief. She in stalled laundries and kitchens, built additional hospital wards, secured supplies from England on her own responsibility and undertook on a large scale the clothing of the soldiers who came pouring Into the hospitals. All of this she accomplished against the continual stupid opposition of of ficials, who attempted to enforce petty hampering regulations in the great emergency with which she was struggling. For example, the pur veyor tried to block her clothing of the soldiers, as according to regula tions. soldiers should bring with them to the hospital an adequate supply of clothing, regardless of the fact that most of the soldiers had lost their kits in the fighting which resulted in their coming to the hospital. After the war. for nearly half a century, she devoted her life—the life of an invalid —to the improvement and de velopment of hospitals and nursing. She a driving force, merciless both to herself and to others. Her old friend. Sidney Herbert, a member of the cabinet during the Crimean War. was afterward secretary of state for war and she took advantage of his influence to attempt a complete reorganization of the army medical department and even of the war office itself. Sidney Herbert broke down under the strain and died. Arthur Clough, the poet, who for years was one of Miss Nightingale’s faithful followers and tireless workers, was also worn out by his labors and died. Strachey says; "If Miss Nightingale had ben less ruthless, Sidney Herbert would not have perished: but then she would not have been Miss Nightin gale.” ♦» » * The John Newbery medal, awarded annually by the American Library Association for the most distinguish ed contribution to American litera ture for children, was awarded this year to Charles Boardman Hawes for “The Dark Frigate.” his latest and last book. As Mr. Ilawea has died since the publication of the prize book, his widow received thb medal at Saratoga Springs in her husband’s name. Some of Uie grown-up admir ers of Mr. Hawes are concerned that he should be classed as a writer for children. His book#, which also in clude “The Mutineers" and "The Great Quest,” appeal to the eternal bov, whose reading tastes are not limited by physical years. The John Newbery medal is named In honor of a London bookseller and publisher of the eighteenth century, who was on; of the first publishers to devote at tention to the publication of children’s books. The purpose of the award is to encourage original and creative work in children’s literature. This is the third year in which the medal has been awarded. In 1922 it was won by Hendrik W. Van Loon for “The Story of Mankind,” and last year Hugh Lofting received it for “The Adventures of Dr. Doolittle.” 51. R. Werner, author of “Barnum,” one of the most successful biograph ies of last year, has been engaged for over a year on a biography of Brigham Young. ♦* * ♦ The veteran editor, S. S. McClure, has recently bought back the maga zine founded by him and that bears his name. Readers who have been sated and disgusted with much of the present day so-called literature that somehow manages to get into print applaud this sentiment found in Mr. McClure’s introductory state ment in again taking the editorship: “Youth’s renewal of civilisation Is what we get in literature. And I’m interested in literature that is build* ing up, not the sort that twists life and makes it a sick and unattractive thing. • • • I know that In thou, sands of American homes • • • there exists today • • • a hunger for the fine and wholesome in sto ries, for the constructive in feature articles —for beauty and knowledge that a magaslne like the one 1 have tin. mlaA can give tfaea." ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC I. HASKIy Q. Are radios on boats grounded? — H. S. , A. Radios on boats are grounded to the metal hull of the ship, to the engine, or sometimes direct to the water. Q. How wide and how steep is the road to Pikes I’eak?—M. A. C. A. Pikes I’eak auto highway runs from Colorado Springs to the summit of Pikes Peak, a distance of 30 miles. The maximum grade is 10H per cent and the road is from 20 to 25 feet wide. Q. What is prlceite and what is It used for?—E. M. I. A. it is a borate of lime from which boric acid is obtained. Q. Who wrote “The Night Before Christmas”? —A. G. It. A. The correct name of the poem "The Night Before Christmas” is “A Visit From St. Nicholas.’’ This was written by Clement C. Moore, an American poet and educator, at New York City in 1822. He wrote it for his children, but afterward it was published in a New York paper and later in a book of his collected poems. Q. Is there <any way that cottonwood trees may be prevented from produc ing cotton in the spring?—M. P. A. The only way to overcome the presence of cotton on cottonwood trees Is to plant only the staminate trees, on which the cotton will not develop. Q. Who owns the home of Evan geline, at Grand Pre?—B. N. G. A. A few years ago the Canadian Pacific railroad bought the property, with the intention of maintaining It as a public park. Q. What is a “philharmonic" and a “symphony” orchestra, and what is chamber music? —E. J. M. A. The word “philharmonic” Is from the Greek, meaning "loving har mony." The word "symphony” means “full tone.” Either may be applied to an orchestra which gives elabo rate programs, arranged for the full number of musical instruments to make a complete harmony. Chamber music Is usually more simple and is adapted to a few pieces, which are more often stringed than wind in struments. Q. What was George Washington’s coat-of-arrns? —B. D. B. A. The Washington coat-of-arms is a shield shape of gold with two hori zontal red bars against a background of white with three stars of red at the top. The shield is surrounded on one side by leaves, probably holly, and on the other by oak leaves. The Idea of the American flag comes from this shield. Q. Why is April called our battle month? —F. W. B. A. It has been so called because in April many of our military opera tions began. Notable among them are; Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1776; Black Hawk War, April 26, 1832: war with Mexico. April 15. 1846. Civil War, April IS. 1861; war with Spain, April 21, 1898; World War, April 6. 1917. *Q. What will clean gilt letters on a wooden sign?—M. K. A. A freshly cut onion may be used to clean gilt letters on a wooden sign. After two hours wipe it off with a soft sponge, wet with rain water, and dry with a soft rag. Q. How long does a fly live?—A- R. W. A. The Pasteur Institute has made experiments that reveal the fact that the longest life of a fly is about 62 days. It takes three generations to span the winter months, and some form of meat or animal food is neces sary. since flies feeding on sugar alone never lay eggs. Q. Is the President of France the head of the army?—W. F. A. The French Embassy says that the I’resident of France is supreme chief of the French Army and Navy. Democrat and G. O. P. Press Views on Bryan Far Apart In Charles W. Bryan as Democratic caandidate for Vice President Demo cratic editors see a logical choice for a well balanced ticket, while Repub licans find only a sop to the more fa mous Bryan and a bid for radical votes- Much of the comment on Mr. Bryan’s selection is facetious, and there is comparatively little serious discussion of the possible effect in so called La Follette States. The Omaha World-Herald, published in Gov. Bryan’s home state by Gilbert M. Hitchcock, a Democratic leader and former United Slates Senator, says: ’’The nomination may be regarded as bringing about that desideratum of politics, 'a well balanced ticket’ Mr. Davis brings learning, dignity, lofty eloquence, rich experience, ripe wis dom. a liberal mind, Wilsonian Ideals, to the service of the party. And Gov. Bryan brings zeal, enthusiasm, un quenchable optimism, indefatigable in dustry, and a knowledge of the queer ins and outs of politics such as few other men can boast. Back of the two is a united and harmonious P fl?he New York Evening World (in dependent Democratic) feels ’fhe nomination of Gov. Bryan of Ne braska for Vice President is intended as a recognition of and compliment to the West, in part as a friendly gesture to his greater brother, but there is enough in the nominee's own record a* Hie executive of his State to explain and justify the nomination were there no geographical or politi cal considerations Involved. * J He understands and sympathizes with the distress of the farmers. His atti tude toward labor has been that of a sincere friend.” Declaring that "Gov. Bryan has been a very ablg officer and that ho possesses the confidence of the West and deserves it,” the Day ten News (Independent Democratic), former Gov. James M, Oox’s paper, suggests “no one denied Gov. Bryan s fitness, and a great many delegates and leaders seemed to voice a com mon sentiment with a common phrase; “It will be a fine joke on B1I!.’ ” In his political career In Ne braska the Utile Rock Arkansas Demo crat (Democratic) thinks the gov ernor "has proven that he is a great leader and his leadership has been in behalf of the whole people.” The Brooklyn Eagle (Independent Demo cratic) agrees that Mr. Bryan has made a creditable executive in his own State. *♦ ♦ ♦ “Sharing to a great extent the bril liance and eloquence of his famous brother, he is a man of cautious re actions and proven stability,” In the opinion of the Knoxville Sentinel (In dependent Democratic), which be lieves he will greatly strengthen the ticket throughout the great agricul tural region of the Middle North west. In view of the fact that the Republican Administration has “failed miserably to solve the economic prob lems of the agriculturist,” the Bir mingham News (independent Demo cratic) thinks “the selection of Bryan seems politically fortunate. "The New Orleans Tlmes-Picayune adds, "he is governor of a State normally Republican—proof of his good stand ing and political prowess among his own people.” Other Democratic pa pers commenting along similar lines. Include the Fort \Ryrth Star-Tele gram, Hartford Times! Atlanta Jour nal, Davenport Democrat, Springfield Q. Where is the largest gas field In the world?—C. C. A. A. The Bureau of Mines says that at the present time the largest gas field in the world is located at Mon roe, La. A possible alternate to the Monroe Field is the Amarillo Field, Tex. Q. How many States have societies in Washington?—-H. M. S. A- About 30 States have such or ganizations in the National Capital. Q. Why does Europe produce so much larger crops to the acre than the United States?—H. E. C. A. It Is necessary in Europe, since crop area is limited, to lay emphasis on this. In America, where land has been abundant, such economy has not been attempted. Here the effort has been directed toward productivity per man, and it Is shown that Eu rope's superior productivity per acre is more than offset by United States superior productivity per man. Q. When was the Palacio Os Cor tez built?—W. W. T., A. This building In Coyoacan. a suburb of Mexico City, was erected in 1522 and is one of the oldest build ings on this continent. Q. What is the English name of Tschaikovsky’s opera "Pique Lame?” —T. A. S. A. In English this opera is called "The Queen of Spades.” Q. In the days of the Mayflower, who were entitled to prefix "Mr.” or "Mrs.” to their names?—A. L. S. A. People who belonged to the class of gentlemen in England, ministers, physicians and their wives bore these titles. If a man or woman was below the condition of gentility, but above that of a servant, the title "Good man" or "Goodwife” was used byway of address. Only 12 of the Mayflower passengers had this title. Q. Is milk as heavy as water?— IL H. P. A- Milk is slightly heavier than wa ter, its specific gravity ranging from .029 to 1.034 at 60’ F. Q. Did President Roosevelt coin his adage, "Speak softly and carry a big stick?” —D. P. It. A. On April 2, 190.3, President Roosevelt, In addressing a Chicago audience, said; "There is an old ad age, "Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Q. How old must English ivy be to begin to climb?— H. E. V. A. In about a year English ivy Is ready to climb. Q. Describe the climate of London.— M. I. A. The climate of London, England, is temperate, seldom falling below 32 degrees in Winter or rising above 7S in Summer. There is, however, a large rainfall and a great deal of fog. Q. What was Pastor Russpil’s real name? —M. N. A. Cliarles Tazewell Russell, who died in 1916. was known as "Pastor Russell." Q, Was any part of the United States ever called "New s’weden”? —A. K. A New Sweden was an e,arly name for the region between New York and Virginia. Q. When was the first congressional medal of honor given?—N. A. A. The medal of honor of the United States, given for bravery on the field of battle, was instituted by a law ap proved July 12. 1862. It is authorized by Congress and awarded for particular deeds of distinguished bravery - in ac tion. Congress did, however, on March 26. 1776. order a gold medal struck for Oen. Washington. Before this was made a silver medal was voted, struck and presented to Lieut. Col. Fleury for his gallantry in the assault upon Stony Point, July 15, 1779. (If you have a question you want an swered send it to The Star Information hureau, Frederic J. Haskin, Director, Twenty-first and C streets northwest. The only charge for this service is 2 cents in stamps for return postage .) News. Pittsburgh Sun and Nashville Tennessean. Views from Gov. Bryan's home State and home city are found in the IJr.coln Star (independent), and Uincoln State Journal (independent Republican). The former says: "He has been a splendid executive. There have been few men in charge of the affairs of this State who have brought greater energy and capacity and devotion to the office of governor than has Mr. Bryan. He is well and favorably known throughout the Mid dle West. He has the confidence and trust of the hundreds of thousands of men and women engaged in agri culture, because he has understood and has endeavored to help them with their problems.” The Lincoln State Journal (independent Republican)- “In Nebraska, where we know him best, the widest range of opinion exists as to the ability, character and political sincerity of ‘Brother’ Charles W. Bryan. He is followed as a local Moses by a large number of his neighbors. Another large number write him down as the pure dema gogue, an agile and reckless politi cian without fixed principle and with no object in view higher than the massing of political position for him self. Our own judgment of Mr. Bryan has lain somewhere between the ex tremes. To us he is a remarkable ad mixture of private integrity and political unscrupulousnerss, a politician who will go far for a vote, but not to the black farthest.” ** * ♦ Kastern Republican opinion, as ex pressed by the New York Herald Tribune (Republican), maintains that "Mr. Bryan does not possess the genuine appeal to the farmer which ex-Secretary Meredith or Gov. Jonathan M. Davis of Kansas would have had,” but, “his name and family associations apparently counted more with the leaders than did his record or his personaJ availability.” His nomination "was a cheap political expedient,” Is the way the Buffalo News (Republican) puts it. The Oakland Tribune (independent Re publican) objects to Bryan, because "he is not well known, he has not been conspicuous for ability or per formance, and because he is a brother of William Jennings Bryan.” Yet the Sioux City Journal (Re publican) suggests that Bryan "already is famous for his opposition to special privilege: he is the im placable foe of monopoly, and he de mands the square deal in the in terest of the Nebraska people.” The Seattle Times (independent Republican) remarks that “four yeairs ago the Democrats essayed the experience of trading on the Roose velt name to help James M. Cox, this year they are trying to work a little magic with the name of Bryan, but, unfortunately for the success of the plan, the large American audi ence is perfectly familiar with that hocus-pocus.” The Madison, Wls., Journal (Independent) is sure the "Democrats nominated Gov. Bryan more to shut up William Jennings Bryan than anything else.” On the other hand, the San Francisco Bulletin (independent) contends "it may be in naming Bryan the Demo cratic party has strengthened its ticket on the score of appeal to radical sentiment." Although ad mitting that Gov. Bryan "does not impress this part of the United States at all favorably,” the Spring field Republican (independent) con cludes, “the accepted fact that John W. Davis made the decision that placed Gov. Bryan on the national Democratic ticket as his running mate must now force some revision of the public’s estimate of Got. Bryan’s ca pacity sa* gnaitfloartw.*- THIS AND THAT) i BV C. E. TRACK WELL. “To have great poets there must be fereat readers, too.” Walt Whitman, one-time Treasury clerk, said that truthfully enough. The need for “great readers" is even more apparent when one considers libraries. Seated with-Dr. George F. Bowerman. head of the Public Library, beneath a large green umbrella in the side yard at the Cosmos Club, It was easy to vision the library system of the future. When that day comes the National Capital will have a main library' so splendidly equipped and supplied with fund*, so supported by a chain of branch libraries through the city, that those at the main building will be able to devote practically their entire time to guidance. ♦♦ ♦ * 1 love T»ft libraries: yat there is a doubt, If one be better with them or without—• Unless he use them wisely, and, indeed, Knows the high art of what and how to read. The public librarian knows the truth of those sentiments by Saxe better than any one else In Washington. Given the proper appreciation on the part of the mass of the people the funds, buildings and staff to do the work, he and his able assistants might teach “the high art of what and how to read” to all Washington. At present that is only a dream. But such a dream it is, enlivening a warm summer afternoon, bringing to the graveled courtyard, with its little tables, shaded by green umbrellas, visions of ancient libraries, old lovers of books long since dead and gone, great volumes faded back into the dust from whence they came, all that great and glorious company, ancient and modern. From out the shade of the umbrella, conjured up over a steaming cup of cof fee, stands forth the library at Alex andria, lost theee many centuries. White figures carrying scrolls go to and fro, while other white-clad men sit and read. Stand forth, then, the monasteries of the middle ages, with their inmates, poring over the hand-wrought vol umes, written In rich Latin, with col ored and gold letters, preservers to us of the literature of the ancient world. Comes, then, the vision of oar own library, worthy successor of those of old, standing In a cool green park, surround ed by tall trees, bearing acrose its noble stone seat the inscription, “A University of the People.” ♦* ♦ « “The National Capital is an educa tional system, as well as the possessor of one,” says Dr. Bowerman, flicking a bright yellow worm off his coat sleeve. He is an enthusiast. Dr. Bowerman. Had all nature, not just a part, Joined him at luncheon he would have welcomed the invasion, for he sees in every man a bookworm, or the making of one. “To this city come persons from all parts of our land,” he continues. “Un fortunately, for us, the members of Con gress and their families use the Library of Congress, and so do not come into contact with the intimate needs of the Ihiblic Library of the District of Colum bia. "Some day, perhaps. Congress may give us one-tenth as much money an nually a* is given to the school system. That is. instead of $170,000 a year to maintain our main library and the few branches, we may have an appropriation of $750,000 to a million dollars. The schools now get $7,500,000 a year, you know. "We are part of the educational sjs tern of the District, but some day, may I say, everything may be reversed, and books assume an even larger place in the life of the community. Then the schools will, in a sense, be subsiduary to the li brary. in that education is not a thing Just of the schools, but for life, and in this larger concept the library plays its part from the cradle to the grave." ** * * Dr. Bowerman waved away a too anx ious bee. "When the day comes when we can have fine, though small, libraries in ! schoolhouses throughout the city, with a | full number of branch libraries at vari ous points, then we can educate a city of library users. “Then men and women and children, instead of being forced to come miles to the main library, may step around the corner and get the books they need for pleasure and profit. “Then the staff at the main library will be free from the vision of people eight deep at the main desk, trying to get books, some fuming at the iittle de lay. We will be able then to devote most of our time to helping people read properly. We can have study courses, book-review nights, give radio talks on reading and do many other things that will brighten and widen the library for the great reading public.” *♦ ♦ ♦ Psssessed of a more intelligent public than the average city. Washington yet has to build up a love for books through out the entire mass of the citizenship. This can only come about by increas ing the function of the library, extending its scope along the lines instanced, en abling it to educate generations upon generations of library users, so that finally the average citizen will turn to hi* library for mental food as he does to the comer grocery for aliment. The average man, woman or child is in good company when he asks the Pub. lie Library for help. When Calvin Cool idge, jr., died the ’White House called the Public Library to supply the lines of one of the unfortunate lad’s favorite poems, to be used in the funeral services. A great New York magazine telegraphed our library for assistance. It is there equally to serve all. Spain Wants Peace. Troops Are Defeated as Concilia tion is Planned. Less than two weeks ago Spain, having learned the lesson, at least in part, that lost her the Philippines, announced a more conciliatory pol icy in Morocco. Gen. Estella, presi dent of the Military Directory, was to proceed to Mellila to carry out the plan. Advanced Spanish posts were to be withdrawn. The policy of re venge upon Abdul Krim, leader of the Klff tribes, was to be abandoned. Be fore he could land in a Moroccan port Spanish troops had suffered another reverse, with heavy casualties. "Useless war” is the phrase Gen. Kstralla has used to describe the fighting in Morocco, but no one in au thority. so far. seems to have had the courage or the strength to abandon it. Spanish pride keeps it going. The tribesmen are determined to oust the Spaniards from Spanish Morocco, to which Spain clings as the last vestige of a lost overseas empire. It has long been a millstone about Spain’s neck. Hardly any one in Spain expects his country to profit from it. The Span ish public clamors for giving it up. The Spanish reverse seems to have been due largely to the rashness and blundering of Spanish officers as much as to the skill of the tribesmen. Span ish troops were led into an ambush. In the confusion Spanish artillery shelled a company of Spanish regu lars. Normally, the reverse would make it harder for the government to carry out a conciliatory policy. Proud nations find it hard to retire in the face of defeat. But it was the heavy casualties in the reverses suffered by the Spaniards last year that nearly brought o,n a revolt against the whole Moorish campaign, and this reverse may have the same effect, strength ening Gen. Estralla’s hand. In any event, the new policy re flects the soundest Spanish sentiment. It represents a decision to liquidate the future war policy which no Span ish government prior to the Rivera directorate had the nerve to abandon. It would be a pity If this reverse should prevent Gen. Estralla from carrying it Newark News. . TRACE SHORTHAND TO BABYLONIANS Geographic Society Paints Word Picture of Mesopo tanian Amanuensis. HAS MANY DESCENDANTS Stylus of 4,000 Years Ago Has Become Fountain Pen and Printing Press. “Eebe Norris of New York, N. T., Is a stenographer, A. D. 1924. She doesn t trace her blood lineage to ancient Babylon.” says a recent bulle tin of the National Geographic So ciety. But Bebe had what might be called a ‘professional grand mother, a hundred or so timesvre moved —Bibea Narem, by name—who did precisely the same sort of work as Bebe’s for a prominent merchant in Mesopotamia’s greatest city more than two thousand years before Christ. "When Bibea’s boss clapped his hands or made whatever signal Babylonian bosses made In place of pressing a buzzer button, Bibea grab bed her stenographic ‘pad,’ picked up a stylus and hurried in to take dictation. Stenography 4,000 Years Ago. ’’ ‘Murashu Sons. Murashu Building. Nippur; Honored Gentlemen,’ prob ably began the dictator, addressing the historic banking firm which held the place in Babylonia that the Rothschilds have held in Europe. "As her employer dictated Bibea rapidly jabbed her stylus into the soft clay of h“r little ‘pad,’ for, like all her stenographic sisters of 4 000 ?:*"■ aBO ’. Bi . bea was literally a ~ iU Sh/ r ; The stylus was a little rod of bone about six inches trian gular in cross-section cut off sharply at one end so that when "r. pr^sse< l inro damp clay it left wedge-shaped impressions." World’s Oldest Fen. Such a bone stylus, described in dispatches from Bagdad as "the old est known pen.” has Just been dug up on the site of the ancient city of Kish, and gives archeologists one of their best specimens of the tool with w hich the priceless cuneiform tablets of Babylonia and Assyria were made. The discovery of this stylus led the Geographic .Society, in the bulletin quoted above, to reconstruct with names and facts gleaned from other recent discoveries a, scene in a typical business office of fortv cen turies ago. "After the dictation was finished" continues the bulletin, "the dictator might very well have issued such familiar instructions as these: ‘Plea*, make a copy of that. Miss Narem; sign it for me. and get it off. Have an engagement that will keep me out until after the Nippur mail leaves, eor Babylonian business firms kept copies of letters in their files; almost every one of any prominence had a per sonal seal used by himself or his em ployes in signing documents: and regular postal routes were main tained between Babylon and the other principal cities of the empire.” Man Only “Writing Animal." The discovery of the bone stylus at Kish, the bulletin points out. dis closes a class of implements that has been more important to the develop ment of civilization than perhaps any other group of tools. "Man is even more truly distin guished as a writing animal’ than as a speaking animal,’’’ continues the bulletin, ’’for it is the growing fund of knowledge set down on various surfaces by various implements, and so passed on to generation after generation, that has made possible development in the arts, sciences and industries. Back of the Kish stylus are more primitive members of the pen family; chisels to cut into stone and wooden tablets, thorns to scratch on hides, flint splinters with which to furrow cave walls, bones and sticks with which to make probably the first rude marks of all in sand or dirt. In a parallel line, stretch back the fewer ancestors of the pencil: bits of lead, lumps of chalk and soft earth, and the ends of charred sticks. Great Array u( Descendants. "The descendants of the Babylonian stylus and the scratching tools that preceded it present a startling array of implements and mechanisms. In China and Egypt paper and papyrus were invented to supersede the. cruder and heavier writing surfaces and the great forward step was made of applying a third substance, ink, by means of a brush or pen. The Egyptian reed pen made of a hollow tubular stem may be looked upon as the direct ancestor of the modern pen. It had practically the form ot Its present-day descendant, being pointed and slit to make it pliable. "The early Greeks and Homans, however, did not use any material comparable to paper. They first scrib bled with chalk on broken bits of pot tery, or scratched with pointed metal rods on wooden blocks. Their next step was to cover the blocks with wax and scratch their messages in that material. Their styli had knohs on one end, used to smooth out erroneous marks. New wax could be applied and the tablets used over and over. The metal styli were truly as mighty as swords, serving as daggers when desired. Julius Caesar is said to have been stabbed to death with such pens. Flint Splinter to Printing Press. “When papyrus reached Greece and Italy the reed pen and the use of ink went with it. This combination was also used In writing on sheepskin parchment and vellum, and, in the hands of slave and. later, monkish copyists, went into the making °f tbe world's most highly prized illuminat ed manuserpits and hand-wrought books. “Quills, chiefly from goose feathers, furnished the next source for im proved pens. Not until the nineteenth century did detachable metaJ pen points come into general use and shoulder quills out. Now something like three million gross of them are made yearly in the United States alone. “The steel and gold pens and even the latest models of fountain pens do not complete the pen genealogy. The far-off bit of bone or flint used by the less dumb savage who recorded an unimportant event many thousand years ago was truly the original an cestor of our typewriters, our etching needles, the light rays and acids we have harnessed to make our half tones. and the gigantic, thunderous printing presses that grind out their millions of newspapers, magazines and books." Si Hoe—Can’t understand how Jed Perkins got his corn planted so dlng-awizzled quick this year. Bud Bean—l specs he must >r planted it by one of them new fangled wireless machines.—Detroit News. Si Perkins says that girls smoking cigarettes has one advantage, as it brings the more modest one in home once or twice during the day to take a few puffs.—Nashville Banner.