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THE EVENING STAR With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. THURSDAY. .September 11, 1924 THEODORE W. NOYES. . . Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Rusinrss Office. 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: 110 East 42nd St. (’hicitfo Office: Tower Hnildm*: European Office: 16Regent St., London* England. The Ereninir Star, with the Sunday moraine edition. i* delivered by carriers within the city at 60 cents per month: dally only, 45 tents per month: Sunday only, 20 oenis |*»r month. Ord»*rn may Ik» M*nt by mail or tele phone Main 5000. Collection is made by nr- Tiers at the end of each month Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Daily and Sunday..! yr., SS.4O ; i mo., 70c Daily only 1 yr., $6.00 ; 1 mo.. 50c Sunday only 1 yr.. $2.40 ; I mo., 20c All Other States. Daily and Sunday.l yr., SIO.OO ; 1 mo., sr.c 1 >aily only yr., $7.00 ; 1 mo., 600 Sunday only 1 yr., $3.00; I mo., 25c Meml>er of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for reputillealion of ail news dis patches credited to it or not otherwise credited 'n this paper and also the local news pub lished herein. All riirhts of putdication of special dispatches herein are also reserved. Why the People Fear. Under the law of the State of Illi nois an application for parole can be made by a person sentenced to im prisonment for life only when 20 y ears have elapsed. By the same law. parole cannot he given to a person sentenced for 00 years until after 37 M years. At least, that is the manner in which the law has been stated by the chief counsel for the defense in the Leopold-Loch case, just decided In Chicago by Judge Caverly’s imposition of sentence. If the terms of t>at statute are cor rectly stated, 11v>«#> two murderers who have just eftAned the noose can not hope to guU paroles until they are, respectively, 75 and 76 years of age, assuming that the sentences are cumulative, 99 years added to life. If the parole limit of 37 years is the ultimate that can be required, on the principle that virtually one crime, though of a dual nature, was com mitted, the prisoners may not he re leased on parole before they are, re spectively. 55 and 56 years of age. If the 20-year limit governs, they may he paroled when they are 38 and 39 years old. Judge Caverly in his pronounce ment of sentence strongly urged that no paroles should ever he granted. He cannot, of course, control the ac tion of the parole board. The only way in which he could assure against the future liberty of these young men was to sentence them to be hanged. His recommendation is. however, part of the sentence and will always be before any future parole board. But no present provision of the law I of the State limits the power of the i governor to grant pardons. No reo-1 ommendation by the court can safe guard against a release of these ut-1 terly worthless persons hy executive | action. In that fact lies the reason ■ for the intense feeling of disappoint ment and of indignation caused by- the imposition of life sentences. The re cent release of Harry Thaw, though i the cases are in many respects dif ferent, gives force to the fear that these youthful criminals may, even under the strict parole laws of Illinois, soon gain their liberty. In Massachusetts a little more than half a century ago a youth named Jesse Pomeroy was convicted of an atrocious murder and sentenced, on account of his years, to imprisonment for life. He was undoubtedly of ab normal mind. The State took him in custody and has kept him ever since. He is now in prison, an old man. His case was somewhat like the Leopold- Loeb case, save that he was not of a wealthy family. Whether this man ner of his punishment was warranted by humane considerations is still a question. Massachusetts has suffered many atrocious crimes since. The ter rible example of Jesse Pomeroy suf fering imprisonment for life has not t deterred others from committing out rageous offenses. But would his ex ecution have deterred? Therein lies the whole question of punishments. In the Pomeroy case Massachusetts has at least kejjt faith in holding the prisoner. Will Illinois keep faith by similarly holding these dangerous youths until they become old men, if their lives are prolonged? Or will they be released after a term of years, perhaps to prey again upon helpless victims for the sake of thrills? I'pon that question hangs the whole case of the public against the court in this display of mercy. What happens to Leopold and Loeb henceforth, however, is not so impor tant as what may result from their escape from the gallows affecting the youth of the land. These lads have corrupted the morals of countless thousands of young men by the force of suggestion through their pernicious conduct and their hideous example. They have “got off.” in the phrase of .first-emotion reaction upon the sen tence. Youth is not analytical. It jumps to distinct conclusions. It sees only results. In this case it is apt to see capital crime committed and the usual sentence for such crime modified because of the comparatively tender years of the criminals. The danger is great that this case may •timulate crime in its most evil form. .China asserts her spirit of excessive conservatism in refusing to recognize the effort of the remainder of the world to dismiss war as entirely out Qf date. As a Madison Square afterthought. It may be remarked that Mr. Pat tangall of Maine yields an entire gu bernatorial term to Mr. Brewster. Plaza Park. The Stanton Park Citizens' Asso ciation, in expressing its view that the Government hotels on Union Sta tion Plaza should be abandoned and that the plaza should be made a park extending from the station to the Capitol, in accordance with the orig inal intent of Congress, voices the majority opinion in Washington. The Government hotels, or dormitories, are on private land, and there is annual trouble over the non-payment of i ground rent by the United States to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad . Company. The railroad company has been a lenient landlord. A disposition has been manifested in Congress to abandon the hotels. If there was a • cogent reason why the Government should build dormitories for Govern ment employes, there is now no rea son why the Government should con tinue in the hotel business. The idea of Congress and of the people of the District was that a splendid park should be created be tween Union Station and the Capitol. The idea has not been carried out, hut certain steps have been made In that direction. One of the reasons for building a monumental Union Station was that the Capital should have as handsome a main entrance as any other city in the world. The “front yard” of Union Station, much of which is already owned by the United States, should be made a fair park, and people entering and leaving Washington by rail should have plea#? ant impressions of the city. To spend millions of dollars in building Union Station and acquiring the plaza lands and then to delay making the small expenditure required to bring that land in harmony with the station and the Capitol Is not wise policy. The Great Jewel Mystery. | Lord Mountbatten, awakened by a slight noisq, was conscious of a dim ; moving about his bedroom. He thought nothing of the matter and went again to sleep. Perhaps he was accustomed to valets and! other servants prowling about at night. In the morning the valet of the host discovered that a pearl shirt stud valued at SIO,OOO was missing. Later Lady Mountbatten became aware that many of her jewels were not to be found. She reported the fact to her hostess. Other members of the distinguished house party dis covered that they had been deprived of costly gems. In the course of the morning it was ascertained that no less than $150,000 worth of trinkets were gone. That, in brief, is the outline of the "great jewel robbery” on Long Island, where the Prince of Wales is a guest. The dim prowler in Lord Mountbat ten s bedroom is the only clue. As j a clue it is not worth shucks, unless the prowler left some footprints in the dust, and in such a household dust is supposed to be non-existent. Or unless he left fingerprints some where. or perchance unless he care lessly left a private-monogrammed cigarette stump behind him, one of his own, the sort that so many cracksmen use in fiction. To give the tale a particular tang, j it happens that Scotland Yard men ] were on the lot. so to speak, in at ; tendance upon the Prince of Wales. 1 To think of such effrontery, to work !an inside job with Scotland Yard j men right at handt Some nerve; ; What price now the amateur-scien | title detective, haled from his lab oratory to take measurements and to dissect facts and to put the house hold staff through the third degree As a jewel robbery, plain and sim ; pie, the job was a pretty big one. The haul was good. But the prom inence of the victims and the prox imity of a royal heir make the case stand out in the annals of crime in America as particularly conspicuous. It is announced that private de tectives are at work. Perhaps they have some lines already. Maybe the “Green Goblin Gang” has been al ready suspected. Perhaps one of the guests, a veritable Raffles, is under question. Possibly kleptomania lies at the bottom of the mystery. Or maybe somebody has been black mailed and has had to steal to get the means to buy silence in order to spare the feelings of a devoted hus liand or wife, or has been hitting the ’ market on the wrong side or been plunging on some sporting event and been compelled to take the first plunge into crime. Again, this may have been the work of a shrewd individual who saw his chance, took it, slipped Into the house by an unguarded window or a convenient rainspout, got by when Lord Mountbatten turned his sleepy eyes in his direction and slid away with the plunder. Any follower of mystery fiction can supply the details. Europe is expected to point to the result of the trial for the Franks murder as an evidence of the power of money In this land. If Europe can show any spot on its continent where money, and particularly the American dollar, is not held Jn rev erential esteem, a great many de votedly loyal citizens of the U. S. A. will be tempted to emigrate. How Maine went in September is, with reference to the presidential election, accepted as significant, but not conclusive. The La Follette- Wheeler voters expect to complicate the situation sufficiently to prevent It from being uninteresting. Germany, like other countries, is afflicted with a few politicians who insist on neglecting the present and the future in order to talk about “good old times.” While not able to take full posses sion of the Democratic party on his own account. Col. W. J. Bryan is hopeful of being able to keep it in the family. September Frost. The lowest temperature recorded at the Weather Bureau during the past 24 hours was 43, that figure being registered at an early hour this morning. The recording instruments at the Weather ..Bureau being con siderably higher than many points In the Potomac Valley, it is likely that frost formed at some places, but no reports of damage o tn our neighbor hood have come to band up to this time. As a rule, frost news comes only after general or widespread damage has been done. Destruction of garden and field crops in our neighborhood is a very important local matter. Even the loss of gar den flowers is a thing of importance to the owners of the flowers. With a succession of nights during which the official mercury has fallen close to the frost mark, it seems likely THE EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON. D. C- THURSDAY. SEPTEMBER 11. 1924. i that a killing frost will come soon. [ Frost news has been received from i the Cumberland Valley and other i parts of the rich agricultural coun i try west of Washington. In the fields and gardens of the Potomac region there are still crops, late be , cause of the tardy Spring, which would be killed by a September frost, and such a frost would cause loss to a large number of persons and would probably he reflected in higher food prices in Washington markets. Show the Colors! Tomorrow every citizen should show the National colors. The oc casion will be Defense day, not named by law. but selected as a time for a demonstration of the readiness of the people when an emergency oc curs or need should arise to stand for the protection of the Government and the territory of the United States. The particular reason why Sep tember 12 was selected rather than i another date is that it is the time when Gen. John J. Pershing passes from the active to the retired list of the Army, it being the eve of his sixty-fourth birthday. Therefore par ticipation tomorrow in Defense day proceedings is a tribute to an officer who has won the highest esteem of the American people, who magnifi cently represented them at the head of the expeditionary forces abroad in the great war and who, though in the full vigor of his manhood, and capable of carrying on. is required by law to step aside from active duly Display of the American colors is the smallest possible degree of par ticipation. The day is dedicated to defense, not to offense. It is sym bolic of the preparedness of the coun try for whatever peril may arise in the future, an evidence of the spirit of national co-operation of the Amer ican people. By that simple token should that spirit be made evident by those who are incapacitated from personally aligning themselves as po tential defenders of the flag. Ludendorff allowed two of his hunt ing dogs to run loose in Munich with out muzzles and had difficulty in per suading the authorities to spare their lives. The fact that he was able to do so assures him that he has a little political pull left, such as it is. As an inducement to elect him Vice President Gov. Charles Bryan might mention the fact that he would pos sibly be able to interest an industrious man with previous experience in the position of Secretary of State. Great dictatorial powers are at tributed to J. P. Morgan. And yet it is impossible to escape the impression that there must have been an element of surprise for him in several of the dominations. In order to avoid being presented to the public in a somewhat frivolous spirit, it may be necessary hereafter for visiting representatives of royal families to bring along their own press agents. If reports from the “great white way” press agents are to be accepted, the artistic tastes of the Prince of Wales are pretty much the same as those of the average out-of-town buyer. - The results of the Maine election present another occasion in which President Coolidge is likely to feel that It is not necessary for him to say anything whatever. . SHOOTING STARS. BV PHILANDER JOHNSON. Elaboration. We are growing more enlightened Till we’re 'often almost frightened By th£ wonderful improvements that we see. They're not always beneficial. Sometimes they are prejudicial To the principles on which we all agree. Simple morals are not vaunted; Wiles of wickedness are flaunted In a manner that is picturesquely queer. While good works and simple think ing To obscurity are shrinking. Murders grow more interesting every year. v Useful, in Moderation. “I understand some of those people were inclined to heckle you,”,said the friend. “I don't object to a few hecklers,” replied Senator Sorghum. "They serve to keep the rest of the audience awake.” Back to Regular Work. Os Babe and Dick we'll hear much less; And, freed from these dejections. We may resume the business Os national elections. Jud Tunkins says a man who thinks of nobody but himself is sure to get lonesome, owing to the fact that he and most other people are not interested in the same subject. Aggressive Youth. "What are you going to do with your boy Josh when he gets through with college?” “I hadn’t thought of that.” replied Farmer Corntossel. “I was wonderin’ whet the college was goin’ to do with itself when Josh gets through with it.” Can’t Get Away Prom It. - A judge with his nerve; Two lawyers who wrangle— Again we observe The eternal triangle. The Flattery of Attention. “How would you feel if some one sent you an anonymous letter?” “Right now?”- queried Miss Cay enne. “Certainly." “I’d feel highly complimented. It would stiwir that somebody simply couldn’t wait till Valentine’s day.” “Noah showed his sense,” said Uncle Eben, “by goin’ ahead, ah* buildin’ bis boat ’thout waitin’ fob no appropriations rum nobody.** I ST. MIHIEL DAY BY FRANK H. SIMONUS. Six years ago tomorrow, September 12, at daylight, the first organized army of the American expeditionary force In France, commanded directly by Gen. Pershing, who thus cele .brated his birthday, engaged in what was up to that moment the greatest battle In American history, as it was the first in the world war in which our soldiers had fought wholly under American direction. Prior to the battle of St. Mlhlel Americans had fought in various en gagements, the Ist Corps at Cantigny. the 2d at Belleau Wood and the Ist and 2d, with six others, in the second battle of the Marne, which is known in our official records an Alsne-Marne. But always hitherto they had been under the general command of French officers, and the appearance of our soldiers under American com mand was the double result of the very great achievements of individual divisions in the engagements in which they had already participated and the long and vigorous struggle Gen. Pershing had carried on for the cre ation of an American Army under com plete American command. . * * * * The battle of St. Mihiel xvas, tech nically, a battle engaged for the re alization of limited objectives, to ac complish certain very definite results, and not, like the later Meuse-Ar gonne, an attack to be continued until the enemy in front was not only beaten and driven from his immedi ate positions, hut crushed to an ex tent which made further resistance impossible. In reality this Bt. Mihiel engagement was no more than a de tail in the preparation for the Meuse- Argonne. although It was in itself a very considerable affair. The purpose of the St. Mihiel of fensive was to abolish the famous St. Mihiel salient, in French mili tary parlance, “the hernia of the East.” This salient had been cre ated in September, 1914, as a detail in the German offensive which culmi nated at the Marne, and it was a German effort to drive a wedge be tween the fortifications of Verdun and T\>ul and isolate the French armies fighting in Lorraine from the bulk of the allied forces operating west of the- Meuse. *♦ ♦ ♦ At first successful, this German thrust had been ultimately checked, and the disaster of the Marne com pelled the Germans to abandon it and send all available reserves west ward. As it endured for the next .four years this salient was a blunt nosed wedge, its base resting upon the permanent fortifications of Metz, extending across the marshy plain of the Woevre, crossing the heights of the Meuse and terminating in a small bridgehead on the west bank of the Meuse. The high ground on the north side of the salient forbade successful at tack. although the French tried It in the bloody failure of l.es Eparges in the Winter of 1915. The south side, in the main crossing a swampy plain from the forests north of Ponl a-Mousson was more vulnerable, but had successfully defied a serious French attack In the summer of 1915, since when St. Mihiel had become a quiet sector. The military value of the salient was twofold; Extending to the west bank of the Meuse, it out and domi nated the railway which comes down the Meuse Valley from Gommercy on the Parls-Nancy trunk line to Verdun, thus partially isolating the fortress of Verdun, a fact which had value in the great struggle of 1916. In the second place, the great Fort Camp des Remains, above St. Mihiel, gave the Germans direct vision of the Paris- Nancy trunk line itself, and forbade to the French the use of a portion of this vital artery, necessitating a long detour via Gondrecourt. »X X V Pershing’s army was assigned to the reduction of the salient, first, be cause it would free his rear and communications in the Meuse Valley when he undertook his later offensive in the Meuse-Argonne. and secondly, because It offered an admirable Held in which to test the American Army, a field In which failure would have no serious consequences, while success would harvest material. If necessarily limited, advantages. The Germans, already suffering from the rapid dimunition of their reserves and fearing an attack, had begun to retire from the salient to a new defense system across the base of the salient and resting upon Metz, but they had been slow in withdraw -1 ing, and the attack caught them j utterly unprepared. The actual de fenses were admirable, the ground wholly favorable to the defenders, and from the famous Mont Sec, a small mountain rising out of the Woevre Plain, they had a complete sweep of the whole battlefield. Pershing's plan of attack contem plated a frontal thrust against the whole'southern side of the salient be tween the hills above the Moselle at Pont-a-Mbusson, to the heights of the Meuse, east of the latter river. In the main the attack was over roll ing, but relatively level country, crossed by the Rupt de Mad Brook, which flowed from the Heights of the Meuse to the Moselle, dotted with WASHINGTON OBSERVATIONS | BY FREDERIC WILLIAM WILE. That bumper Republican vote in Maine is the first fruit of the Get- Out- the-Vote-for-Coolldge movement that has been in progress in New .England for the past six months. William M. Butler and Frank W. Stearns, between them, decided long ago that New England’s pro-Coolldge emotions should be mobilised on a scale that would impress the coun try. Sectional pride is the thing they relied upon to do the trick. The patriots who eat pie for breakfast haven’t had one of their kind in the White House since John Quincj* Adams of Massachusetts became President, in 1825. Both in the pri maries and at election time Butler and Stearns are determined New Eng landers shall do their full Coolidge duty, even (f they have to be taken to the polls on stretchers. The Pine Tree State primaries set the pace. In 1920 only 61,700 Maine voters registered. This year 109,475 report ed, an increase of 77 per cent. ♦* ♦ ♦ Walter S. Rogers of Illinois, who is to direct the Rockefeller Foundation's survey of the American press, is the United States Government’s principal expert on international electrical communications. He has been hold ing a Summer course on that subject at the University of Chicago, of which he is an alumnus. During the war Rogers was director of the division of foreign cable news for the Com mittee on 'Public Information, and served in the same capacity fit the peace conference in Paris. At the Washington armament conference Rogers was the American delega tion's technical adviser on radio and allied questions. He has spent a good deal of time in China and Japan, and is an authority on Far Eastern poli tico-economic problems. One of Rogers’ pet projects is to modernize China by feeding it with more and better American news bv radio. ♦* * * For many months Senator Hiram Johnson has maintained a masterly inactivity and profound silence in Republican affairs, but one of his quondam friends, Col. Rhinelander Waldo, has just rolled up his sleeves for Coolidge. Col. Waldo, formerly police commissioner of New York City, has organised the “Coolidge -Non-Partisan League," which Is to little lakes or large ponds and here and there broken, by small woodlands, in contrast to tne considerable for ests near the Meuse and the Moselle. This frontal attack from south to north was the main thrust, but a secondary attack was to be made from the north side, designed to Join hands with the .southern thrust be hind the nose of the safient and in the plain Just at the foot of the Heights of the Meuse about the vil lage of Vigneulles. When this junc tion had been made all the German troops In the nose of the salient would he surrounded and captured and then the victors would pursue the Germans down the valley of the Mad Brook until they came up against the new German defense sys tem resting on the Metz fortifica tions. ** * * The American Army is thus ranged and commanded: Hunter Liggett, with the Ist Corps, rests his right on the Moselle: he has four divisions, the 82d. 90th, sth and 2d. in line, the last alone a veteran unit. On the left of Liggett is Dickman, com manding the 4th Corps, consisting of the 89th, 42d and tst Divisions, the two last named already veterans. The Ist will have Mont Sec at its left and ovill advance by it, covering its flank rather imperfectly with a smoke screen. All of the salient from the front of the Ist Division right round to the northern side will not be u tacked and French troops will main tain a connection On the north side the sth Corps, Gen. Cameron com manding. composed of the 26th and 4th American and the 15th French Colonial. The 26th will strike south and seek to join hands with the Ist coming north. Their rendezvous is the village of Vigneulles. Nine American divisions are thus involved hut only seven will be actually en to,d’ the at *aclHng force will contain about 300.000 American troops and 70,000 French. It will be supported by great air and artillery concentrations, In the main supplied by the French. f ° ur hour " of bombardment, L th * Waviest of the war to J* troops leave the trenches ollowinf? the rolling* barrage. The doeT k n ° r,h , ' ide - however, of th. Until 8a m Dawn i 3tl ? Be “ a thp "feting of the “of th tb a "V h .* ISt . and the completion of the destruction of the salient bea^rne°the th J‘ , Yankee division just Vigneulles er “ nS ° f the lst and h 4ll°«i included 16.000 prisoners i t rannon * the cost was 7,000 casualties, one of the most profitable up t? *hat P * n " iVe d “ yS 1,1 th “ war later art™?, . moment. Ludendorff later admits that several good divi sions were destroyed, among them an Austrian sent to back up the Germans in a quiet sector to release a German division for use elsewhere. i» 9, I think, the tole encounter between an Austrian unit and any considej-abie American force during the whole war and one of the rare appearances of Austrian troops on the western front. ** * * .J:?’, hrieflv ‘he lines stabilized themselves on the new front, the Americans looking toward Metz i across the nearby battlefields of 1 £ k a . nd M ars-la-Tour, famous I m 18,0; both the railway lines were freed from German control and the way was open for the Meuse-Argonne V. U . ; h i rh would follow that of bt. Mihiel by only two weeks Com plete within itself, the battle of St. Mihiel was the final and shatter ng demonstration to the Germans that America had arrived and to the European allies that henceforth American contribution would be con siderable and effective. Foch, already completing his plans for the final and general offensive from the Meu*e to the Scheldt and the Veer, could go ahead, confident of decisive American aid. In no sense decisive, the battle of St. Mihiel was nevertheless of very real importance, well planned, well executed, won by relatively green troops commanded by inexperienced officers in the main, involving the capture of positions strongly fortified and long held, the first American battle in Europe. The decision to ob serve the day hereafter thus not only fortifies the memory of one of the brightest pages in American military history, but also emphasizes the birth day of that victorious general who led his troops only to success and headed the largest American Army which ever has engaged In battle, and directed the operations of the most considerable engagements in our history. The magnitude of Gen. Pershing’s achievement has been a little ob scured by the rush of post-war events and the general, if momentary, neglect of recent events. Beyond all doubt history will repair this temporary neglect, and this anniversary, which marks the end of his active military career, should give him some proof of the enduring national gratitude for his service and pride in his achievement, alike In fighting his Army and In making it. (Copyright. 1924, by the McClure Newspaper Syndicate. I ■ - | | ramify all over the country. When Senator Johnson came back from Europe In 1923 Waldo was tn charge of the arrangements to give him a conqueror’s weloome, with a view to bagging the 1924 Republican presi dential nomination for California's ex-favorite son. Col. Waldo, once a Democrat, organized the Democratic Harding-for-President Club in 1920. ** ♦ * Robert Peet Skinner. America's blue ribbon consul general, who has just been transferred to Paris from Lon don, comes from William McKinley's old congressional district, around Can ton. Ohio. So does “General” Jacob Coxey, who once marched on Wash ington at the head of a hoboes’ army. Skinner in those days was a budding young country editor, and Coxey en gaged him as his press agent. Coxey always said it was Skinner’s drama tization of the descent upon the Dis trict of Columbia that gave the march and the “General” their fame. Cbxey ceased to be a hobo many years ago. *♦ * ♦ There are between 65,000 and 70,000 persons In the District of Columbia, mostly civil service folk, who main tain voting residences in their home States. Both parties go gunning for this "absentee vote” in presidential years, and ordinarily something like half of it is cast, usually by mail. Twenty-six States allow voting by mall. Here and there, especially in Close congressional districts, the mail vote froih Washington has been known in the past to turn the tide. The national committees encourage the maintenance Os clubs in the Dis trict for the purpose of capturing the “absentee vote.” ♦* * * Democrats say they’re not going to let the G. O. P. get away with all of the glory for the Dawes plan. They point ont that Owen D. Young, co framer of the plan, is a Democrat: that James A. Logan, jr., who co operated with Ambassador Kellogg at the London conference, was originally appointed to the reparation commis sion by President Wilson, and that S. Parker Gilbert, jr., who is to be come permanent agent general for reparation payments, was a Demo cratic discovery in the days when Carter Glass and David I*. Houston wero Secretaries of the Treasury. <Copy right, UN.) THIS AND THAT BT C. E. TRACEWELL, "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested." Bacon's famous advice about books, . it always seemed to me. is a bit carnivorous. Books are essentially spiritual things, since they deal wholly with ideas. Such a metaphor is somewhat too digestive. The idea In it is good, however; that is why it has lived through the centuries, to crop up here today on the editorial page of The Star. Man kind cannot get away from its ideas. Books are like cabbages, in one respect, at least; they must be pur chased either to be tasted, swallowed, or chewed and digested. Some one buys all the books; if not you, then another person, or a library or other institution. Probably no man living but has, at some time or other, bought a book, if no more than a book 'on how to run a motor car. This. too. is a book, and as such contains the spiritual essence, the idea, of the automobile. lienee bookshops loom as among the most interesting stores in a great city. London has its famous book stalls, renowned for centuries; so has Paris and other great cities of the world. The bookshops of Washington have an interest of their own. no less picturesque because we are familiar with them. Familiarity doe s not necessarily breed contempt, but docs make for Indifference. ** * * Probably the first bookshop the average Washington hoy and girl knows is a second-hand store cen trally located. There several shops that deal in school books, bin this particular one is taken as a sample. Here, every fall, a big sign, "School Books." is put out, heralding the fact that another scholastic year is about to begin. Those of us who have our school days safely behind us—thank God—often smile at that sign as we hurry by on the sidewalk or glimpse it from our car. There the latest “math” book is to be had. either new or second hand, also the version of Latin instruction decided upon the by school board for use this year, and the proper history of Rome, together with the "English lit” tome, containing approved ex amples of prose and poetry. After school hours ordinary citizens will find it hard to get waited on in this store, owing to the influx of scholars from grade to high school ages. Boys and girls crowd the aisles, one wanting a certain volume, another another, and so on down the line of required text books. One Is free to roam among the stacks, however, if he cannot gel waited on. These are tall and gloomy, although a light may be turned on when necessary. I particu larly like the nook, over behind the proprietor's desk, where they keep the chess hooks. At least they used to keep the chess books there before 1 bought them all up. ** » * The aforementioned shop still clings to the custom of placing several tables of old books on the sidewalk, labeled “2.1 cents” and "50 cents." Here regularly stop booklovers of all | ages and conditions, on hot days and I on cold days. | It is an interesting, sometimes a pathetic, sight to see old mer and young men, old ladies and snappy flappers, boys and girls, stop sudden ly by the. stands, turn the leaves of first one volume and another, then walk away, or turn into the store with a book. Such tables were the first testers of human honesty. That honor does not belong to the newspaper tri angles left at street corners for hon est pedestrians to drop their pennies into. The book stands have been on the streets of the world for centuries, and no man has slipped a volume under his coat and Walked off with it. as far as is known. Almost always a man who likes books is too honest to steal them. I have seen many a ragged fellow stop before that stand anl look at the hooks, only to pass on his way after awhile. One would like to go* for ward and say, "Mister, I haven't got much money .but if there is any book you want here, and you are tempo rarily out of funds, let me get it for I you." But the absurd conventions of city life nedge us all in too closely for that, much as we are ashamed to be seen giving a dime to a beggar, so we sneak it to him. ** * * "A man will turn over half a li brary to make one book," said Samuel Johnson. So one book will make a library. In the matter of books it is as in life in general—he who will not be satis fied with little will be satisfied with nothing. A man had better have a few treasured books which he genuinely likes than shelves of expensive vol umes purchased because some one else likes them. Every book store is doing its bit in this regard. As Carlyle pointed out in h*s "Heroes and Hero 'Wor ship,” all that mankind has done, thought, gained or been, is lying "as in magic preservation" in the pages of books. The true university of these days, he said, is a collection of books. No limits as to size, either in smallness or largeness, are made, it will bo noticed. Step into any book store in Washington, buy a hook — any book—and you have a small uni versity, or at least the beginning of one. ♦* * * Smart book stores are much alike. They have well lighted display rooms. with well dressed clerks hovering over the volumes, in some instances as if afraid booklovers might run away with a set up their coat tails. An unforgettable scene in one of these shops was presented by a clergyman, who stood examining a Bible. Two ladies across the aisle, with clasped hands, breathed admi ration. "Oh, Isn’t he sweet!” said one. I felt like hollering right out. "Madam, you don’t know that old bird." Clergymen, you know, are human be ings. too. Ask any preacher. The very newest books are dis played on special counters, so that those who have plenty of time to devote to the river of fiction may get it without too much splashing around. Then there are fancy little shops of the new type which came in as a result of the Greenwich Village movement. They are down In base ments, or up flights of stairs, or any place except where you would ex pect to find them. Being a timid chap, myself. I am scared to enter these places, so can not give a first-hand description. Prom the outside, looking in, they seem to say; "You are welcome, but you are expected to buy something, you know.” ♦* * * Now that is just exactly what any real booklover does not want to be told, either by direction or indirec tion. He wants a shop where he can wander around .and finally ease him self out. not too close to the pro prietor, if honestly he has no genuli e urge at the time to buy anything. No monetary loss will result to such a shop, for your true booklover will be back. All the Prince of Wales’ horses and all his men cannot keep him away. This Is the ideal toward which all book stores should strive, for it Is not only In keeping with the glori ous traditions of such places, bat also — there- la mossy la lit *1 -~r, ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 11 BY FREDERIC J. HASKIIY. Q. Will moths eat woolen clothing if It is perfectly clean when put away?—M. P. C. I A. The Bureau of Standards says ; that moths will eat woolen Roods [ that is clean, but If there are stains . or spots, these are attacked first. Q. About how many Americans 1 have gone to Europe this year?— ! D. P. A. Up to the present time about 135.000 passports have been issued ■ for Europe this year. This number. ; however, includes amendments to passports. Q. Why Is Mars red?—M. R. W. A. Dr. Asaph Hall says that it may be granite rocks or it may be red clay that Rives back a ruddy reflec tion in the sun’s lißht. Q. Are collies ever black?—S. F. A. The collie dOR may be black, tan, sable or red-oranße-hrown. There . are also some pur© white collies. Q. How hiph is the efficiency of an electric motor?—P. D. J. A. The electric motor is not a prime mover but a means of trans mittinß power. Its efficiency is us ually over 90 per cent. Q. Why is a hammer handle made smaller where it Roes into the ham mer than it is where It is Rrasped by the hand? —W. D. G. A. The hammer handle is made larße enough at the end to fit the hand, and is smaller near the head so as to be more elastic and lessen the jar to the hand. Q, Where is there a marsh whose water is saturated with sodium sul phate?—A. E. D. A. The Geological Survey says that a salt marsh in which the water is composed almost wholly of sodium sulphate is located west of Valmont, New Mexico. Q. Is the author of “The House by the Side of the Road” still living? —G. W. M. A. Sam Walter Foss, the author of the poem “Let Me Dive in a House by the Side of the Road,” died in 1911. Q. How many people are in the United States between the ages of 65 and 100?—R. P. A. Tn the 1920 census the age dis tribution was, 65 to 69, 1.079,817; TO to 74. 706.301 ; 75 to 79. 419,965; 80 to 84, 185,903; 85 to 89. 69,272; 90 to 94, 16.383; 95 to 99, 3,869; 100, 1,561; 92,- 875 ages unknown. Q. What kind of a government has Siam, and what position has Presi dent Wilson’s son-in-law there? —F. R. B. A. Siam is a kingdom and is now under the rule of Rama VI. Francis Sayre is adviser on foreign affairs J to the Siamese government. Q. On the whole, was the Army as sembled in the United States during the World War considered literate or Illiterate?—l. U A. According to records of the Division of • Psychology, Medical De partment of the Army, and the United States census, the wholly illiterate of the whole Army was approximate ly 311,000; relative illiterate, 712,000, c——— ■■■ ■ THE TRAFFIC PROBLEM BY ERSEST GREEMTOOD See retary of the Conference on Street anil Highnay Safety Article IV. It is a tradition in tVashington that the solution of any problem must be preceded by a period of "surveying" i and ‘‘collating." The available data must just be gotten together, and it just must be collated, and then it | just must be redistributed; and presto, you have the solution. This formula provides an excellent occu . pation and living for the professional secretary who. when he isn't a news. . paper man out of a job, is too often a near economist, who ought to know better. Quite a number of our great ; national problems have been solved ' in this fashion. A survey of the available data with regard to the traffic situation ; and accident prevention, however, leaves our former newspaper man, or ' our near economist, high and dry, so to speak. There is, as a matter of fact, mighty little of it. and what there is is rarely comparable. At the present time there are three States which might be called really advanced in this regard; they are the States of Massachusetts, Con- j necticut and Maryland. True, other States are following their lead and passing legislation which will make the data necessary to a successful accident prevention program obtain able, but these three States easily lead the rest in recognition of the . situation. As a result, Stoeckel of Connecticut, Goodwin of Massa chusetts, and Baughman of Maryland, are as popular as topics of conversa tion among students of traffic as the eighteenth amendment is in the smoking compartment of any Pull man. These lads have succeeded in producing figures which at least indi cate trends if nothing else. ** * * But much as we may dislike the statistician who moves in an atmo sphere too rarefied for minds of com mon mold, statistics, and uniform statistics at that, are a necessity to a solution of the traffic problem and to a national policy of accident preven tion. It can easily be shown that a uniform system of reporting acci dents is an absolute fundamental in any program having that end in view. As in everything else, accident pre vention is dependent on past accident experience, and the Information must be comparable. Accident statistics develop the cause, location, frequency and sever ity of accidents. With these four factors in the equation known, the solution is perceptibly nearer. They are, for example, essential to the preparation of a spot map. This is a largo map of the city or State, on which every accident is recorded. It establishes geographic areas of frequency. With it the authorities know where to look for causes which in many instances can be eliminated. Yet, curiously enough, the spot map often shows the greatest frequency to be located on straight level stretches. There is only one answer to this —increase the traffic police pa trol and bring in the speeders and the reckless drivers. ♦* * * Accident statistics in States like Con necticut, where they have been gath ered from every conceivable angle, tell us all sorts of things. They tell us whether legislation should be directed at maximum speeds or at reckless driving. Apparently more accidents occur at low rates of speed than at high. One can be quite as reckless going 15 miles an hour as at 40 miles an hour. Also it seems that more fatal accidents occur out side the cities than in them. Available figures tend to establish the fact that, although traffic may be about the same at the peak hour in the afternoon as at the peak hour in the morning, there will 'be from two to four times as many motor vehicle accidents during the after noon as during the morning. The only answer to this seems to be fatigue, as it is in industrial acci dents. Neither the motor vehicle driver nor the pedestrian is as alert in the late afternon hours as he is in the morning hours. It is a bad - combination. In Connecticut 35 'per cent" of all' acoidenta occur during the three A making a total illiterate class of 1,023,000 and a literate class of 3,067,- 000. Twenty-five per cent of the total Army was illiterate according, to these figures. Q. What verse in the Bible con tains all the letters of the alphabet? —J. M. A. The 21st verse of the 7th Chap ter of the Book of Ezra contains all the letters of the alphabet, with the exception of the letter "J,” which was not included in early alphabets. Q. Is the word used in connection with betting at horse races, “Pari- Mutuel” or "Paris-Mutuel”?—D. R. .. A. The word is “pari-mutuel” and is of French derivation. “Pari” mean* to bet, wager or stake, and “muluel” has the idea of the English world mutual. In “pari-mutuel” bet ting, bookmakers are eliminated, machines recording the number of bets and amounts of money bet on each horse. At the end of the race, all money wagered is divided among the ones who have bet on the win ners, after a percentage is deducted for expenses. Q Is there a hot metal in which a person can insert his hand without burning it?—V. M. A. If a person puts a finger or a hand into metal heated to an ex tremely high temperature and with draws it quickly enough, the mois ture of the skin forms a coating and prevents burning'. This is the same principle as when one wets a finger to test a hot iron. Q. Is it true that school teachers in New England were ever required to dig graves?—B. B. A. According to an old record the duties of an English schoolmaster of 1661 were as follows; “To act as court messenger, to serve summonses, to conduct certain ceremonial services of the church, to lead the Sunday choir, to ring the bell for public worship, to dig graves, to perform other occasional duties.” Q. What is the Pharos of Egyph one of the Seven Wonders of the world?—H. E. A. The word “pharos” means lighthouse, and the Pharos of Egypt was a gigantic beacon which was established at Alexandria, Egypt, to light the mariners to safety. It was built by Ptolemy in £B2 B. C., and it was stated that it was 4no feet high and the light was visible for 60 miles at sea. Q. Should onion tops be fed to poultry?—C. V. A. The tops of onions are eaten in moderate quantities by all kinds of poultry. This food should be kept from birds about to be used for table purposes, and from those producing eggs for food, because the flavor will be imparted to flesh and eggs. (To know where to find information on a subject is, according to Boswell, as true knowledge as to know the subject itself. Perhaps "your drop of ink falling on a thought will make a thousand think.” Submit your perplexing ques tions to The Star Information Burt an. Frederic J. Uaskin. director. Twenty - first and C streets northwest. Bend a two-ccnt stamp for direct reply.) 1 M •*" i Summer months. Only 10 per cent occur during the first three months of the year. This hardly requires explanation. But in 1018. with ' 00.000 motor vehicles registered, Con necticut had 1.987 accidents, while in 1923. with 189,000 registrations, the State's figures show 10,500 accidents. Naturally the authorities ask; "Are Connecticut people four times as careless as they were in 19187" They estimate the toal pecuniary loss from automobile accidents in the State during 1923 at $5,500,000. not count ing hospital bills, loss of time from business and loss of use of car. ** * * An analysis of all accidents in Con necticut shows that 70.5 per cent were the fault of the operator of the car, 22.8 were the fault of other persons, 4 per cent were the fault of defective equipment and 2.7 per cent were due to all other causes. It is my belief that these percentages would hoid good for almost any well populated State. The volume of ex perience is at least sufficient to en- I able us to draw general deductions. They probably would not hold good for States that are largely rural. It is interesting to note that when only fatal accidents are considered nearly as many were the. fault of others as were the fault of the op erator. An attempt to compare the urban and rural fatal accidents, however, leads to no conclusion. For all regis tration States the urban death rate is 16.9 and the rural death rate 8.4, which gives a ratio of urban to rural of 2 to 1. In California, however, the urban death rate is 25.2 and the rural is 27. Here we find that the urban death rate is .93 of the rural rate. In South Carolina the urban death rate is 7 times the rural death rate, while up in Vermont the situation is almost identical with that in California. A very large proportion of the 18,000 motor vehicle fatalities which occur during the year involve chil dren. The average person thinks of these as being children playing in the streets. But the traffic statistician, even with the meager figures at his command, tells us that more children are killed going definitely somewhere than are killed playing in the street. It seems that a child is in more dan ger going straight to or from school than if it stops to play in the only playground of all too many children, the city street. Apparently the child so playing is at least subconscious!v thinking in terms of safety, while the child preoccupied with a definite er rand is not alert. ** * * Accident statistics indicate that the weather is too often unjustly used as an alibi for the accident rate. In Massachusetts 88 per cent of the fatal accidents and 87 per cent of the non fatal accidents occur in fair weather. Fog accounts for 4 per cent of ail accidents. The rain can be blamed for 7 per cent of the fatal and 8 per cent of the non-fatal accidents, while snow causes but X per cent. In Massachusetts. Delaware and Mary land a majority of accidents occur in the day time. Os course, traffic is much heavier during the day than during the night, but one would be inclined to think that this would be more than counterbalanced by the ad ditional hazards due to darkness. 1 have given above just a few facts developed by the careful gathering of statistics to show how necessary the statistician is to any attempt to solve the problem. One sixth of all the deaths due to acci dents In the United States are caused by motor vehicles, and the cause, . lo cation and freguency of these acci dents must be determined before the accident rate can be greatly lowered The three states of Massachusetts Connecticut and Maryland have proved this to be a fact. Other states have proved it. This leads to two rather definite conclusions. First, there should be some uniform system of reporting accidents throughout the United States. Second, the failure on the part of a motorist to report an acident should be made a verv serious offense, punishable with a severe pen alty. (Copyright, Its 4, by Correa t News *’e« lures. Incorporated.!