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THE EVENING STAR Wtth Sunday Morning Eiltloa. WASHINGTON, D. C. ERIDAY October 17, 1924 THEODORE W. NOYES Editor The Evening Star \ennpiprr Company E-nines* Office. 11th Bt. «nd Pennsylvania Are New York Office: 110 East 4L’nd Bt. t'bleauo Office: Tower Building. European Office: IS Regent St.. London, England. The Evening Star, with the Sunday morning edition, In delivered by carriers within the city at 60 cents per month: daily only, 45 cent* per month; Sunday only. 20 ee its per month. Orders may be sent by mail or tele phone Main 5000. Collection la made by car riers at the end of each month. Rate by Mall—Payable in Advaaee, Maryland and Virginia. Dally and Sunday. 1 yr., $5.40;1 mo,, 70c Dally only 1 yr.. $6.00;1 mo., COc Sunday only X yr., $2.40;1 mo , 20c All Other Staten. Daily and Sunday.l yr„ $10.00;1 mo., Rsc Daily only 1 y r „ $7.00 ;1 mo., 60c Sunday only 1 yr„ $3.00 ;1 mo.. 25c Member of the Aanorlated Preaa. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled To tnp uno for ropubliration of all down dia patchos credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news pub lished herein. All right* of publication of dispatches herein are also reserved. Campaign Funds. As the case stood at the close of the first day of inquiry, the Senate com mittee’s campaign fund probe revealed three distinct facts, that the Repub lican resources to data have been about $1,714,317, that those of the Progressives so far as disclosed have been $190,332 and that the Democratic expenditures in the West have been $32.500, while the national committee es that party has received $300,000. As for the organized labor contribu tions, it would appear that the Ameri can Federation of Labor has been con ducting its own campaign for La Fol lette and the party has no knowledge of how much has been raised or spent. Thus far, a water haul. Further de velopments are hinted. The charge is that a certain group of influential and wealthy men have contributed a great fund for questionable uses in behalf of the Republican party. Yesterday produced no evidence to support it. A representative of the party testified that a certain letter had been sent forth asking for a particular sum of money from a particular State, but that that was In conformity with the general plan of allocating the con tributions by State divisions. That is not unusual. In fact, in every cam paign parties have called upon their State supporters for funds. The solitary question involved in this matter is whether any of the money subscribed, however large or small the totals in the various funds, h»* been used or ig designed for use for corruption of the voters. For cam paign purposes, of course, there may be some capital in the showing of larger contributions in behalf of one party. Already doubtless Progressive stumpers are pointing to the $1,700,000 fund of the Republicans as against the meager $200,000 fund of their own party as proof of Republican dis honesty. Perhaps Democratic orators are pointing to their own trifling $300,000 war chest as evidence of com plete Democratic honesty. Money will not buy this election. Money may be the means of arousing the people to the importance of vot ing. Party' speakers and workers are all striving to that end. The party that has the greatest resources can put the largest number of workers in the field to stir the citizens out of their lethargy and to inspire them to go to the pnils. Inasmuch as the man agers of ai? three parties are contend ing daily that they will surely win “if the people turn out as they should” arousal is to the advantage of one side os w 11 as to another. Republican cam paigning may work to the benefit of either of the other parties. The figures thus far given before the Borah committee have not been strikingly large. The Republican fig ure looks large by comparison. In reality it is moderate, with reference to campaign funds of other years. The difference of $1,300,000 between the Republican and the Progressive totals and of $1,400,000 between the Repub lican and Democratic sums may' strike some observers as perhaps an indica tion of a trend of public sentiment. Unless the charge of corruption is proved at later sessions of the commit tee the effort to besmirch the honesty of the electorate is likely to result dis astrously to those who have brought it. John W. Davis is not inclined to ap prove denunciations of I.a Follette as a violent red. A man who expects to be President of the United States can not afford to be drawn into an attitude of partisan unfairness. The parking police have not yet suc ceeded in proving the old maxim that the way' to get rid of unpopular laws is to enforce them. Business experts confidently predict prosperity', unless too many people happen to vote wrong. The Cargo Airship. Dr. Hugo Eokener, skipper of the ZR-3, now appropriately named Los Angeles, says that with the use of helium gas instead of hydrogen the dirigible can be made relatively safe. With a heavier .fuel than gasoline it can be made absolutely safe. Greater size than that of the latest acquisi tion to the American aerial fleet is not desirable, he says, as the present size Is sufficient for commercial pur poses. But greater speed is desir able, as by a slight increase in speed any' storm can be avoided. Helium, an American product, will solve the problem of explosive dan ger. The heavier fuel is yet to be satisfactorily developed. That it will come is not to be doubted, in view of the remarkable advances that have been made in the chemistry of com bustion. The question of greater speed lies with the designers. The performances of ZR-3, to call her by her original name for the present, and of the Shenandoah prove the possibility of crossing great spaces over sea and land in a very short time. Neither airship suffered serious mishap. Each had slight dam age. but none to retard the voyage. Both flights were, in fact, experi mental and both were highly suc cessful. It cannot be doubted now that the dirigible has its uses as car rier over great spaces, with a wider range of action than the plane, though at slower speed. The plane may yet be developed to the point of practicability as a cargo carrier, though up to now it has been used for only the most ! concentrated materials of value and j for mails. It Is not >'et, strictly i speaking, a means of transport to compete w'ith the slower surface methods. Nor is the dirigible yet to be thus classed. That it can carry a much greater volume of material is evident, yet there remains the ques tion of balance to be considered. The gas bag device must be lightened by its own flotation power to only a few degrees beyond the force of gravity acting upon its mass weight. To overload It is to prevent its flight or its safe management. The plane can rise with a relatively much greater weight titan the dirigible. These questions are in the process of solution as dirigibles and planes are brought steadily onward in their development. Since the War material advance has been made. The next decade will probably witness the com plete evolution of the aerial carrier engaged in regular transport service over great land and sea spaces. ■ ■■■ ■■ ■ > « ■ The Canton Rebellion. China is in a distressing state of dis order and conflict. Rival armies have been fighting for supremacy in the neighborhood of Shanghai, with a re cent suppression of one of them and the restoration of comparative order, which, however, may be broken at any time by a recrudescence of rebel lion against the Peking government. Now at Canton warfare has occurred between a so-called “red army” of workingmen and the merchants of the city, with casualties estimated at 1,000 and a resultant conflagration which has swept the greater part of a square mile of the city with a prop erty loss of $7,000,000. The dispatches regarding this catastrophe are meager and leave the situation somewhat vague. It would appear that com munism has developed among the la boring classes and a group war has developed. The merchants formed a volunteer corps and secured arms, the landing of which was opposed by the workers. These volunteers have been called “fascisti,” and thus the Italian situation has been repeated. That the Canton radicals have been inspired by Russian agents is suspect ed. Yet it does not follow, necessarily, that the Soviet at Moscow has directly attempted the corruption of the pro letariat of one of China’s busiest cen ters. It would undoubtedly be highly agreeable to the Moscow government to see all China in flames. Suspicion has not been lacking that the Russian red influence has been one of the agencies of the rebellion which lately centered around Shanghai. The Soviet government is intrenched on the northern borders of China, and it is known that it looks forward to the possibility of dominating the great Eastern republic. To inflame the workers of Canton would not be at all out of harmony with the expressed wish of the Soviet to start trouble in all parts of the world for the spread of red doctrines and the subversion of all other governments. Canton has been a disorderly city frequently' in the past. It is a hotbed of intrigue, and this present disorder, which has already proved so costly, is but a symptom of unrest and the radicalism which have lately appeared in various parts of the great land. China’s well wishers will hope for the prompt suppression of the conflict and the restoration of order at that point, as well as in other parts of the coun try. A charge of plagiarism has been brought up in connection with a play about Edgar Allan Poe. If there is one thing Poe himself, with a passion for originality, would have hated, it would have been to be associated even innocently and remotely with an en terprise involving such an accusation. Mr. Dawes has demonstrated more interest in sustaining his reputation for constructive statesmanship than in satisfying a popular taste for super ficial rhetoric. A versatile man must know which of his gifts are required for different occasions. Gov. A1 Smith will doubtless regard the commendation of Theodore Roose velt by Secretary of State Hughes as a highbrow symphonic expression with nothing of the popular appeal of “East Side, West Side.” The splendid new dirigible ZR-3 has reached its destination in New Jersey. The next matter to be considered is that of making it peacefully and prac tically useful. The presidential election is very near. If several formerly illustrious orators in both parties expect to be heard they should arrange for dates immediately. Money is talking in European af fairs, mentioning more frequently than anything else the name of J. P. Morgan. Bold Crimes. Daring crimes in other parts of the country are told of in news dispatches every' day, but criminals are not overlooking Washington in their get-rich-quick efforts. From many cities and towns come reports of pay roll holdups in big office buildings an& busy' streets. There are startling bank robberies and cases of highway robbery which recall lawlessness in the West when that part of the country was wild. Instances are re ported where thieves enter a bank in office hours, intimidate officers and patrons with threats of death, take plunder and make off in an automo bile. In numerous cases the bandits have carried out the threat to kill and law-abiding persons have been murdered. There are numerous hold ups In cities which are bolder than the classic stage coach holdup in the West. Washington Is a relatively quiet and well policed city, but several star tling robberies have been committed THE EVENING STAR, WASHINGTON, D. FRIDAY* OCTOBER 17, 1924. here. The latest of these crimes was the breaking into of five places of business late Wednesday night or early Thursday morning, the blowing open of two safes and the thift of $20,000 worth of property. Most of the so-called bold crimes here have been solved by the police and the lawbreakers caught, and It is be lieved that those who committed the latest crime will not escape. Qov. Smith's Crusade. Gov. Alfred E. Smith of New York is reopening and stressing advocacy of the use of light wines and beer and making it a leading issue of his campaign for the governorship. He urges that Congress amend the Vol stead act hy authorization of 2.75 beer and light wines, giving authority to the States to decide whether they will avail themselves of it or not. He points out that under such amend ment of the prohibition act “Kansas could be as dry as the Sahara and New Yofk could have its wines and beer.” He claims this would be more effectual prohibition than exists un der the violation of prohibition so prevalent at present. In the mean time he would have the State authori ties enforce the law with such power as is left them since the repeal of the State enforcement act. This is no new stand upon his i»art. but its significance lies in the way in which he is urging it, constituting a new drive for the policy. It is evident he is to make it one of the main issues of his campaign, while his opponent. Col. Roosevelt, is contenting himself with advocating strict enforcement of the law. Gov. Smith assails the Re publican attitude as one of hypocrisy', claiming that at heart many Repub licans agree with him. but have not the courage of their convictions. The issue may boos importance in the voting. The Republicans are de pending upon up-State New York to supply' Col. Roosevelt with an offset to the expected heavy Democratic vote in Greater New York. Upstate New York is well known to be dry. Gov. Smith’s reopening of the wines and beer question will bo calculated to focus attention increasingly upon the question and bring out the maximum dry vote. It is referred to as “the world series” regardless of the fact that the world outside the U. S. A. takes very little intelligent interest in base ball. The national game unquestionably suggests a certain tendency to isola tion until the countries abroad con sent to interest themselves in our lines of demonstration. ■ ■ ' ■ I « 11 ' ■ • - Funds are being raised in Shanghai to send to rioting soldiers. As usual, the final solution of a difficulty de volves on the people, who have an indefinite idea as to what the fight ing is about and whose chief desire is to be permitted to attend to their own legitimate business. There will be an election next month. Washington base ball fans will endeavor to display proper patri otic enthusiasm, although the event will necessarily seem to many in the nature of an anti climax. Every' member of the victorious base ball club has had an ovation, not only in this city but in his own home town. Washington is a city representative of the Nation in sport as well as in politics. A Zeppelin is an imposing speci men of machinery. Its impressiveness increases on computing how many swift and well manageable airplanes might be built for the same money'. SHOOTING STABS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Serious Effort. Tried to take life serious. The effort was in vain. The laughter all mysterious Came echoing once again. Laughter of the bitter kind And laughter light and mild. And laughter that expressed the mind So trustful of a child. Tried to take life serious And wore a solemn frown. Such assumptions weary us And Life will call us down. Whether things go ill or well And we are grave or gay, This world of ours, the. truth to tell, Goes laughing on its way. Usefulness. “I suppose you will remain in poli tics until you feel that your useful ness is over?” "No,” answered Senator Sorghum. “I shall not call my own usefulness into question. I shall remain until I no longer feel the need of a political job.” Euthu slams. Again the orators draw near And for attention call. In hope the listening world will cheer The same as at base ball. Jud Tunkins says everybody’s busy seeking a higher position in the world; even a porch climber. Worse Than Enemies. The worst misfortune that we view From our affections grow. The friend who double-crosses you Is worse than any foe. A Waiting List. “I understand the new sheriff has made a great many' arrests for viola tion of motor regulations.” “Yep,” answered Cactus Joe. “It has got so that if you want to join In a poker game or any other social relaxa tion you’ve got to have Influence to get admitted for an evenin’ at the jail.” Sad Extravagance. Since labor is a precious thing Not to be lost in haste, Impressions any war must bring . Os manpower gone to waste. “De world goes round In 24 hours,” said Uncle Eben, “an den starts de same old trip over agin; which Is party much de same as de most of «» • ■ - 1 I THIS AND THAT BY C.E. TRAC EWELL It ia all very well to tell children that reading in bed Is a lazy habit. You and I know better. We have arrived at years of discretion, or are supposed to have achieved them, and we know that such reading Is one ol the real joys in life. Like reading while wc eat. reading in bed ia something the average man will not admit to in public, although privately it may be his chief delight. Secretly he bolsters up the habit, to his own conscience, by recalling that Mark Twain and other famous men indulged In it. It needs no props, however, bat Is fully capable of standing on its own logs, or. rather, on the legs of the bed whereon the reader takes his rest. It is a habit every one might indulge in with profit to his immortal soul. Many a stiff executive, bowed down with the cares of business, who feels that a crash would result if he ab sented himself from the office for as much as a single day. could let the kinks out of his spine and Ills brain at one and the same time if he would take to reading in bed. Many’ a lovely woman, harassed by cares of home and >*hildrcn, cease lessly going about her round of daily duties, would benefit herself and the rest of the family if she would take up this supposedly lazy habit. ** * * “A man ought to read just as in clination leads him,” said old Samuel Johnson. That statement ought to be author ity for most of us, if any is needed, for indulgence in the most pleasant habit of reading in bed. It has always seemed to me that the fascination exerted upon man kind by the real and undoubted vices was due, partly, to the fact that there are no official little vices. If a choice list of small vices had been thundered at sufficiently adown the ages, so that men would be drawn to them by the strange alchemy of protest, safety valves enough would be provided. Think of the hardy souls who would give up drinking to excess if suddenly it began to he bruited abroad that excessive indulgence in washing one’s face in the morning was a crime meriting Nation-wide prohibition. “Come on in, the water is fine,” classic American phrase, wpuld take on new and sinister meaning as muscular fellows organized face washing parties. Throughout the land sudden and excessive drains would he placed upon municipal water systems. Alarming reports of ’steen gallons withdrawal from reservoirs would he hurried to chief engineers, while mayors, commissioners and others burdened with the destinies of our great cities would confer in national conventions, at which there would be a tremendous amount of speaking and a minimum amount of results, as usual. Thus the nation might be drawn from a great vice to a little vice, a harmless little vice that would give one a real “kick”—if the water were cold—and at the same time make for righteousness, since cleanliness is next-door neighbor to godliness. ** * * Reading In bed. then, appeals as the ultimate refinement in taking onu -j ease, while placing the contents of * new book within the confines of one’s mind. You remember what Addison said; "Reading is to the mind what exer cise is to the body. As by the one health is preserved, strengthened and i invigorated; by the other, virtue: (which is the health of the mind) is! kept alive, cherished and confirmed.” j One may read, of course, in almost ' any position. It is possible to read standing up, as is provided for in ! some libraries, where books are I IN TODAY’S SPOTLIGHT BY PALL V. COLUXS. The greatest tragedy of migration that the world has ever known is nearing Its completion. In the com pulsory interchange of certain peoples of Greece and Turkey. ** ♦ ♦ “And Moses and Aaron wont in and told Pharaoh; Thus said the Lord God of Israel: T>>t my people go:"’ “And they that were numbered were 603,550 —fighting men. That did not include the women and children, nor the Levifes —perhaps a total of 2,000,- 000 people. The migration out of Egypt which occurred nearly 3,500 years ago, affects all civilization to this day. It was voluntary and was Inspired by a great lunging for freedom and a re stored nationality. The stupendous task of moving and sustaining such an unorganized body can be appre ciated only by those who had experi ence in feeding and transporting an equal number of organized soldiers of the American expeditionary forces in the World War. *♦ ♦ ♦ Since February, 1923, a hopelessly unorganized and compulsory migra tion of peoples has been moving out of Greece into Turkey, and out of Turkey into Greece. Up to last July 12 ',t was officially reported that 325,- 053 Turks had been forcibly ejected from Greece, and 54,811 Greeks had been sent out of Turkey. Tho mutual migration had been at the rate of nearly 5,000 a day, and it was expect ed that the hegira would be com pleted by October 30. These people, who, with their an cestors. had occupied homes In enemy lands for centuries, have been forced to sacrifice their property, yet have been required to feed themselves en route —or starve, except for the help given by the Near East Relief and other similar international organiza tions. Thousands of emigrants have been huddled, unsheltered, at porta, waiting, perhaps weeks, for transpor tation across the Bosporus, anf"then, from Smyrna in Turkey, or from cer tain ports In Greece, to the lands which have been contemporaneously evacuated by the out-driven aliens of the respective countries. ** * ♦ In a countercharge by Greece, an swering a complaint made by Turkey that Greece was forcing Turks to va cate their homes before the agreed date, the Greeks set forth the condi tions of suffering as follows: “Thousands of Greek refugees con centrated at Mersina are In a state of horrible misery. Thirty thousand refugees are gathered on the shores of the Euxene, under the same con ditions, and many hundreds in Con stantinople without the slightest for eign supervision, for the Turkish gov ernment, contrary to the required reciprocity, refuses to consent to the formation of mixed subcommittees like those operating in Greece.” The Greek and Turkish emigrants on both sides of the Bosporus are under the control of their enemies at the embarkation. Even when landing at the ports of their native countries they have been received by strangers and held groups, until they could be transported to Anatolia, in Turkey, or to Eastern Thrace, in Greece, as the case might be. Confusion, homeless ness, poverty, discouragement, expos ure, hunger, sickness and death have marked every steii of this unparal leled interchange of populations. ♦ ♦ ♦ The movement of these peoples originated with Dr. Nansen, the Arc tic explorer, at the peace conference mounted on high reading desks, as If reading were an exercise in correct posture. Men have read books at sea, when their bodies assumed from time to lime various degrees of the circle. One sailor friend of mine, who thus read Victor Hugo clear through on a voyage, said he reached the climax of ’’Notre Dame” standing on his head. Sitting comfortably in a chair, of course, is the best everyday method of reading. The. pleader for reading In bed would not say a word against this method. It has the sanction of time and all men. For your average reading, sitting In a chair—a comfortable chair, mind ; you-—can be beat only by- one meth od. Is it necessary to say what that method is? ** ♦ * “He that runs may read.” He that lies may read, too. A good hook, a slightly' tired body, a com fortable bed. a good light, and the conditions are met satisfactorily. But many do not know the base mechanical details of this wholesome art. Only recently A. C. B. wrote me: “You speak of reading in bed, but I never can get comfortable—my head bends forward, my neck gets a crick in it, my arms grow tired holding the book. Tell us how to do it.” Now the secret of reading In bed is simply this: Have plenty of pillows, the right sort of light and a light book. 1 will treat of the third factor first. By “light book” I do not mean a frivo lous work, necessarily, although it may be that. Anything you choose goes for reading in bed, from a dime novel to the latest monumental catalogue of a mail order house. He who has not spent a pleasant hour or two poring over one of those big catalogues, consuming the details and pictures of everything from A to Z, from bath towels to automobile tires, has missed something. If you fall within this category, by all means send off for one of thone big books. They occupy a unique place In literature, along with the seed catalogues. No, by light book I mean one fight in weight. It is Impossible to read a heavy book in bed, one that weighs down upon one’s chest as if it were a ton of brick, or a guilty conscience. The English publishers do this thing better than ours. Most of their issues, no matter what size, are light as a feather. Such books are ideal for read ing in bed. I’roper light is the second factor, and in some respects is the most important of all. If the most sensual form of reading in bed is indulged in, that by daylight, it i« essential that the bed be not facing a window. The light must come to the book from the side. At night it is necessary to have the light either hitched to the head of the bed or reposing on a low table by the bedside. Perhaps it is best that the lamp he at the left. Good.light there must be. but it must not be too bright. It may be necessary to experiment with lamps of different wattage until just the right one is found. The devotee of reading in bed will not begrudge this extra effort. As for pillows, no one can read comfortably in bed who does not know how to cram pillows under his head and shoulders with a deft hand. Here one is thrown upon his own, for the anatomy of no two persons is the same. Two pillows beneath the head for me might give you exquisite torture. The only way to solve this persona) problem is to experiment until the proper com bination is discovered. So propped up. the happy reader will be at peace with the world, and tan i say of the man who knows not this : method; I ‘He hath never fed of the dainties j that are bred in a book : he hath not eat paper, as it were; he hath not drunk ink; his intellect is not replen | ished; he is only an animal, only i sensible in 'he duller parts.” ut Lausanne, in 1922. It was suggest ed as a solution of the racial friction in both countries. The proposal re ceived the unqualified sanction of the Turks, as to its compulsory character, but was accepted by the Greeks only under protest. In the course of the discussion, M. Venizelos, former premier of Greece, said: “The Greek delegation wish to state that the idea of a compulsory exchange of population between Tur key and Greece has always been re pugnant to them, but their consent to join in discussing the question has been forced upon them by a stern necessity, namely, the expulsion of 650,000 Greeks from Anatolia; to which have been added 300,000 Greeks who have left Eastern Thrace since the evacuation of that province by the Greek army.” Hundreds of thousands of Greek refugees followed the fleeing army out of Turkey after its defeat and the destruction of Smyrna. The homes abandoned in Anatolia by the Greek refugees have remained unoccupied; whole villages were de serted. The Turkish government has forbidden the return of Greeks to that region, as it Is intended to be oc cupied by the Turkish refugees. Theoretically, the mixed commis sion. appointed by the Lausanne con ference and headed by a neutral chairman, acts as a clearing house for all property left behind by the ref ugees. It is agreed that it shall be appraised, and. in case the property left by the- Turks in Greece exceeds that left in Turkey by the Greeks, the Turkish government will pay the bal ance to the Greek government. It is not clear, however, how jus tice will be- done to the individual refugee compelled to leave his meager property behind. The temptation to graft and rob the departing enemy appears irresistible;. ♦♦ ♦ ♦ A strong effort was made by Turkey to expel from Constantinople the pa triarch of the orthodox church —the equivalent to the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. This was resisted by the Greeks, together with the rep resentatives of all other nations, on the ground that such removal would shock the entire orthodox church, hence the attempt was abandoned. It is understood, however, that the pa triarch is to cease ail political activ ity and to confine himself to eccle siastical affairs. The effort of the Turks to drive out the patriarch is consistent with their expulsion of the Mohammedan caliph. The New Turks are determined to rid the state of all ecclesiastical interfer ence. ♦♦ ♦ ♦ The Armenians are not Included in any phase of tho Greco-Turkish inter change of peoples. But, according to Lord Curzon, of the 3,000,000 Arme nians formerly In Turkey only 130,000 remain, besides the 60,000 who have emigrated to Cellcla. Hence, Lord Curxon was skeptical as to the Turk’s professed “affection” toward the loyal Armenians. The Turks questioned the total of 3,000,000 Armenians as ever having lived in Turkey, and counted the total as less than half that number. Even so, no explanation has been given for the shrinkage to 130.000 —one-tenth of the Turkish estimate. Owing to the inability of Armenians to procure Turkish passports, our State Department agrees to visa in stead papers of Identification issued by the League of Nations. This does not increase the legal quota of immi grants admitted. ifQWdMk X* OdUaj . ■ " [flowers For the Living Patrick E. Crowley. BV SCHUYLER PATTERSO*. Bill the brakeman and I paused at the edge of the railroad tracks to watch the limited pass. Eight heavy Pullmans rolled by—the last recognizable as an official car. On Its rear platform sat a little man, who waved in friendly fashion. "Who's that?” I shouted. -Eh?” "Who’s that man who just waved? ’ "Oh, why that's Pat Crowley.” ‘‘Do you know him well?” "Sure. Every one knows him.” And among the 175,000 employes of the New York Central Dines that statement is true, “Every one knows Pat Crowley.” Every one knows him, admires him, and today is working with—not for—him. For Pat Crow ley, son of a small-town station agent, erstwhile telegraph operator, dispatcher and division superin tendent, whose first job as a messen ger boy paid him $5 a week, is today President of the largest railroad sys tem in the world, the directing voice in a system which carries one-fourth of the traffic of the entire United States over more than 12,000 miles of tracks. Crowley’s rise to success, his con quest of obstacles, his selection to fill his present office, are paralleled only by the life stories of such men as I.incoln, Ilarriman and his own predecessor, the late A. H. Smith. Dacking even a grammar school edu cation, naturally shy, impelled only by an indomitable will to do each task well, he has made every inch of the grade from the most humble situation within the employ of a rail way organization to the very top most pinnacle of achievement in his line of endeavor. Today his board of directors includes such men as Chauncey Depew, William K. Vander bilt. William Rockefeller, Edward S. Darkness, Robert S. l-ovett, George F. Baker and Ogden Mills. But to the men of the railroad he is still "Pat" Crowley, and they feel that, regardless of the place to which his outstanding ability has led him, he is with them In spirit now as he was 40 years ago, when he was handling train orders for snow-bound crews in northern New York. The story is told of Crowley that when he was superintendent of the Pennsylvania division of the New York Central two train crews became confused in the directions they had received, with the* result that their locomotives met head-on. Rigid disci pline called for instant dismissal of all concerned, for, although there had been no great damage, a serious ac cident might have occurred. The men wore suspended and Crowley hastened to the spot to ascertain where the fault lay. His’investigation placed the blame at the door of throe men. There was no question that they had made a very grave mistake. They and their associates fully expected dis charge would follow. One of them, an engineer, was almost 50 years of age, had always been a railroad man and there was nothing ahead of him. His career would be definitely ended. < rowTey returned to headquarters and made his report. A few davs later he reappeared and called in the luckless three. There was no mistaking what he had to say on the subjects of carelessness, inef ficiency and the essentials of good railroading. When he watt finished, however, he waved his hand toward the door. "Now, you fellows get back to work," he said, "and remem ber if any one of you makes another such mistake we’re all going to be looking for new lines of work." No better indication of the place < row-ley holds in the minds of his fellow workers may be gained than from the fact that this storv is the one best remembered about him. It is said that on most railroads there are four brotherhoods, but on the New iork Central there are five—the extra one being the Crowley and em bracing the entire personnel. (Copyright, 1924.) Denies Revolt Report. Nicaragua Charge Declares News Dispatch In Error. To the Editor of The Star: In your important paper of yester day I regretted to see the news vou received through a cable from San Salvador, stating that a revolution directed by Gen. Chamorro has broken out in Nicaragua. No doubt the per son who sent the cablegram was mis informed, as the dispatch is abso lutely wrong. There was an error also in a preceding cablegram from San Salvador stating that Gen. Chamorro was imprisoned. And it is for that reason that I address myself to you. very respectfully, in my posi tion of charge d'affaires from Nica ragua, asking you very kindly to rectify the news regarding my country. The elections in Nicaragua have taken place In the most perfect order and freedom, without having had any protest whatsoever. In Chontales they had some local disturbances, but they were of little significance, and order was re-established immediately. The government, as a preventive measure, was compelled to decree a state of siege (estado do sitio) in the republic after the elections had taken place, but once the situation is back to normal, and the agitation of the electoral moment has passed, the state of siege will be withdrawn. This should be next week. It must be explained that In Nica ragua a state of siege does not in terfere with the functions of the Court of Justice, save in very excep tional cases, and that it is a pre ventive measure used especially to calm the agitation and passions of the revolutionary and sectarian press. Nevertheless, the freedom of the press has been so respected in our country by the Conservative party that even under the state of siege the case has been a very unusual one when the government has taken any coercive measures against the press. The information I am giving you, Mr. Editor, is official and truthful, which I have learned through cable grams from my government, while those sent from San Salvador are ab solutely wrong and are perhaps taken from unauthorized sources. JOSE ANTONIO TIGERING Charge d’affaires de Nicaragua. Shenandoah Second Os Type to Cross U. S. To the Editor of The Star: In a recent issue of your newspaper a story was carried by Junius B. Wood, newspaper man aboard the dlrlblle Shenandoah, stating that the Shenan doah was the first airship to cross the continent. This is an error, as the Army Air Service in 1922 sent the air ship C-2, with a crew of six, from Dangley Field, Va., to Ross Field, Calif., in 67 hours and 24 minutes, this being the first time an airship crossed the United States. While in the great amount of material which a large newspaper naturally gathers, it is quite natural for some errors to creep In. the chief of Air Service has directed me to inform you of this discrepancy, a fact which you will, no doubt, ap preciate knowing. WILLIAM H. CROM, Captain, Air Service, assistant to chief, Isformatioa division. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC I. RASKIN. Q. Does Sweden manufacture more matches than the United States? —D. S. M. A. According to the trade record of the National City Bank of New Tork about one-third of the matches con sumed in the whole world are pro duced In the United States, and only about 20 per cent in Sweden; Japaji also produces 20 per cent; Great Britain, 15 per cent, and Poland, Nor way, Germany and China the re mainder. It is estimated that 4,675,- 650.000,000 matches were consumed in 1923. Q. What is the weight of the Balti more and Ohio locomotive which pulls the Capitol Limited?—J. R. E. A. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company says that three engines are used. Prom Baltimore to Cumber land, P-5, weighing 280,000 pounds; Cumberland to Pittsburgh, P-lAA, 277,190 pounds: Pittsburgh to Chi cago, P-6, 288,600 pounds. Q. How does Mars compare with the earth in size? How does its area compare with that of the United States? —A. N. A. The Naval Observatory says the superficial area of the planet Mars is about 18% times that of the conti nental United States, not including Alaska. The mean diameter of Mars Is about 4,200 miles. The diameter of the earth Is nearly twice that of Mars, its volume is 5 2-3 times and its mass 9 times. Q. Is a tunnel under the English Channel being constructed at the present time?—-p. T. B. A. The project has been postponed, due to opposition of the British war ministry, who considers it a danger to Great Britain in case of hostilities. Q. Please give the names of some of the signers of the Magna Charta. — J. 1a A. The names of some of the barons and bishops who forced King John to the signing of the Magna Charta are Stephen Langston, Archbishop of Canterbury; Henry, Archbishop of Dublin; William of London, Peter of Winchester, Jocellne of Bath and Glastonburg, Hugh of Lindoln, Wil liam, Earl of Pembroke; William, Earl of Salisbury; William, Earl of Warren: William, Earl of Arundel: Allen de Galloway, constable of Scotland, and Warin Fitzgerald. How much is North Carolina spend ing for education? —J. N. A. This year the expenditures for educational purposes will amount to approximately 125.000,000. Q. Does the Forest Service allow the cutting of trees in the national forests? —R. K. A. Mature, decadent and diseased trees are sold and cut, but always in such away to insure, a second crop and continuous production of limber from the areas involved. Q. At banquets in ancient Egyp tian times, were women permitted to sit with men?—E. I. B. A. Men and women sat side by side at banquets and at other entertain ments as well. Cushioned chairs were used. Q. What is the origin of the name “Speejaoks” as applied to the first motor boat to sail around the world? —H. T. D. A. Jeanne Bonchet Gowen, the only woman aboard the motor boat on Us famous journey, says that the name was derived from a nickname which Albert Y. Gowen had at Harvard. Mr. Gowen was the owner of the boat. Q. What is meant by "Deus ex Machina?” —D. K. W. A. It literally means the “god from a machine.” The ancient Greeks were accustomed to employ a god or other supernatural character at the end of a tragedy to solve the situation that had been developed. The god was brought on the stage by hence the phrase. Q. Who invented the “rule ot eleven” used in auction bridge and why does it work?—W. W. D. A. This rule follows a mathema tical principle and was discovered rather than invented by R. F. Foster in 1881. The cards in the various suits run from 2 to 14, the ace taking the value of 14. When the fourth Editors Condemn Attempt To Censor w What Price Glory” ‘'What Price Glory” may overdo realism in some of its language, but the press has little sympathy for the semi-official attacks upon this play of American army life in France. “One need neither to have seen nor read the work to realize how thoroughly ridiculous these self-anointed censors have made themselves by their ill judged action," in the opinion of the Baltimore Sun, which says: “ ‘What Price Glory’ is the work of two young Americana of literary reputation. Both of them are veterans of the World War. The majority of the actors in the New York cast are ex soldiers, and there has been no sug gestion, until Rear Admiral Plunkett ■got hot under the collar about it, that the play in its obvious aspect was anything more insidious than a strikingly faithful presentation of one realistic side of army life behind the lines in war time. * • • B Ut to a certain type of military mind devoid of humor, devoid of artistic appreciation, ridiculously anxious to have army life always depicted in the gaudy colors of recruiting post ers. such a play is immediately vis ualized as 'unpatriotic.' Because it shows the mental reactions of some of the soldiers as they really were and not as they were pictured by war-time orators, it is set down as ‘pacifist propaganda.’ • * • If two men who did the work in the trenches cannot depict their view of war and army life without being de nounced as ‘unpatriotic,’ then has that w r ord been debauched so that we need another to make clear what love of country really is.” ** * * “If ‘What Price Glory’ is propa ganda, either paciflstio or anti- Marino Corps, ’’ the New York Herald- Tribune agrees "it appears that the naval Intelligence officers have estab lished a new definition for the word.” This paper characterizes the play as a “fine achievement in dramatic real ism,” and declares further, “there is something absurd in the idea that our services must be defended from the effects of realism if they are td get recruits: and there is something dense in the idea that all the occurrences and the behavior of the characters were Intended, or would be taken, as typical of conditions throughout the whole Marine Corps.” If the language used is farly common, the Omaha World-Herald sees “no reason why It should be so modified for stage use as to appear like the conversation one would expect to bear at a ladies’ aid society meeting.” “So long as an ef fort Is to be made to depict the life of an American soldier in France,” the World-Herald adds: “It might as well be depicted truthfully and there doesn’t seem to be any one quite so able to do the job as one who shared In that great adventure. Beneath the surface of “What Price Glory,” the Louisville Post finds “good soldiers, and a good soldier, whatever the idiosyncrasies of his vocabulary may be. Is a good man In a tight place.” The Post continues: “Even If the soldiers are not so good as In the novel of Dos Passes, there la uo Justification fox: censorship, for best card of the suit is led, since there are three better ones in the leader's hand, the number in the other three hands that will take the card led will be found by subtracting from 11 the number of pips on the card led The declarer can count the “takers' in his own hand and dummy, and will know, therefore, how many are in the hand of the leader's partner. Q. Were there German ships in Manila Harbor when Admiral Dewey entered to fight the “Battle of Manila?”—M. B. F. A. There were German chips at Manila, but they were not in the harbou They interfered In no way with Dewey's attack. After the de feat of the Spaniards, these ships sailed into the harbor. Q. How did the American Indian cast his vote in his war council - ' —W. G. D. A. When a question was to be de cided, the Indian chief picked up his war club passed it to the warrior seated nearest to him. If this man was on the affirmative side, he struck the ground with the club, then passed it to his next neighbor. If on the neg ative, it was passed at once and in silence. Q. How many people in the United States can read books written for the blind? Hoy fast can they read? —R, T. C. A. There are more than 20,000 read ers using Braille type in this coun try. Blind persons can read about as fast as the average person would read aloud. Q. Where is Seven Dials?—S. D. T A- This is a locality in St. Giles, London, between Trafalgar Square and the British Museum, and was fre quently referred to in Dickens’ books A clock pillar with seven dial faces once stood there. Q. Is it true that Hessian prisoners helped build the streets of Alexandria. Va., during the Revolutionary War 7 D. V. McM. A Many of the streets of Alexandria are still paved with cobble stones which were placed there during the Revolution by prisoners of war, man; of whom were Hessians. Q. What was the origin of the dou ble-headed eagle, which appears on the coat-of-arms of Austria?—C. A. H. A. The double-headed eagle of the Holy Roman Empire was sometimes crowned and sometimes I.ore the nim bus upon it. The dual heads repre sented dominion over the East and West and came to be used in the coa*- of-arms of both Austria and Russia. Q. What was the loss of life in New York in 1863 when men resisted the draft?—D. R. M. A. In the draft riots in New York City from July 13 to July 16, 1863, it is estimated that more than a thou sand and men lost their lives, and property valued at 11,500,000 was de stroyed. Q. What is the maturing period of corn?—K. L. H. A. Under average conditions, corn matures in 100 days from seeding time. One of the greatest advantages of a corn crop is the dateless period of the harvest. Once ripe, it needs no haste in gathering, stands in the husk or shock unaffected by exposure, no wasting or shattering from the ear. awaiting the convenience of the farmer. Q. Is there a difference between the word “devise” and “bequeath" when used making a will? —W. M. T A. In precise legal terminology the word “devise'' is used when referring to real estate, while the word “be queath” is used in reference to per sonal property. (Frederic J. Ilaskin is ernployed by this paper to handle the inquiries of our r f rulers, arul you are inintcd to call upon him as freely and. as often as you please. Ask anything that is a nuitter of fart and the authority wiII be quoted you. There is no charge for this se-rirce. Ask what you want, sign your name and address and inclose j cents in stamps for return postagi. Address The Star Information Bureau. Frederic J. Ilaskin. Director, Tvyenty first and C streets northwest. | if any class in the community were allowed to have plays stopped be cause they did that class an injustice, we should have nothing hut Polly anna plays—false and sugared pro ductions in the romantic style." Re ferring to the danger of censorship in a country committed to the frei dom qf the press, which also includes the drama, the Providence Tribute* says, "the danger is not in its being exercised, but in its abuse. Who is the better judge of ‘What Price Glory,” Army and Navy officials or competent civilians who have been trained in their judgment of what comprises decent and indecent drama? If books and plays are* to be sup pressed whenever they do not jibe with the sentiments or the viewpoints of a certain class of men, then the fact must be admitted that we, in Dis united States, are not allowed to think imlependantly but must think according to this class of men who set their ideas up as a standard for everybody to abide by.” * ♦ ♦ if As the Flint Journal views it; “This play probably would not interfere with recruiting. Young men who want to be soldiers or sailors will enter the mili tary profession whether it seefns to U attractive or not. Objections of Navy officers will only advertise the play. The other criticism, that the drama Is ob scene, is far more important. The author and producer should be per suaded, if the play his this demerit, to change it; meanwhile, the public should not allow its moral sense to be of fended.” One feels that “objections against pro fanity and kindred materia! on the stage are well aimed,”- declares the Nashville ■ Banner, because “a lot of playwrights and producers seem to have the idea that the public must have realism, and that realism consists qf all the pro fanity and obscenity that can be mor< or less artistically presented. • • • No doubt obscenity and profanity are a part of life, but that is all the more reason why they should not be en couraged by being paraded behind the footlights for the public to laugh at, and blush over and vent its inherent dia bolical instincts upon. Certainly it should' be the duty of the stage to ele vate humanity instead of preying upon its baser Instincts.” The Worcester Telegram also thinks “the defenders of profanity on the stage go too far in the pursuit of realism.” and while, “perhaps some of the critics of ‘What Price Glory’ are prudish, the simple fact that men, and some women, do a certain amount of swearing docs not make swearing on the stage a nec essary thing.” The Savannah Press, however, is confident the play will not be taken off, for while “it may lose a damn or two and have some of the In tensity cut out of a couple of the situa tions. the box office sales will go right along—the advertising it has secured * fixes that.” Rumor has it that Dr. Alexander Melklejohn, former president of Am herst, i» to start a college of his own. If he can organize a first-class foot ball team, the rest ought to bo easy*— Columbus Dispatch.