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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
FRIDAY September 12. 1924
THEODORE W. NOYES Editor
The Evening Star Newspaper Company
Business Otflop, 11th St. and Pennsylvania Are.
New York office: 111) Kent 42nd St.
Chicago 0(11, e; Tower IluililinK
European ulUcc; 16 Resent St.. London. England.
The Kvenins Star, with the Sunday morning
edition, is delivered by carriers within the
city at 00 eents per month: dally only, 45
cent* per month; Sunday only, 20 cents per
month. Ordera may lie sent by mail or tele
phone Main 5000. Collection is made by ear
tiers at the end of each month.
Rate by Mall—Payable in Advance.
Maryland and Virginia.
Daily ami Sunday..! yr.. $8.40 ; j mo., 700
Daily only 1 yr.. $6.00 ; 1 mo., 50c
Sunday only I yr, $2.4 0 ; 1 mo.. 20c
All Other States.
Daily and Sunday.! yr, SIO.OO ; 1 mo.. 85c
Daily only 1 yr, $7.00 : 1 mo.. 60c
Sunday only 1 yr, $3.00 ; 1 mo., 25c
Member of the Associated Press.
The Aiaoeiated Press ia exclusively entitled
to the use for rcpublication of all news din
patches credited to it or not otherwise credited
in this paper and also the local newa pub
lished herein. All rights of publicatit n of
•l>eoial dispatches herein are also reserved.
The Meaning of Defense Day.
Defense day is a test of the readi
ness of the people of this country to
align themselves for the protection of
the Nation from aggression. It is a
demonstration of the degree of de
votion of the citizens of the United
States to the Hag and the principles
of American Government.
Inasmuch as this is a pacific coun
try, -with no designs of oppression or
acquisition, it needs no large organ
ized military force. It must rely for
its defense upon the spontaneous
readiness of its people. It is unlikely
that the United States will ever main
tain great armies in times of peace.
Defense day is in line with the
traditions of American history. It is
a means to the end of peace, a formal
showing, for the benefit of every other
power, that the citizenry of the United
States is available as a resource of
protection if any of them should at
tack.
Yet ttys is not a full and complete
showing of the potential reserves of
American man power. HunwwJj of
thousands of men who would in the
event of emergency volunteer their
services in the Nation’s cause are ab
sent from the ranks of those who
march today. They are busy with
their tasks, or they cannot overcome
the natural feeling of hesitancy which
affects a great many who cannot con
ceive the possibility of a national
menace.
There arc some who are opposed to
war, who would not lift a hand even
in defense, who regard this day as an
invitation to strife, who are willing,
if the Nation should be attacked, that
It should suffer defeat. To them De
fense day is anathema. They are lack
ing in the essentials of true pa
triotism. They claim a virtue in their
default of that quality.
To the pacifist Defense day appears
as a challenge. It savors of defiance,
of a desire for war. That is because
to the one obsessed with the thought
of non-resistance In all things there is
no virtue in taking precautions
against disaster. The pacifist, if |
strictly logical, would refuse to lock
the doors of his home against possible
marauders. But the pacifist is not
logical to that extent. He remains a
strictly individual self-protector, while
denying any responsibility to the
State of which he is a member and
the benefits of which he enjoys.
The measure of the country’s readi
ness to defend itself is not strictly
that of the numbers of today’s demon
strations throughout the country. For
every man who marches there will be
< many times as many who are at heart
souad in their citizenship, and who
would if need arises take their places
in the ranks of the protectors of the
Nation. Those who march today are
the nucleus of a potential army of de
fense.
A state of irritation caused by the
prosecuting officer led Judge Oaverly
to state that certain remarks were
calculated to incite riots. While he
had not then made up his mind, the
court evidently had an inkling that
his ultimate decision was liable to
create a sensation.
Assertion that imprisonment for
life is worse than death is fallacious.
While there is life there is hope, and
„ the term is often- mollified into a
benign technicality.
Facilities have been courteously af
forded one of Chicago's leading
ornithologists for the study of jail
birds.
Alienists in Criminal Trials.
Judge Caverly, in his decision Wed
nesday that Leopold and Loeb should
be committed to prison for life, indi
cated that in his belief the question
of abnormality on the part of capital
criminals should be determined in all
cases, that the commission of such
a crime is a sign of abnormality.
Whether the law be modified in re
spect to punishments or not, this ques
tion is of Importance. In the course
of the hearing In the Leopold and
•* Loeb case the familiar spectacle was
presented of an array of alienists or
psychiatrists engaged at great ex
pense by both sides presenting their
opinions as to the responsibility of the
accused. There were two diametrical
ly conflicting set of opinions. The
specialists engaged by the defense all
declared that they believed the youths
to be irresponsible, although the word
insanity was scrupulously avoided
throughout. On the other hand, those
who represented the prosecution gave
their judgment in precisely opposite
terms.
This is a common occurrence in
cases where the accused persons have
the means to employ experts. The
rate at which the specialists served
the defense in Chicago was stated at
$250 a day. Plainly only a wealthy
defendant could possibly afford such
service. Perhaps the rate varies with
the wealth or resources of the ac
cused. In any case, however, the
spectacle of extravagantly expensive
hired testimony serving in a court of
Justice is repulsive to the public sense
Os propriety.
It has been frequently proposed
that In every case where the mental
ernnditfrm-qt the accused, jjerspa fa V
volved the court Itself should name a
commission of alienists competent to
conduct a thorough examination and
make an Impartial report. Much time
would be saved and great expense
avoided. The opinion of specialists
, chosen by the court and charged with
the duty of learning the truth with
out prejudice would be of far more
value than that of the psychiatrists
who hire themselves out to one side
or the other and are pledged by vir
tue of their employment to give opin
ions favorable to the wishes of their
employer.
To make the trial of a man for his
life a means of large profit is surely
not in accordance with the highest
ethics. Os course, so long as the prac
tice continues po specialist can be
particularly blamed for accepting op
portunities for a rich fee, provided he
gives a perfectly honest opinion, un
affected by the wishes of the side that
hires him. But there is small belief on
the part of the people in the absolute
integrity of the testimony of those
who are thus hired.
Let the court learn through its own
agencies whether an accused person
Is mentally unbalanced to a degree
warranting acquittal or mitigation of
punishment. Neither the defense nor
the prosecution should be permitted to
becloud the issue and confuse the
minds of jurymen by offering expert
opinions which are shaped by the
source of the fees.
The Greatest Issue.
Last Saturday at Baltimore Presi
dent Coolidge directed the attention
of the country to the menace of the
movement for the transfer from the
Supreme Court to Congress of the
power of interpreting the Constitu
tion. Yesterday at Milwaukee, the
very home of the third party candi
date for President, Gen. Dawes di
rectly and forcibly attacked the La
Follette jiarty and candidacy on the
same score of radicalism and menace
to the fundamental American insti
tutions.
Thus is the Republican attack upon
the Progressive |»arty in this cam
paign rather than upon the Demo
cratic party. La Follette is recog
nized as the major opponent polit
ically. The place where Gen. Dawes
made his speech is significant. Mil
waukee is the center of what is now
called progrcssivlam. ViTTVile the Presi
dent at Baltimore did not mention the
party or the candidate. Gen. Dawes
at Milwaukee employed no remoteness
of reference. He spoke the name of
both party and candidate without
hesitation.
In this manner does the question
of the integrity of the Supreme Court
become virtually the major issue of
the campaign. It is not a local ques
tion affecting the people of one part
of the country more than another.
It is national in scope and significance.
Nor is it a made-up issue brought
forth for purposes of camouflage. It
is of most vital importance to all the
people whether the Supreme Court
should be maintained as the final in
terpreter of the laws and of the Con
stitution.
If the Progressive party had its will
| in this matter, the power of deter
mining the constitutionality of the
law would be left to Congress, the
maker of the law. There would be no
check against radicalism. Once that
change was made nothing could stand
in the way of a swift reversal of all
the fundamental principles of govern
ment. From Congress to Congress
changes would be made now toward
sovietism, now back In reaction to
ward conservatism. Chaotic would be
the consequences of such alternations
of successive waves of emotional pop
ular will.
The Government of the United
States is founded upon the principle
of stability. When once that principle
is assailed the Government Itaelf Is
menaced. Beside the question of con
stitutional maintenance all other Is
sues become insignificant. In this one
respect the campaign of the Progres
sive party of 1924 is more menacing
to American institutions than was the
Democratic campaign of 1896, based
upon the Chicago platform, with all
its dangerous radicalism.
£ distinguished visitor from Europe
needs to be a patient and discriminat
ing observer to overcome the super
ficial impression that the two great
ideas in this country are base ball and
beauty culture. Defense day helps to
correct misapprehension in this con
nection.
A wise man knows when to change
his mind. The Defense day demon
strations will offer valuable sugges
tions to statesmen who have had their
doubts about preparedness. A move
ment so popular is worthy the re
spectful consideration of any discreet
and discerning campaigner.
The most successful contenders of
late years for more pay and shorter
hours have been the pugilists.
Jewel Bobberies.
Possession of a fortune in jewelry
involves responsibility and risk. Such
a fortune is a prize for which thieves
will always plan and plot. Big jewel
robberies are reported in the news
from day to day, and one of the re
cent crimes of this kind was the theft
of pearls and diamonds worth $250,000
from a Long Island home where
friends and relatives of the Prince of
Wales were visiting. Very few people
would carry a quarter of a million
dollars on the person or leave it in
their rooms, and a quarter of a mil
lion dollars In jewels may be less
bulky and more easily carried off than
that sum of money. A fortune in
pearls and diamonds ia hard to aafe
guard. It cannot be worn all the
time, and if this were done the wearer
would always have to be under pro
tection of armed guards* When not
worn it must be left somewhere, and
it is not easy to shift pearls and dia
monds from the person to a safe
deposit box. There are many times
when such a fortune must be lying
around to be taken up by a shrewd
thief, or as a temptation to a person
to become a thief. The ownership of
such a fortune Involves heavy re
sponsibility, and it would seem tba.'t
a woman having such possessions
must b§ oXteu tjittelßK fft then wbea,
THE EVENING STAR, WASHINGTON, D. C.. FRIDAY* SEPTEMBER 12, 1924.
. she might be thinking of lighter and
i happier things.
The Jewel robbery now prominent
i in the news is a mystery. All these
robberies are mysteries at first, and
some of them remain so. In most
cases the mystery is cleared up, and
Is found to have been a very simple
crime and easy to Commit. A thief
i entered the house, was mistaken by
servants for a guest and got off with
the jewels, or a person already In the
house and a member of the house
staff or a guest, seeing the splendid
jewels lying around, took them. What
the detectives will find, if they dis
cover anything, in the case of this
Long Island robbery is not to be pre
dicted, but they say they have clues
and that they will get to the bottom
of the mystery.
The possession of a fortune In
pearls, diamonds and rubies may exalt
a woman in the eyes of some other
women, but it is a fortune which
must cause the owner considerable
Care and. besides that, it pays no divi
dends and is easily lost.
The Home Stretch.
Tomorrow the Washington base ball
club begins Its final invasion of the
West. It will play three games suc
cessively in Detroit, Cleveland, St.
Louis and Chicago while its nearest
competitor for the American League
pennant is playing in the same cities
an equal number of games in different
order. On their return East each team
will play four final games, Washing
ton against Boston and New York
against Philadelphia. Upon these 16
games for each club will depend the
championship. Only one game now
separates the two teams. To win from
Washington, New York must win two
more games than Washington wins—
as. for example, it must win 10 while
losing 6, Washington meanwhile win
ning only 8 and losing 8. Should New
York win one more game than Wash
ington, the result would be a tie and
the championship would be decided by
a play-off series, perhapsof three games,
between the two clubs. On one occa
sion only in the past has a tie oc
curred, and it was decided by a sin
gle game added to the schedule.
The hopes of the Capital City go
West with the team. Washington, de
nied the honor of a base ball cham
pionship in all the years of Its par
ticipation and representation in the
game, is now within reach of that
coveted piece of bunting called the
pennant. Every game will be of im
portance, every play will have a bear
ing upon the result. Truly, base ball
has the call upon the attention of the
Capital public now as never before
in the history of the sport.
The Broadway musical comedian
has often been represented as a very
temperamental and difficult per
sonage, The Prince of Wales no
doubt is pleased at finding him a
thoroughly affable and democratic
person.
As soon as Judge Caverly delivers
the concluding remarks in the famous
trial over which he has presided the
public may hope to relinquish the
study of psycho-analysis and give its
attention to plain politics.
The majority of Germans may be
expected to avoid allowing discussion
of the responsibility for the war to
divert their attention from the de
sirability of preparing for the world’s
Christmas toy market.
Hay-pitching contests among states
men would be an economic benefit if
it could persuade ablebodied talent
generally to regard farm work as an
outdoor sport.
SHOOTING STABS.
BY PHILANDER JOHNSON.
Solemn Counsel.
Beware the comedy, oh, friend,
Though wondrous is its lure.
Its use unskilled will often end
With fortune insecure.
Beware the mild impromptu jest,
Beware the anecdote;
A platitude is favored best
By those who cast the vote.
Cling to the high hat and the coat
Which falls below the knees.
Old truths in measured accents quote,
But don’t attempt a wheeze.
The laugh which stirs discerning wit
May often prove a snare.
So, friend, if you would make a hit.
Os comedy beware.
Arts of Exaggeration.
"Why don’t you quit work for’
a while and go fishing?"
“I don’t dare go fishing," answered
Senator Sorghum. "A number of peo
ple are ready to hint that I take lib
erties with the truth and they’d In
sinuate that 1 get into these fishing
parties for the sake of the practice.”
Perplexities.
There were some things I thought I
knew.
The lawyers said a thing or two.
And made their arguments so strong
That now I can’t tell right from
wrong.
Jud Tonkins says a man’s opin
ion may be something like a boy’s
mongrel puppy. Os course he has &
right to it, but no one can see what
he wants with it.
Josh, Himself!
“Your boy Josh says he's going to be
an actor for the films."
"Not only that,” answered Ifermer
Corntoesel. “While he’s gettin’ ready
to start be thinks we all ought to be
mighty generous an* grateful for the
privilege of eeetn’ him for nothin.’ ” ,
The Saving Sense.
Though problems deep present a task
Which serious care must claim;
We hold to custom and we ask,
“Who won the base ball game?”
It Isn’t that men care so much
For these athletic frays,
But Just to keep'ourselves in touch
With honest human ways.
“It’s queer,” said Uncle Eben, “how
much mo’ apt we is to brag about
wlnnin' a little on a boss race instid
of 'bout earnin' twice as much sum
■U ■
THE TRAFFIC PROBLEM
BY ERNEST GREENWOOD
Secretsry •( the Conference on Street and Highway Safety
Article V.
Most folks look upon “traffic con
trol” simply as “laws designed for
the control of traffic, and policemen
to enforce them.” But while laws
and their enforcement are a neces
sary requirement of any scheme of
traffic control, these laws and their
enforcement are not in themselves
the solution of the traffic problem:
they are the logical effect of the so
lution. The traffic-control expert
studies his problem, decides on the
remedy, and then calls upon the law
makers for legislation and traffic of
ficers to enforce It.
There are half % dozen highways
leading to traffic control, but they
all terminate in a common center,
around which the whole question re
volves, like motor vehicles them
selves drawn Into the vertex of a
complete rotary system. This is
standardization.
Uniformity of control fs the most
Important factor in solving the traf
fic problem from the standpoint' of
traffic control, whether that uni
formity is to be accomplished by
State or by Federal legislation. This
I believe to be the keynote of the
thought in the mind of every man
connected with the conference on
street and highway safety. It cer
tainly expresses the thought of Sec
retary Hoover when he asked the
question "Are we to have some
recognized uniformity of traffic laws
and rules regulating the use of auto
mobiles that will reduce the toil in
human life and limb and the great
property loss that results every year
—growing larger each year—from
reckless, careless, criminal or even
well Intenlioned. but incompetent
driving?"
♦♦ ♦ ♦
Certain uniformity of traffic regu
lation is a thing to be prayed for by
tho motorist who may have occasion
to travel from State to State or even
from his home town to a. neighboring
community in the same State. And
surely It is an echo of the soliloquy
of the traffic office, who, observing the
license tag on a car which seems to
be violating every traffic regulation,
wonders when drivers from other
States or cities will become "city
broke.”
The citizen from Harrisburg. Da.,
motors to Washington, for the week
end. In making a left hand turn he
passes to the left of the traffic of
ficer at the street intersection. That
is the way they do it in Harrisburg,
In Washington it is a major offense.
Had he been a resident of this city
he might be given an opportunity to
study one of the District’s nice jails
first hand. The citizens of the Dis
trict ipending the week end in Harris
burg will have very much the same
experience. In Harrisburg one is
permitted to drive on the car tracks
between the isles of safety as well as
to the left or right of them. Try it
in Washington. You may get an op
portunity to listen to quaint remarks
about your ancestry, your brand of
mental deficiency, and your ultimate
destination if you don’t hire a com
petent driver to drive your car.
The railroad man, thinking in
terms of his railroad, points to the
uniformity of method in operating
trains everywhere In the country,
without which - their managements
would be utterly helpless. Specific
signals, colors. terminology and a
host of other things in railroad oper
ation mean one and the same thing
to a railroad man whether he be in
Maine or California, Wisconsin or
Louisiana. The pedestrian ponders
sadly on the fact that signals mean
one thing in Denver, Colo., and quite
another in Cleveland, Ohio, as he
travels toward the hospital in a ve
hicle not equipped with a taximeter
♦* * *
In connection with the question of
uniformity of hand signaling by the
driver there are two schools of
though. The one calls for three sig
nals by the driver: fl) Left arm ex
tended and hand pointing down for
stop; (2) extended at right angles to
the body for turn to the left; (3) ex
tended and pointing upward for turn
to the right. The other insists that
there should be one universal signal:
atm and hand extended to Indicate to
I EV TODAY’S SPOTLIGHT
BY PAUL V. COLLINS.

On what a slender strand does the
fate of an explorer hang:!
Twenty thousand radio amateurs,
besides hundreds of professional ex
perts, were listening-in upon instru
ments of all degrees of delicacy!
Only one—William J. Zeidlick of East
Grand Forks, Minn.—caught the far
away voice of the lost Arctic ex
plorer, Capt. Donald B. Macmillan of
the ship Bowdoin.
♦♦ ♦ ♦
For five months that voice from the
froien North had been silent. At last,
an inland amateur’s Instrument had
caught the pulsating waves which
told civilisation that though the ex
plorer’s ship had been frosen fast in
the polar ice for 320 days, and that
through the five months of “summer”
when the sun never set, the Arctic
light had damped down the radio
messages and stopped all communica
tion, the stars were again shining,
and out of the grip of the merciless
ice the lost explorers were returning
home.
The Bowdoin arrived in Battle
Harbor, Labrador, fast Tuesday, and
Capt. McMillan reports by radio that
she will sail for Wlscasset, Me., to
day (Friday). It was from Wlscas
set that the expedition set out, June
23, 1#23. From recent radio mes
sages It was learned that the ship
missed the relief ship sent out a few
days ago by Canada. Between
Labrador and Newfoundland the re
turning explorers will cross the path
of the triumphant world-flyers, who
have demonstrated a future method
of conquering the froxen regions,
more safely and expeditiously than
on the waves.
♦♦ ♦ *
In that first message from Capt.
Macmillan he told of having placed a
National Geographic Society bronze
tablet at Cape Sabine, Ellesmere
Land, in memory of the 16 men of
Greely’s heroic band who died in 1882
while searching for the north pole.
That bronae, set in rock more than
800 miles north of the Arctic circle —
the then "farthest north”—is one of
the most northern monuments in the
world. Only seven of the Greely
party of 23 survived the terrible or
deal of an Arctic winter; without fuel
and food, they had no strength to
continue their journey southward. Os
that seven, two are living in Wash
ington, Maj. Gen. A. W. Greely (re
tired) and Brig. Gen. David L. Bral
nerd (retired).
In Shakespeare’s words: "Let them
tell the tale. Tour hearts will throb."
♦♦ ♦ ♦
There have been many far-flung
explorations of the world-famous Na
tional Geographic Society, whose
headquarters are here in Washington.
The records of these explorations of
high adventure and Important sclen
•tlflc knowledge form its most endur
ing memorials. Its expeditions have
penetrated humid Jungles, explored
the trackless Arctic, and traversed
desert and mesa for traces of pre
historic peoples.
Its first expedition was 25 years
ago, when scientists ascended Mount
St. Elias, Alaska. They crossed the
glaciers which had harrowed the
earth after volcanoes had plowed it.
Beyond the ice. they emerged Into
valleys which were veritable para
dises of flowers, over which floated
.mlrwea gggfc M [email protected] ffWch*
the traffic behind that the driver is
. going to do something. This later
. idea is certaihly the most simple
i method of signaling, and there is
, some merit in the claim that if the
driver in the rear knows that the car
■ ahead is going to do something—that
is. turn in one direction or the other
i or stop—he should be alert and have
; his car under absolute control. At
least there can be no confusion with
a single signal.
Uniformity, of course, eliminates all
alibis. If we had the same laws and
rules and regulations not only In all
States but In all cities of every State
i the visiting motorist could never
plead ignorance. He never could
say, “that isn’t the way they do it
in my town.” He could never excuse
his ignorance by claiming lack of
. proper direction and control signs on
i entering a State or town. He could
not expect to get off with a warning
because of his ignorance. With a
uniform|code he would have to ex
pect the same penalties as the resi
dent motorist.
♦♦ ♦ *
If we should have uniformity in
• laws, rules and regulations in the
hand signals of the driver we should
also have uniformity in the signals of
the traffic officer. The whistle or
hand signal of the traffic officer in
i St. Louis, Mo., should be as familiar
to the tourist from Portland, Oreg.,
as it is to the St. Louis truck driver.
The taxicab driver in Atlanta, Ga„
obtaining a job in Detroit, Mich.,
should need no instruction in the
■ code of the police department of the
latter city. The same thing Is true
of traffic control systems which in
clude tower and semaphore signaling.
Uniformity of color signals, or color
codes as they are called, is also im
portant. Condemnation of the use of
the color red for any purpose what
soever, except as a command to come
to a full stop, is heard on all sides.
Railroads never use this color except
for that purpose. To tho motorist it
now seems to mean nothing more
than keep to the left and run around
it. It is no more a signal of Immi
nent danger than the twinkle of an
oil lamp in the window of a farm
house. Traffic experts urging uni
formity of colors Insist that some
other color be used for various pur
poses, as, for example, amber for the
rear lights of motor vehicles.
** * *
Uniform traffic control and direc
tion signs are l.eing adopted in many
States and are a great comfort to the
motorist. They are usually of an out
standing design and color combina
tion that cannot be confused with
the many advertising signs infesting
our highways. The use of direction
signs for advertising purposes is uni
versally condemned and with the in
coming of the standard sign erected
by the States many national adver
tisers are discontinuing the use of
private signs
The question of uniformity and
standardization runs through every
phase of the traffic problem. Uni
formity of method of reporting acci
dents seems to be imperative. Uni
formity of method in licensing drivers
Is being urged. State officials, par
ticularly in the Eastern States, are
recognizing its value, and the organ
ization known as the Eastern Con
ference of Motor Vehicle Commission
ers is traveling rapidly in this direc
tion. States are modeling law after
law which has been founfi to be suc
cessful in reducing the accident rate
In other States. Cities are adopting
expedients which have relieved con
gestion in other cities. The Inter
national Association of Police Chiefs
meets in convention each year and
each year methods of handling traffic
occupy more and more time on the
convention program. Great organiza
tions such as the National Automobile
Chamber of Commerce, the American
Association, the American
Automobile Association and the Na
tional Safety Council are all preach
ing uniformity. Just as long as the
present multitude of complex laws
and street and highway practices
exist the whole traffic situation can
not help but be a more or less help
less mess from the standpoint of the
motorist.
(Copyright, 1924. hy Current News Fea
tures, Inc.)
1
Spring in Alaska, caused the crash
of Maj. Martin’s plane against a
mountain, so ending hl» world flight
** * *
The next expedition was to the
saw-toothed Pelee Mountain, in the
Island of Martinique. This was in
1901—just a year before the volcano
exploded -ind wiped out the city of
bt. Pierre, killing its 30,000 inhabit
ants and destroying 17 ships at an
chor In the harbor.
Several other explorations followed
They were valuable, especially in
stimulating scientific study of vol
canoes, which, up to that time, had
been almost unstudied. These vol
canic investigations reached their
climax In an expedition to Mount
Katmai, on the Alaska peninsula
where, following a wisp of sky-hung
smoke, the explorer discovered the
now famous “Valley of Ten Thousand
Smokes.”
♦* ♦ *
An expedition now In progress In
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, is putting
life into history. This section is be
lieved to have been once the most
densely populated part of North
America. The explorers have built a
small railroad with which to haul
away the debris from Pueblo Bonito
the “beautiful village”—so that they
may discover minute evidence how
these long-lost people worked, lived,
loved and worshiped their godg.
In Peru an expedition has un
earthed the burled city of Machu
Picchu, once an Inca metropolis, near
which was discovered the origin of
the potato and corn.
Other achievements to the credit of
the Geographic Society are the un
covering of an American Pompeii at
Culcilco, near Mexico City; the pene
tration of the unrivaled subterranean
beauties and vast chambera of amaz
ing magnificence near Carlsbad, N. M.;
the discovery of aboriginal peoples In
China of pre-Buddhist religions, and
the finding of a river gorge In China
twice as deep as the Grand Canyon of
Colorado.
Nowhere else in the world is there
a scientific organization which Is
more active and so popularly suc
cessful in advancing knowledge of our
globe than is the National Geographic
Society of Washington. When the
president of the society and the edi
tor of its magazine, Dr. Gilbert
Grosvenor, yrived In Washington In
1899 to direct the affairs of the society
he was ushered Into half a room In
the old Corcoran Building, given part
time of a clerk and informed that the
society had a debt of several thou
sand dollars. Today—about a quarter
of a century later—the society has
950,000 members, occupies its own
commodious quarters and employs
more than 600 people. It is said that
its official organ, the National Geo
graphic Magazine, goes to every
American community where there are
50 or more persons; to every country
which has a postal system, and is car
ried to some members by dogs, cam
els, curious canoes and coolie porters.
Next to Government institutions the
society is the largest patron of the
Washington post office.
President Grosvenor was a pioneer
in the conception that geography
should not teach physiography only,
but should present the eoience In re
, J*Uon to aanhlnd’a welfare and *l'
,
THIS AND THAT
BY C. E. TRACEWELIi.
A radio store is the entrance to
the land of mystery, the gateway to
| a wonderful experience, as well as
the door to entertainment.
Whether you “make Your own” or
get It already made, like a suit of
■ clothes, you go to a radio shop first,
either to get the necessary parts or
buy an equipped radio receiving set.
This is why such a store is among
the most interesting of shops to
thousands of persons, and it explains
why they have sprung up all over
Washington during the past year.
To me a radio shop is at once de
lightful and disconcerting, giving
one the articles to engage in a fas
' clnating pursuit, and therefore ful
filling its function.
However many times the, radio
fan heartily curses the radio shop,
he goes back again regularly to buy
strange devices with queer names,
Like Omar, he wonders what the radio
Store keeper buys half as fine as
what he sells.
In view of the surpassing wonder
and entertainment of radio and its
future possibilities, real pity is to be
felt for those who have not engaged
in the greatest of "indoor sports.”
This is written with no Intent to
drum up trade for the radio stores.
They can take care of themselves
very nicely. My care is for the thou
sands who as yet have not engaged
in the game of radio, which comes as
near to rehabilitating the home as
any other one thing in the world.
Surely many homes need mending.
A professional home mender could
suggest no better thing for many
families than a radio receiving set.
It would keep the old man home tin
kering around and the children off
the streets.
Radio is something that no one
ought to miss, yet thousands still
look upon it as a curiosity, in (hat
put-off way most of us have when
our attention is called to something
we know little about.
The home that possesses a radio
receiving set, no matter how small a
one, has something that kings did
not have a few years ago. He has
national political conventions right
in his living room, music on tip,
sporting events on his rug.
** * *
Purchasing the first crystal set
gives the average fan his first taste
of the radio store. Something has
stirred him to the sticking point.
Maybe he had better go gel one of
“them there radios."
He crosses the portal with mis
giving, not knowing as yet that this
is no ordinary door—the gateway to
mystery, experience and entertain
ment. Now he is after a “radio,”
whatever that Is.
Where he makes his big mistake
is to be apologetic about buying a
crystal set. “I am going to buy a
bigger set later,” he carefully ex
plains to the clerk —who has hoard
it before. “I thouht I would get a
crystal set for awhile.”
“Yes, sir. here is a good one,” says
the clerk. I put the “yes, sir,” in for
good measure. Most of them are so
busy they have no time to "yes sir”
their customers.
The customer looks at the small
box. with a bit of wire poking down
into a round object he has read
enough about to recognize as the
“crystal,” from which the set gets
its name.
After much deliberation upon his
part, put up purely for show, he hands
out the purchase price and goes away
with his strange “buy” held gingerly
under his arm.
No one, even the wealthiest, need
be apologetic about buying the cheap
est of radio sets, for here is a new
thing in the world of trade:
The cheapest, in many ways, is the
best.
For purity of tone nothing in radio
equals the crystal set, the mineral
being the best rectifier there is. When
a city is blessed with two fine broad
casting stations, such as WCAP and
WRC, as has the National Capital, a
crystal set is adequate.
As for wonder, the most elaborate
multi-tube set in the world, with Us
mysterious audions, has nothing on the
crystal set—superwonderful because
it is so simple. Here is a coil of wire,
a crystal, a “cat’s whisker,” and
precious little else, yet it brings in all
that the local stations broadcast—er,
radiocast.
** * *
The radio store always has a line by
the counter, behind which busy young
fellows dispense condensers, transform
ers, buss wire, crystals, tubes, bat
teries, sets, antenna wire and literally
hundreds of other devices used in this
interesting game.
The customer slips in edgewise, dur
ing the Fall and Winter season, when
the naive radio men declare radio re
-1 ception is at Its best —as it is. Just
why they ever took it so seriously in
the Summer, declaring that many radio
fans put their sets away, when most
of them do nothing of the kind, is
another of the mysteries of this mys
terious thing.
You have got to know what you are
buying in these stores, with their talk
of radio frequencies, audio frequencies,
superheterodynes, neutrodynes, grid
circuits, grid leaks, inductances, vario
couplers, rheostats; or, if you do not,
you have to put up a mighty big bluff
that you do.
The typical small boy is the best
sample of radio customer. He usually
knows what he wants, why he wants
It and what it ought to cost. Unlike
many of his elders—including yours
truly—who will take any old thing
once, the email boy sasses the radio
’ shop clerk for all he is worth. And,
as Is the way in this world, generally
he is more respected and gets just what
ho wants.
,** * *
Once a man is a radio fan he auto
• maticaily becomes music critfc, address
hound, judge of tone values and modu
lations.
After a year or so of listening he
wonders why the stations do not put
1 on more piano eolos. as nothing comes
“through the air” any better: why they
| allow a man to epeak for a full half
an hour on a dull subject; why they
permit the orchestras and bands to use
: drums, which are disagreeable in the
headphones or “loud speaker.”
Upon these things, however, many
fans would disagree, eo what can the
broadcasting stations do? After “listen
ing In” for a year, I want to express
my appreciation here for the splendid
work done by the two local broadcast
ing stations. In doing so, I am sure I
; I voice the sentiments of thousands.
Stations should not feel that the
fans are unappreciative because they
do not write letters of commendation
1 all the time. Not all listeners are of
the type that writes letters to persons
' they do not know. Many have a dell
-1 cacy of feeling about this that can be
appreciated.
Drug stores minister to the health
; and cleanliness of the body. Book
> stores serve the mind and spirit. Radio
’ shops. In their turn, keep alive the
fesling of myatery and wonder in man.
One often wonder* whet it 1* they boy
1 One-half ea precious ai the thing they aell.
When a man sits down before his
radio and slowly turns the dials he
1 not only "tunes in” the broadcasting
‘ station, but puts himself in tune with
| forces that underlie the world.
• man activities; also that photography
• teaches more vividly than mere words.
Among the most notable contribu
■ tors to the magasine have been Chief
■ Justice Taft, President Theodore
, Roosevelt, President Coolidge, Vis
s count James Bryce. Ambassador Jus
s serand, the Marquis Curzon of Ked
leston, Sir Ernest Shackelton, Sir
■ Ross Smith and numerous explorers
’ foremost In their fields. Its officers
, and trustees include men of the high*
■ set standing In the nation.
4 Sinl Y fWf I—i 1 —i
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS | 1
BY FREDERIC J. UASKIN
Q. What hind of fair is the one
that is to be held in Paris next
year?—R. W. F.
A. It Is to be an exposition of
French decorative arts. Such a crowd
is expected that four large hotels
are to be built in order to care for
visitors.
Q. Is it possible to light a lamp
without any wires attached to it?—
J. H. I.
A. The Bureau of Standards says
that it is possible to cause a glass
tube or lamp bulb, if evacuated, to
glow when brought into a strong
electric field. The glass tube used to
test spark plugs on automobiles is
an example. But It can hardly be
said that one can “light a lamp" by
this method. The filament of an
ordinary Mazda lamp can not be
lighted, but the bulb can be made
to glow with a bluish color without
connecting It to the source of power.
High voltage, high frequency trans
formers or induction colls are need
ed to do this.
Q. How did it happen that the
terms “Old Glory” was applied to the
American flag?—R. W. A.
A. The origin of the term is con
tained in a letter written by Robert
S. Rantoul, president of the Essex
Institute, Salem, Mass., w’here the
flag about which it was said is still
kept. According to a report, Capt.
Driver of Salem, in 1803, commanded
the brig Charles Doggett, which
sailed on its famous voyage which
resulted in the rescue of the muti
neers of the British ship Bounty. A
letter acknowledging this service
contains Driver’s autograph, dated
November 16, 1880. and bears the
words, “My ship, my country and my
flag, Old Glory." It may be fairly
assumed, therefore, that the phrase
"Old Glory” originated with Capt.
Driver. The flag which was sq desig
nated by him was presented to him
by a friend before starting on this
voyage.
Q. What is the name of the Italian
book written in the 15th century
which was mentioned frequently in
the Leopold and Loeb trial? —W. W.
A. The great work on crlmirtology
by Cesare Lombroso, Italian crltninol
ogist, born 1836, died 1909, which is
quoted in the trial of Loeb and. Le
opold is “The Criminal.” Allusions
have also been made to Lombroso’s
work on “Sumnormal Psychology”
and “Criminal Man." by T. L. Ferrero
according to classification by Cesare
Lombroso.
Q. Where was Laurens street in
old New York City?—T. M.
A. According to Rider’s “New
York.” a part of West Broadway was
known as Laurens street previous to
1760.
Q. Please give the history of the
section of a redwood tree which
stands in the grounds of the Depart
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C.—J. G. B.
A. The Department of Agriculture
says that this section of a tree was
sent here from the World's Columbian
Exposition in 1893. This tree was
originally 300 feet high, and stood
on the boundary line between Fresno
and Tulare Counties, California. The
portion utilized was cut 20 feet from
the ground and even at this height
was 26 feet in diameter and 85 feet
in circumference. The section was
30 feet high, the interior being hol
lowed out to such an extent that a
spiral stairway was built in the
middle after reaching Chicago, thus
affording visitors a desired oppor
tunity of ascending to the top and
taking a panoramic view from one
of the giant specimens of the botani
cal world. On arrival here it was set
up on a concrete base and a suitable
roof placed on its top to protect it
against undue deterioration through
weather.
Q. How many building and loan
associations are there in this coun
try?—W. J.
A. There are more than 10,000 of
these associations, with a total mem
bership of about 7,000,000 and asset
of about $3,500,000,000.
Q. What is meant by "at the mar
ket”?—N. I.
A. In Wall street parlance this is
Intelligence Tests
in the Schools
To the Editor of The SUr:
I wish to express disapproval of the
"intelligence tests” given in the pub
lic schools. So far these tests are an
experiment in Washington. I do not
want my children used for experi
ments. Experiments on rats and
guinea pigs for scientific purposes
are beneficial to mankind, but ex
periments on children are danger
ous, especially trying to push them
ahead in school. A child cannot “skip”
grammar, geography, history or arith
metic and know those subjects. He
does not "already know” what he haa
not learned. The idea of promoting
a SB child to 78. or a 7A child to
high school is as unreasonable as it
is ridiculous. Immature children pro
moted to high school by these tests
are at a disadvantage in many ways.
They have nothing in common with
children of regular high school age.
The older minds dominate.
The expense of these tests is paid
not by the City of Washington—ex
cept for S2O(8 —but by clubs, associa
tions and private contribution. We
do not want charity. Under the law
there is no appropriation for a psycho
logical expert to give these tests.
The psychologist employed occupies
the position of supervisor of the divi
sion in which the tests are given. If
this new test system were highly
commendable or very desirable. Con
gress would not hesitate to appro
priate the necessary funds.
We already have an adequate sys
tem of education except for the back
ward child. By these tests children
are grouped as “rapid,” “average” and
“slow.” The Idea of promoting one
group more rapidly than another is
un-American. It gives advantage to
the "rapid” child. The “rapid” chil
dren who “skip” are given help outside
by their own or coaching teachers to
make up the subjects they miss between
the grades. The teachers must see that
the “rapid” children “make good,” else
their failure reflect* on their teaching.
On this account "rapid” children get
more attention than "slow" children.
Giving every child an equal chance is
the true and tried American way.
"Rapid” children are endowed at birth
with advantage enough. The help, if
any, should go to unfortunate children
who have been absent on account of
sickness or quarantine.
Many times children doing poor
glass work pass high on those testa,
and on the other hand children doing
good class work make a poor show
ing. The teachers are at a loss to
explain the variation between the
marks on the report cards and the
marks on the tests, because they do
not give their testa No report is
made to the parent*. A parent cannot
get a statement of hia child’s mental
standing from any teacher. The
teaohers are not supplied with rec
ords showing the “intelligence quo
tient” obtained by the testa Now in
a public school there should not be
so much secrecy about the children’s
marks. Why give the tests unless
prepared to state and discuss the re
sults?
The children who get the high
averages on their report cards are
the ones who should go ahead. The
depressing effect on the children who
are left behind is marked. They see
the injustice. What the parents want
1* net psychology, but ethics.
ZUi tut l/iUD to .work perfectly
a form used in orders to brokers tP
buy or sell at the best price that the
market affords when the order reach
es the place of trading. >
Q. When was it found that bread
could be made light?—W. N.
A. It is impossible to state when
the use of leaven or yeast was dis
covered, but H was known very early
in the history of man. being men
tioned in the Bible, Exodus 12:15.- j
Q. How did the expression "to
the bitter end” originate?—E. C. 0>
A. The true phrase was “better
end,” and was used to indicate a
crisis or moment of extremity. When
in a storm an anchored vessel had
paid out all of her cable, the rope
ran out. to the better end—that is, to
the end that was In better condition
because seldom used.
Q. Did Gen. Pershing himself visit
the tomb of Lafayette or did he send
a representative?—M. N. A.
A. The War Department says that
Gen. Persning with his staff visited
the tomb of Lafayette, <
Q. Why is the record given for
home runs, hits, etc., always based
on "major league” base ball? —R. G.
A. Some of the minor leagues,
particularly the Pacific Coast League,
can play for a much longer season.
Naturally, it would not be fair to
compare their records with leagues
where the season must be much
shorter.
Q. What is meant by “balance of
trade”?—S. G. T.
A. This term applies to the differ-
ence between the values of exports
and imports- The balance of trade
is in favor of the United States when
this country has exported more than
it has imported. Tijis difference was
formerly measured roughly by the
outflow or inflow of precious metals
in settlement of accounts. Many
factors enter into analyses of modern
trade relations and only broad gen
eral tendencies can be indicated in
discussion of trade balances.
Q. Can you give a formula for siz
ing rugs at home?—V. M. G.
A. Take one gallon of hot water,
and one quart of powdered or dry
glue; keep on stove until all the glue
is dissolved. Stretch rug or carpet
and tack wrong side up on the floor.
With a whitewash brush go over it
with the solution, being careful to
wet it evenly, especially the edges.
Paper should be put under the edges 1
of the rug to protect the floor, use the
solution hot and leave the rug tacked
until dry.
Q. What is adobe made of?—J. E. L.
A. This is a name applied to sun
dried bricks made from any suitable
material which hardens on exposure
to the sun. Often such bricks are
made of turf and straw. This mate
rial can be used in very dry climates
only.
Q. What are the factors in physi
cal efficiency?—A. H.
A. Food, clothing. shelter and
habits of life make up the elements
upon which physical efficiency is
based. |
Q What is the plural of "memo
randum”?—M. J.
A. While the form generally used
for the plural is “memoranda,” the
newer editions of dictionaries and
encyclopedias also give “memoran
dums.”
Q. Why are pearls considered an
emblem of tears?—S. S. D.
A. There is an old superstition that
pearls are the congealed tears of
Heaven. There was a belief in the
East that at the full moon the pearl
oyster rose to the surface of the sea
and opened to receive falling dew
drops from Heaven, whicli hardened
into pearls.
i Inform and entertain yourself by
making constant use of The Star In- I
formation Bureau. Frederic J. Baskin,
director. Twenty-first and C streets
northwest. There is a wealth, of in
formation at the command of Star
readers. There is no charge for serv
ice. except a two-ccnt stamp, which
should be inclosed for direct reply.)
Policeman Leisinger,
A Peace-Time Hero
To the Editor of The Star:
“Killed in discharge of his duty”:
We expected nothing less. The police- j
man’s uniform and badge of authori- O
ty are trappings of heroism. Single
handed he quells riots and scatters
mobs. An army of one, without drum
beat or' trumpet-blare, he upholds
liberty and law, peace and civiliza
tion. against an underworld which is
cowed at his coming. He doesn’t
count the odds against him when
duty calls. He means to get his man.
When, as sometimes happens, he dies
at his post we write his name on the
long honor roll starred with gold
where are listed the policemen who,
as heroes unknown to fame, have
"died in the discharge of duty.” They j
have been faithful even unto death. i
Os these, Raymond Leisinger, shot to ■
death at the Nation's Capital recently X
by auto bandits who are believed to X
be bootleggers, is the latest. These 9
were true to the traditions of the
force which doesn’t know how to
surrender.
The policeman is a soldier in a
war that never ends. Any street or
alley may be a front line trench. Any
hour he is ready to mobilize in bat
talions or to' go alone against the
enemy. We assume his bravery
against odds that would make a.
paladin pale. We expect from him the
sagacity of a Sherlock Holmes. 4he
strategy of a Foch, the courtesy of
a Chesterfield and the diplomacy of
a Talleyrand. We have even created j
a phrase for shifting responsibility A
and we say "Tell your troubles to a I
policeman." It is our battles he fights
against criminals, who prey upon
clety. He has a right to expect
help. Our highest court has held
we have a duty to give him any
formation wb may have
the lawless. We often fail in
duty, but he does not fail.
he is loyal we are safe, even in
disloyalty to him. But when they
in the discharge of duty
pensions for surviving dependents
such heroes should be provided.
this is done volunteer gifts
testify our appreciation.
Who killed Raymond Leisinger
many of others like him?
agent was the bootlegger who
him? To what home of
were these bandits hastening or
what home had they come? Whl
bought this officer’s life in the priori
paid for a case of liquor? How stronfH
is the kick that comes from a drlnlß
laced with this blood of n policed
man? Whose careless words abouS
personal liberty heartened the banV
dits in their rum-running car? 1
Cleopatra only mingled costly pearlX
with her wine. The patron uX
the bootlegger today mixes his drinlX
With the lifeblood of our bravest. J
W. B. WHEELER. J
requires a separate teacher for each
group of rapid, average and slow
children. We know that this is im
possible unless several schools could /
be brought together in one large ff
building. Before the tests were given I
tlie teachers had full rooms—but one
class to a room. Now the teachers
not only have the same full rooms,
but two or three classes in a room.
Why start this “psychological stuff”
and make a worse jumble and bund*
Os the schoola C. GKEENWAJLCk >

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