THE EVENING STAR
Wtth Sunday Morning Eiltloa.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
ERIDAY October 17, 1924
THEODORE W. NOYES Editor
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dispatches herein are also reserved.
As the case stood at the close of the
first day of inquiry, the Senate com
mittee’s campaign fund probe revealed
three distinct facts, that the Repub
lican resources to data have been
about $1,714,317, that those of the
Progressives so far as disclosed have
been $190,332 and that the Democratic
expenditures in the West have been
$32.500, while the national committee
es that party has received $300,000.
As for the organized labor contribu
tions, it would appear that the Ameri
can Federation of Labor has been con
ducting its own campaign for La Fol
lette and the party has no knowledge
of how much has been raised or spent.
Thus far, a water haul. Further de
velopments are hinted. The charge is
that a certain group of influential and
wealthy men have contributed a great
fund for questionable uses in behalf
of the Republican party. Yesterday
produced no evidence to support it. A
representative of the party testified
that a certain letter had been sent
forth asking for a particular sum of
money from a particular State, but
that that was In conformity with the
general plan of allocating the con
tributions by State divisions. That is
not unusual. In fact, in every cam
paign parties have called upon their
State supporters for funds.
The solitary question involved in
this matter is whether any of the
money subscribed, however large or
small the totals in the various funds,
h»* been used or ig designed for use
for corruption of the voters. For cam
paign purposes, of course, there may
be some capital in the showing of
larger contributions in behalf of one
party. Already doubtless Progressive
stumpers are pointing to the $1,700,000
fund of the Republicans as against the
meager $200,000 fund of their own
party as proof of Republican dis
honesty. Perhaps Democratic orators
are pointing to their own trifling
$300,000 war chest as evidence of com
plete Democratic honesty.
Money will not buy this election.
Money may be the means of arousing
the people to the importance of vot
ing. Party' speakers and workers are
all striving to that end. The party
that has the greatest resources can
put the largest number of workers in
the field to stir the citizens out of
their lethargy and to inspire them to
go to the pnils. Inasmuch as the man
agers of ai? three parties are contend
ing daily that they will surely win “if
the people turn out as they should”
arousal is to the advantage of one side
os w 11 as to another. Republican cam
paigning may work to the benefit of
either of the other parties.
The figures thus far given before
the Borah committee have not been
strikingly large. The Republican fig
ure looks large by comparison. In
reality it is moderate, with reference
to campaign funds of other years. The
difference of $1,300,000 between the
Republican and the Progressive totals
and of $1,400,000 between the Repub
lican and Democratic sums may' strike
some observers as perhaps an indica
tion of a trend of public sentiment.
Unless the charge of corruption is
proved at later sessions of the commit
tee the effort to besmirch the honesty
of the electorate is likely to result dis
astrously to those who have brought it.
John W. Davis is not inclined to ap
prove denunciations of I.a Follette as
a violent red. A man who expects to
be President of the United States can
not afford to be drawn into an attitude
of partisan unfairness.
The parking police have not yet suc
ceeded in proving the old maxim that
the way' to get rid of unpopular laws
is to enforce them.
Business experts confidently predict
prosperity', unless too many people
happen to vote wrong.
The Cargo Airship.
Dr. Hugo Eokener, skipper of the
ZR-3, now appropriately named Los
Angeles, says that with the use of
helium gas instead of hydrogen the
dirigible can be made relatively safe.
With a heavier .fuel than gasoline it
can be made absolutely safe. Greater
size than that of the latest acquisi
tion to the American aerial fleet is
not desirable, he says, as the present
size Is sufficient for commercial pur
poses. But greater speed is desir
able, as by a slight increase in speed
any' storm can be avoided.
Helium, an American product, will
solve the problem of explosive dan
ger. The heavier fuel is yet to be
satisfactorily developed. That it will
come is not to be doubted, in view
of the remarkable advances that have
been made in the chemistry of com
bustion. The question of greater
speed lies with the designers.
The performances of ZR-3, to call
her by her original name for the
present, and of the Shenandoah prove
the possibility of crossing great
spaces over sea and land in a very
short time. Neither airship suffered
serious mishap. Each had slight dam
age. but none to retard the voyage.
Both flights were, in fact, experi
mental and both were highly suc
cessful. It cannot be doubted now
that the dirigible has its uses as car
rier over great spaces, with a wider
range of action than the plane,
though at slower speed.
The plane may yet be developed
to the point of practicability as a
cargo carrier, though up to now it
has been used for only the most
! concentrated materials of value and
j for mails. It Is not >'et, strictly
i speaking, a means of transport to
compete w'ith the slower surface
methods. Nor is the dirigible yet to
be thus classed. That it can carry a
much greater volume of material is
evident, yet there remains the ques
tion of balance to be considered. The
gas bag device must be lightened by
its own flotation power to only a few
degrees beyond the force of gravity
acting upon its mass weight. To
overload It is to prevent its flight
or its safe management. The plane
can rise with a relatively much
greater weight titan the dirigible.
These questions are in the process
of solution as dirigibles and planes
are brought steadily onward in their
development. Since the War material
advance has been made. The next
decade will probably witness the com
plete evolution of the aerial carrier
engaged in regular transport service
over great land and sea spaces.
■ ■■■ ■■ ■ > « ■
The Canton Rebellion.
China is in a distressing state of dis
order and conflict. Rival armies have
been fighting for supremacy in the
neighborhood of Shanghai, with a re
cent suppression of one of them and
the restoration of comparative order,
which, however, may be broken at
any time by a recrudescence of rebel
lion against the Peking government.
Now at Canton warfare has occurred
between a so-called “red army” of
workingmen and the merchants of the
city, with casualties estimated at
1,000 and a resultant conflagration
which has swept the greater part of a
square mile of the city with a prop
erty loss of $7,000,000. The dispatches
regarding this catastrophe are meager
and leave the situation somewhat
vague. It would appear that com
munism has developed among the la
boring classes and a group war has
developed. The merchants formed a
volunteer corps and secured arms, the
landing of which was opposed by the
workers. These volunteers have been
called “fascisti,” and thus the Italian
situation has been repeated.
That the Canton radicals have been
inspired by Russian agents is suspect
ed. Yet it does not follow, necessarily,
that the Soviet at Moscow has directly
attempted the corruption of the pro
letariat of one of China’s busiest cen
ters. It would undoubtedly be highly
agreeable to the Moscow government
to see all China in flames. Suspicion
has not been lacking that the Russian
red influence has been one of the
agencies of the rebellion which lately
centered around Shanghai. The Soviet
government is intrenched on the
northern borders of China, and it is
known that it looks forward to the
possibility of dominating the great
Eastern republic. To inflame the
workers of Canton would not be at all
out of harmony with the expressed
wish of the Soviet to start trouble in
all parts of the world for the spread
of red doctrines and the subversion of
all other governments.
Canton has been a disorderly city
frequently' in the past. It is a hotbed
of intrigue, and this present disorder,
which has already proved so costly, is
but a symptom of unrest and the
radicalism which have lately appeared
in various parts of the great land.
China’s well wishers will hope for the
prompt suppression of the conflict and
the restoration of order at that point,
as well as in other parts of the coun
A charge of plagiarism has been
brought up in connection with a play
about Edgar Allan Poe. If there is
one thing Poe himself, with a passion
for originality, would have hated, it
would have been to be associated even
innocently and remotely with an en
terprise involving such an accusation.
Mr. Dawes has demonstrated more
interest in sustaining his reputation
for constructive statesmanship than
in satisfying a popular taste for super
ficial rhetoric. A versatile man must
know which of his gifts are required
for different occasions.
Gov. A1 Smith will doubtless regard
the commendation of Theodore Roose
velt by Secretary of State Hughes as
a highbrow symphonic expression
with nothing of the popular appeal of
“East Side, West Side.”
The splendid new dirigible ZR-3 has
reached its destination in New Jersey.
The next matter to be considered is
that of making it peacefully and prac
The presidential election is very
near. If several formerly illustrious
orators in both parties expect to be
heard they should arrange for dates
Money is talking in European af
fairs, mentioning more frequently
than anything else the name of J. P.
Daring crimes in other parts of the
country are told of in news dispatches
every' day, but criminals are not
overlooking Washington in their
get-rich-quick efforts. From many
cities and towns come reports of pay
roll holdups in big office buildings
an& busy' streets. There are startling
bank robberies and cases of highway
robbery which recall lawlessness in
the West when that part of the
country was wild. Instances are re
ported where thieves enter a bank
in office hours, intimidate officers and
patrons with threats of death, take
plunder and make off in an automo
bile. In numerous cases the bandits
have carried out the threat to kill
and law-abiding persons have been
murdered. There are numerous hold
ups In cities which are bolder than
the classic stage coach holdup in the
Washington Is a relatively quiet
and well policed city, but several star
tling robberies have been committed
THE EVENING STAR, WASHINGTON, D. FRIDAY* OCTOBER 17, 1924.
here. The latest of these crimes was
the breaking into of five places of
business late Wednesday night or
early Thursday morning, the blowing
open of two safes and the thift of
$20,000 worth of property. Most of
the so-called bold crimes here have
been solved by the police and the
lawbreakers caught, and It is be
lieved that those who committed the
latest crime will not escape.
Qov. Smith's Crusade.
Gov. Alfred E. Smith of New York
is reopening and stressing advocacy
of the use of light wines and beer
and making it a leading issue of his
campaign for the governorship. He
urges that Congress amend the Vol
stead act hy authorization of 2.75
beer and light wines, giving authority
to the States to decide whether they
will avail themselves of it or not. He
points out that under such amend
ment of the prohibition act “Kansas
could be as dry as the Sahara and
New Yofk could have its wines and
beer.” He claims this would be more
effectual prohibition than exists un
der the violation of prohibition so
prevalent at present. In the mean
time he would have the State authori
ties enforce the law with such power
as is left them since the repeal of the
State enforcement act.
This is no new stand upon his i»art.
but its significance lies in the way in
which he is urging it, constituting a
new drive for the policy. It is evident
he is to make it one of the main issues
of his campaign, while his opponent.
Col. Roosevelt, is contenting himself
with advocating strict enforcement of
the law. Gov. Smith assails the Re
publican attitude as one of hypocrisy',
claiming that at heart many Repub
licans agree with him. but have not
the courage of their convictions.
The issue may boos importance in
the voting. The Republicans are de
pending upon up-State New York to
supply' Col. Roosevelt with an offset to
the expected heavy Democratic vote
in Greater New York. Upstate New
York is well known to be dry. Gov.
Smith’s reopening of the wines and
beer question will bo calculated to
focus attention increasingly upon the
question and bring out the maximum
It is referred to as “the world
series” regardless of the fact that the
world outside the U. S. A. takes very
little intelligent interest in base ball.
The national game unquestionably
suggests a certain tendency to isola
tion until the countries abroad con
sent to interest themselves in our
lines of demonstration.
■ ■ ' ■ I « 11 ' ■ • -
Funds are being raised in Shanghai
to send to rioting soldiers. As usual,
the final solution of a difficulty de
volves on the people, who have an
indefinite idea as to what the fight
ing is about and whose chief desire
is to be permitted to attend to their
own legitimate business.
There will be an election next
month. Washington base ball fans
will endeavor to display proper patri
otic enthusiasm, although the event
will necessarily seem to many in the
nature of an anti climax.
Every' member of the victorious
base ball club has had an ovation,
not only in this city but in his own
home town. Washington is a city
representative of the Nation in sport
as well as in politics.
A Zeppelin is an imposing speci
men of machinery. Its impressiveness
increases on computing how many
swift and well manageable airplanes
might be built for the same money'.
BY PHILANDER JOHNSON.
Tried to take life serious.
The effort was in vain.
The laughter all mysterious
Came echoing once again.
Laughter of the bitter kind
And laughter light and mild.
And laughter that expressed the mind
So trustful of a child.
Tried to take life serious
And wore a solemn frown.
Such assumptions weary us
And Life will call us down.
Whether things go ill or well
And we are grave or gay,
This world of ours, the. truth to tell,
Goes laughing on its way.
“I suppose you will remain in poli
tics until you feel that your useful
ness is over?”
"No,” answered Senator Sorghum.
“I shall not call my own usefulness
into question. I shall remain until I
no longer feel the need of a political
Again the orators draw near
And for attention call.
In hope the listening world will cheer
The same as at base ball.
Jud Tunkins says everybody’s busy
seeking a higher position in the world;
even a porch climber.
Worse Than Enemies.
The worst misfortune that we view
From our affections grow.
The friend who double-crosses you
Is worse than any foe.
A Waiting List.
“I understand the new sheriff has
made a great many' arrests for viola
tion of motor regulations.”
“Yep,” answered Cactus Joe. “It has
got so that if you want to join In a
poker game or any other social relaxa
tion you’ve got to have Influence to
get admitted for an evenin’ at the
Since labor is a precious thing
Not to be lost in haste,
Impressions any war must bring .
Os manpower gone to waste.
“De world goes round In 24 hours,”
said Uncle Eben, “an den starts de
same old trip over agin; which Is
party much de same as de most of
«» • ■ - 1
I THIS AND THAT
BY C.E. TRAC EWELL
It ia all very well to tell children
that reading in bed Is a lazy habit.
You and I know better. We have
arrived at years of discretion, or are
supposed to have achieved them, and
we know that such reading Is one ol
the real joys in life.
Like reading while wc eat. reading
in bed ia something the average man
will not admit to in public, although
privately it may be his chief delight.
Secretly he bolsters up the habit, to
his own conscience, by recalling that
Mark Twain and other famous men
indulged In it.
It needs no props, however, bat Is
fully capable of standing on its own
logs, or. rather, on the legs of the
bed whereon the reader takes his
rest. It is a habit every one might
indulge in with profit to his immortal
Many a stiff executive, bowed down
with the cares of business, who feels
that a crash would result if he ab
sented himself from the office for as
much as a single day. could let the
kinks out of his spine and Ills brain
at one and the same time if he would
take to reading in bed.
Many’ a lovely woman, harassed by
cares of home and >*hildrcn, cease
lessly going about her round of daily
duties, would benefit herself and the
rest of the family if she would take
up this supposedly lazy habit.
** * *
“A man ought to read just as in
clination leads him,” said old Samuel
That statement ought to be author
ity for most of us, if any is needed,
for indulgence in the most pleasant
habit of reading in bed.
It has always seemed to me that
the fascination exerted upon man
kind by the real and undoubted vices
was due, partly, to the fact that
there are no official little vices.
If a choice list of small vices had
been thundered at sufficiently adown
the ages, so that men would be drawn
to them by the strange alchemy of
protest, safety valves enough would
Think of the hardy souls who
would give up drinking to excess if
suddenly it began to he bruited
abroad that excessive indulgence in
washing one’s face in the morning
was a crime meriting Nation-wide
“Come on in, the water is fine,”
classic American phrase, wpuld take
on new and sinister meaning as
muscular fellows organized face
washing parties. Throughout the
land sudden and excessive drains
would he placed upon municipal
Alarming reports of ’steen gallons
withdrawal from reservoirs would he
hurried to chief engineers, while
mayors, commissioners and others
burdened with the destinies of our
great cities would confer in national
conventions, at which there would
be a tremendous amount of speaking
and a minimum amount of results,
Thus the nation might be drawn
from a great vice to a little vice, a
harmless little vice that would give
one a real “kick”—if the water were
cold—and at the same time make for
righteousness, since cleanliness is
next-door neighbor to godliness.
** * *
Reading In bed. then, appeals as the
ultimate refinement in taking onu -j
ease, while placing the contents of *
new book within the confines of one’s
You remember what Addison said;
"Reading is to the mind what exer
cise is to the body. As by the one
health is preserved, strengthened and i
invigorated; by the other, virtue:
(which is the health of the mind) is!
kept alive, cherished and confirmed.” j
One may read, of course, in almost '
any position. It is possible to read
standing up, as is provided for in !
some libraries, where books are I
IN TODAY’S SPOTLIGHT
BY PALL V. COLUXS.
The greatest tragedy of migration
that the world has ever known is
nearing Its completion. In the com
pulsory interchange of certain peoples
of Greece and Turkey.
** ♦ ♦
“And Moses and Aaron wont in and
told Pharaoh; Thus said the Lord God
of Israel: T>>t my people go:"’
“And they that were numbered were
603,550 —fighting men. That did not
include the women and children, nor
the Levifes —perhaps a total of 2,000,-
The migration out of Egypt which
occurred nearly 3,500 years ago,
affects all civilization to this day. It
was voluntary and was Inspired by a
great lunging for freedom and a re
stored nationality. The stupendous
task of moving and sustaining such
an unorganized body can be appre
ciated only by those who had experi
ence in feeding and transporting an
equal number of organized soldiers
of the American expeditionary forces
in the World War.
*♦ ♦ ♦
Since February, 1923, a hopelessly
unorganized and compulsory migra
tion of peoples has been moving out
of Greece into Turkey, and out of
Turkey into Greece. Up to last July
12 ',t was officially reported that 325,-
053 Turks had been forcibly ejected
from Greece, and 54,811 Greeks had
been sent out of Turkey. Tho mutual
migration had been at the rate of
nearly 5,000 a day, and it was expect
ed that the hegira would be com
pleted by October 30.
These people, who, with their an
cestors. had occupied homes In enemy
lands for centuries, have been forced
to sacrifice their property, yet have
been required to feed themselves en
route —or starve, except for the help
given by the Near East Relief and
other similar international organiza
tions. Thousands of emigrants have
been huddled, unsheltered, at porta,
waiting, perhaps weeks, for transpor
tation across the Bosporus, anf"then,
from Smyrna in Turkey, or from cer
tain ports In Greece, to the lands
which have been contemporaneously
evacuated by the out-driven aliens of
the respective countries.
** * ♦
In a countercharge by Greece, an
swering a complaint made by Turkey
that Greece was forcing Turks to va
cate their homes before the agreed
date, the Greeks set forth the condi
tions of suffering as follows:
“Thousands of Greek refugees con
centrated at Mersina are In a state
of horrible misery. Thirty thousand
refugees are gathered on the shores
of the Euxene, under the same con
ditions, and many hundreds in Con
stantinople without the slightest for
eign supervision, for the Turkish gov
ernment, contrary to the required
reciprocity, refuses to consent to the
formation of mixed subcommittees
like those operating in Greece.”
The Greek and Turkish emigrants
on both sides of the Bosporus are
under the control of their enemies at
the embarkation. Even when landing
at the ports of their native countries
they have been received by strangers
and held groups, until they could be
transported to Anatolia, in Turkey, or
to Eastern Thrace, in Greece, as the
case might be. Confusion, homeless
ness, poverty, discouragement, expos
ure, hunger, sickness and death have
marked every steii of this unparal
leled interchange of populations.
♦ ♦ ♦
The movement of these peoples
originated with Dr. Nansen, the Arc
tic explorer, at the peace conference
mounted on high reading desks, as
If reading were an exercise in correct
Men have read books at sea, when
their bodies assumed from time to
lime various degrees of the circle.
One sailor friend of mine, who thus
read Victor Hugo clear through on a
voyage, said he reached the climax of
’’Notre Dame” standing on his head.
Sitting comfortably in a chair, of
course, is the best everyday method
of reading. The. pleader for reading
In bed would not say a word against
this method. It has the sanction of
time and all men.
For your average reading, sitting
In a chair—a comfortable chair, mind
; you-—can be beat only by- one meth
od. Is it necessary to say what that
** ♦ *
“He that runs may read.”
He that lies may read, too. A good
hook, a slightly' tired body, a com
fortable bed. a good light, and the
conditions are met satisfactorily.
But many do not know the base
mechanical details of this wholesome
art. Only recently A. C. B. wrote me:
“You speak of reading in bed, but I
never can get comfortable—my head
bends forward, my neck gets a crick
in it, my arms grow tired holding
the book. Tell us how to do it.”
Now the secret of reading In bed is
Have plenty of pillows, the right
sort of light and a light book.
1 will treat of the third factor first.
By “light book” I do not mean a frivo
lous work, necessarily, although it may
be that. Anything you choose goes for
reading in bed, from a dime novel to
the latest monumental catalogue of a
mail order house.
He who has not spent a pleasant
hour or two poring over one of those
big catalogues, consuming the details
and pictures of everything from A to Z,
from bath towels to automobile tires,
has missed something. If you fall
within this category, by all means send
off for one of thone big books. They
occupy a unique place In literature,
along with the seed catalogues.
No, by light book I mean one fight
in weight. It is Impossible to read
a heavy book in bed, one that weighs
down upon one’s chest as if it were a
ton of brick, or a guilty conscience. The
English publishers do this thing better
than ours. Most of their issues, no
matter what size, are light as a
feather. Such books are ideal for read
ing in bed.
I’roper light is the second factor, and
in some respects is the most important
of all. If the most sensual form of
reading in bed is indulged in, that by
daylight, it i« essential that the bed
be not facing a window. The light
must come to the book from the side.
At night it is necessary to have the
light either hitched to the head of the
bed or reposing on a low table by the
bedside. Perhaps it is best that the
lamp he at the left.
Good.light there must be. but it must
not be too bright. It may be necessary
to experiment with lamps of different
wattage until just the right one is
found. The devotee of reading in bed
will not begrudge this extra effort.
As for pillows, no one can read
comfortably in bed who does not know
how to cram pillows under his head
and shoulders with a deft hand. Here
one is thrown upon his own, for the
anatomy of no two persons is the same.
Two pillows beneath the head for me
might give you exquisite torture. The
only way to solve this persona) problem
is to experiment until the proper com
bination is discovered.
So propped up. the happy reader will
be at peace with the world, and tan
i say of the man who knows not this
I ‘He hath never fed of the dainties
j that are bred in a book : he hath not
eat paper, as it were; he hath not
drunk ink; his intellect is not replen
| ished; he is only an animal, only
i sensible in 'he duller parts.”
ut Lausanne, in 1922. It was suggest
ed as a solution of the racial friction
in both countries. The proposal re
ceived the unqualified sanction of the
Turks, as to its compulsory character,
but was accepted by the Greeks only
In the course of the discussion, M.
Venizelos, former premier of Greece,
“The Greek delegation wish to
state that the idea of a compulsory
exchange of population between Tur
key and Greece has always been re
pugnant to them, but their consent
to join in discussing the question has
been forced upon them by a stern
necessity, namely, the expulsion of
650,000 Greeks from Anatolia; to
which have been added 300,000 Greeks
who have left Eastern Thrace since
the evacuation of that province by
the Greek army.”
Hundreds of thousands of Greek
refugees followed the fleeing army
out of Turkey after its defeat and
the destruction of Smyrna.
The homes abandoned in Anatolia
by the Greek refugees have remained
unoccupied; whole villages were de
serted. The Turkish government has
forbidden the return of Greeks to
that region, as it Is intended to be oc
cupied by the Turkish refugees.
Theoretically, the mixed commis
sion. appointed by the Lausanne con
ference and headed by a neutral
chairman, acts as a clearing house for
all property left behind by the ref
ugees. It is agreed that it shall be
appraised, and. in case the property
left by the- Turks in Greece exceeds
that left in Turkey by the Greeks, the
Turkish government will pay the bal
ance to the Greek government.
It is not clear, however, how jus
tice will be- done to the individual
refugee compelled to leave his meager
property behind. The temptation to
graft and rob the departing enemy
♦♦ ♦ ♦
A strong effort was made by Turkey
to expel from Constantinople the pa
triarch of the orthodox church —the
equivalent to the Pope of the Roman
Catholic Church. This was resisted
by the Greeks, together with the rep
resentatives of all other nations, on
the ground that such removal would
shock the entire orthodox church,
hence the attempt was abandoned. It
is understood, however, that the pa
triarch is to cease ail political activ
ity and to confine himself to eccle
The effort of the Turks to drive out
the patriarch is consistent with their
expulsion of the Mohammedan caliph.
The New Turks are determined to rid
the state of all ecclesiastical interfer
♦♦ ♦ ♦
The Armenians are not Included in
any phase of tho Greco-Turkish inter
change of peoples. But, according to
Lord Curzon, of the 3,000,000 Arme
nians formerly In Turkey only 130,000
remain, besides the 60,000 who have
emigrated to Cellcla. Hence, Lord
Curxon was skeptical as to the Turk’s
professed “affection” toward the loyal
The Turks questioned the total of
3,000,000 Armenians as ever having
lived in Turkey, and counted the total
as less than half that number. Even
so, no explanation has been given for
the shrinkage to 130.000 —one-tenth of
the Turkish estimate.
Owing to the inability of Armenians
to procure Turkish passports, our
State Department agrees to visa in
stead papers of Identification issued
by the League of Nations. This does
not increase the legal quota of immi
ifQWdMk X* OdUaj
. ■ "
For the Living
Patrick E. Crowley.
BV SCHUYLER PATTERSO*.
Bill the brakeman and I paused
at the edge of the railroad tracks
to watch the limited pass. Eight
heavy Pullmans rolled by—the last
recognizable as an official car. On
Its rear platform sat a little man,
who waved in friendly fashion.
"Who's that?” I shouted.
"Who’s that man who just waved? ’
"Oh, why that's Pat Crowley.”
‘‘Do you know him well?”
"Sure. Every one knows him.”
And among the 175,000 employes
of the New York Central Dines that
statement is true, “Every one knows
Pat Crowley.” Every one knows him,
admires him, and today is working
with—not for—him. For Pat Crow
ley, son of a small-town station
agent, erstwhile telegraph operator,
dispatcher and division superin
tendent, whose first job as a messen
ger boy paid him $5 a week, is today
President of the largest railroad sys
tem in the world, the directing voice
in a system which carries one-fourth
of the traffic of the entire United
States over more than 12,000 miles
Crowley’s rise to success, his con
quest of obstacles, his selection to
fill his present office, are paralleled
only by the life stories of such men
as I.incoln, Ilarriman and his own
predecessor, the late A. H. Smith.
Dacking even a grammar school edu
cation, naturally shy, impelled only
by an indomitable will to do each
task well, he has made every inch
of the grade from the most humble
situation within the employ of a rail
way organization to the very top
most pinnacle of achievement in his
line of endeavor. Today his board
of directors includes such men as
Chauncey Depew, William K. Vander
bilt. William Rockefeller, Edward S.
Darkness, Robert S. l-ovett, George
F. Baker and Ogden Mills. But to
the men of the railroad he is still
"Pat" Crowley, and they feel that,
regardless of the place to which his
outstanding ability has led him, he
is with them In spirit now as he
was 40 years ago, when he was
handling train orders for snow-bound
crews in northern New York.
The story is told of Crowley that
when he was superintendent of the
Pennsylvania division of the New
York Central two train crews became
confused in the directions they had
received, with the* result that their
locomotives met head-on. Rigid disci
pline called for instant dismissal of
all concerned, for, although there had
been no great damage, a serious ac
cident might have occurred. The men
wore suspended and Crowley hastened
to the spot to ascertain where the
His’investigation placed the blame
at the door of throe men. There
was no question that they had made
a very grave mistake. They and
their associates fully expected dis
charge would follow. One of them,
an engineer, was almost 50 years of
age, had always been a railroad man
and there was nothing ahead of him.
His career would be definitely ended.
< rowTey returned to headquarters
and made his report. A few davs
later he reappeared and called in
the luckless three. There was no
mistaking what he had to say on
the subjects of carelessness, inef
ficiency and the essentials of good
railroading. When he watt finished,
however, he waved his hand toward
the door. "Now, you fellows get
back to work," he said, "and remem
ber if any one of you makes another
such mistake we’re all going to be
looking for new lines of work."
No better indication of the place
< row-ley holds in the minds of his
fellow workers may be gained than
from the fact that this storv is the
one best remembered about him. It
is said that on most railroads there
are four brotherhoods, but on the
New iork Central there are five—the
extra one being the Crowley and em
bracing the entire personnel.
Denies Revolt Report.
Nicaragua Charge Declares News
Dispatch In Error.
To the Editor of The Star:
In your important paper of yester
day I regretted to see the news vou
received through a cable from San
Salvador, stating that a revolution
directed by Gen. Chamorro has broken
out in Nicaragua. No doubt the per
son who sent the cablegram was mis
informed, as the dispatch is abso
lutely wrong. There was an error
also in a preceding cablegram from
San Salvador stating that Gen.
Chamorro was imprisoned. And it is
for that reason that I address myself
to you. very respectfully, in my posi
tion of charge d'affaires from Nica
ragua, asking you very kindly to
rectify the news regarding my
The elections in Nicaragua have
taken place In the most perfect order
and freedom, without having had any
protest whatsoever. In Chontales
they had some local disturbances, but
they were of little significance, and
order was re-established immediately.
The government, as a preventive
measure, was compelled to decree a
state of siege (estado do sitio) in the
republic after the elections had taken
place, but once the situation is back
to normal, and the agitation of the
electoral moment has passed, the
state of siege will be withdrawn.
This should be next week.
It must be explained that In Nica
ragua a state of siege does not in
terfere with the functions of the
Court of Justice, save in very excep
tional cases, and that it is a pre
ventive measure used especially to
calm the agitation and passions of
the revolutionary and sectarian press.
Nevertheless, the freedom of the
press has been so respected in our
country by the Conservative party
that even under the state of siege
the case has been a very unusual one
when the government has taken any
coercive measures against the press.
The information I am giving you,
Mr. Editor, is official and truthful,
which I have learned through cable
grams from my government, while
those sent from San Salvador are ab
solutely wrong and are perhaps taken
from unauthorized sources.
JOSE ANTONIO TIGERING
Charge d’affaires de Nicaragua.
Os Type to Cross U. S.
To the Editor of The Star:
In a recent issue of your newspaper
a story was carried by Junius B. Wood,
newspaper man aboard the dlrlblle
Shenandoah, stating that the Shenan
doah was the first airship to cross the
continent. This is an error, as the
Army Air Service in 1922 sent the air
ship C-2, with a crew of six, from
Dangley Field, Va., to Ross Field, Calif.,
in 67 hours and 24 minutes, this being
the first time an airship crossed the
United States. While in the great
amount of material which a large
newspaper naturally gathers, it is quite
natural for some errors to creep In.
the chief of Air Service has directed
me to inform you of this discrepancy,
a fact which you will, no doubt, ap
WILLIAM H. CROM,
Captain, Air Service, assistant to chief,
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
BY FREDERIC I. RASKIN.
Q. Does Sweden manufacture more
matches than the United States? —D.
A. According to the trade record of
the National City Bank of New Tork
about one-third of the matches con
sumed in the whole world are pro
duced In the United States, and only
about 20 per cent in Sweden; Japaji
also produces 20 per cent; Great
Britain, 15 per cent, and Poland, Nor
way, Germany and China the re
mainder. It is estimated that 4,675,-
650.000,000 matches were consumed in
Q. What is the weight of the Balti
more and Ohio locomotive which pulls
the Capitol Limited?—J. R. E.
A. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Company says that three engines are
used. Prom Baltimore to Cumber
land, P-5, weighing 280,000 pounds;
Cumberland to Pittsburgh, P-lAA,
277,190 pounds: Pittsburgh to Chi
cago, P-6, 288,600 pounds.
Q. How does Mars compare with
the earth in size? How does its area
compare with that of the United
States? —A. N.
A. The Naval Observatory says the
superficial area of the planet Mars
is about 18% times that of the conti
nental United States, not including
Alaska. The mean diameter of Mars
Is about 4,200 miles. The diameter
of the earth Is nearly twice that of
Mars, its volume is 5 2-3 times and
its mass 9 times.
Q. Is a tunnel under the English
Channel being constructed at the
present time?—-p. T. B.
A. The project has been postponed,
due to opposition of the British war
ministry, who considers it a danger
to Great Britain in case of hostilities.
Q. Please give the names of some
of the signers of the Magna Charta.
— J. 1a
A. The names of some of the barons
and bishops who forced King John to
the signing of the Magna Charta
are Stephen Langston, Archbishop of
Canterbury; Henry, Archbishop of
Dublin; William of London, Peter of
Winchester, Jocellne of Bath and
Glastonburg, Hugh of Lindoln, Wil
liam, Earl of Pembroke; William,
Earl of Salisbury; William, Earl of
Warren: William, Earl of Arundel:
Allen de Galloway, constable of
Scotland, and Warin Fitzgerald.
How much is North Carolina spend
ing for education? —J. N.
A. This year the expenditures for
educational purposes will amount to
Q. Does the Forest Service allow
the cutting of trees in the national
forests? —R. K.
A. Mature, decadent and diseased
trees are sold and cut, but always in
such away to insure, a second crop
and continuous production of limber
from the areas involved.
Q. At banquets in ancient Egyp
tian times, were women permitted to
sit with men?—E. I. B.
A. Men and women sat side by side
at banquets and at other entertain
ments as well. Cushioned chairs were
Q. What is the origin of the name
“Speejaoks” as applied to the first
motor boat to sail around the world?
—H. T. D.
A. Jeanne Bonchet Gowen, the only
woman aboard the motor boat on Us
famous journey, says that the name
was derived from a nickname which
Albert Y. Gowen had at Harvard. Mr.
Gowen was the owner of the boat.
Q. What is meant by "Deus ex
Machina?” —D. K. W.
A. It literally means the “god from
a machine.” The ancient Greeks were
accustomed to employ a god or other
supernatural character at the end of
a tragedy to solve the situation that
had been developed. The god was
brought on the stage by
hence the phrase.
Q. Who invented the “rule ot
eleven” used in auction bridge and
why does it work?—W. W. D.
A. This rule follows a mathema
tical principle and was discovered
rather than invented by R. F. Foster
in 1881. The cards in the various
suits run from 2 to 14, the ace taking
the value of 14. When the fourth
Editors Condemn Attempt
To Censor w What Price Glory”
‘'What Price Glory” may overdo
realism in some of its language, but
the press has little sympathy for the
semi-official attacks upon this play of
American army life in France. “One
need neither to have seen nor read
the work to realize how thoroughly
ridiculous these self-anointed censors
have made themselves by their ill
judged action," in the opinion of the
Baltimore Sun, which says: “ ‘What
Price Glory’ is the work of two young
Americana of literary reputation.
Both of them are veterans of the
World War. The majority of the
actors in the New York cast are ex
soldiers, and there has been no sug
gestion, until Rear Admiral Plunkett
■got hot under the collar about it,
that the play in its obvious aspect
was anything more insidious than a
strikingly faithful presentation of
one realistic side of army life behind
the lines in war time. * • • B Ut
to a certain type of military mind
devoid of humor, devoid of artistic
appreciation, ridiculously anxious to
have army life always depicted in
the gaudy colors of recruiting post
ers. such a play is immediately vis
ualized as 'unpatriotic.' Because it
shows the mental reactions of some
of the soldiers as they really were
and not as they were pictured by
war-time orators, it is set down as
‘pacifist propaganda.’ • * • If two
men who did the work in the
trenches cannot depict their view of
war and army life without being de
nounced as ‘unpatriotic,’ then has
that w r ord been debauched so that
we need another to make clear what
love of country really is.”
** * *
“If ‘What Price Glory’ is propa
ganda, either paciflstio or anti-
Marino Corps, ’’ the New York Herald-
Tribune agrees "it appears that the
naval Intelligence officers have estab
lished a new definition for the word.”
This paper characterizes the play as a
“fine achievement in dramatic real
ism,” and declares further, “there is
something absurd in the idea that our
services must be defended from the
effects of realism if they are td get
recruits: and there is something dense
in the idea that all the occurrences
and the behavior of the characters
were Intended, or would be taken, as
typical of conditions throughout the
whole Marine Corps.” If the language
used is farly common, the Omaha
World-Herald sees “no reason why It
should be so modified for stage use as
to appear like the conversation one
would expect to bear at a ladies’ aid
society meeting.” “So long as an ef
fort Is to be made to depict the life of
an American soldier in France,” the
World-Herald adds: “It might as
well be depicted truthfully and there
doesn’t seem to be any one quite
so able to do the job as one who
shared In that great adventure.
Beneath the surface of “What Price
Glory,” the Louisville Post finds
“good soldiers, and a good soldier,
whatever the idiosyncrasies of his
vocabulary may be. Is a good man In
a tight place.” The Post continues:
“Even If the soldiers are not so good
as In the novel of Dos Passes, there
la uo Justification fox: censorship, for
best card of the suit is led, since
there are three better ones in the
leader's hand, the number in the other
three hands that will take the card
led will be found by subtracting from
11 the number of pips on the card led
The declarer can count the “takers'
in his own hand and dummy, and will
know, therefore, how many are in the
hand of the leader's partner.
Q. Were there German ships in
Manila Harbor when Admiral Dewey
entered to fight the “Battle of
Manila?”—M. B. F.
A. There were German chips at
Manila, but they were not in the
harbou They interfered In no way
with Dewey's attack. After the de
feat of the Spaniards, these ships
sailed into the harbor.
Q. How did the American Indian
cast his vote in his war council - '
—W. G. D.
A. When a question was to be de
cided, the Indian chief picked up his
war club passed it to the warrior
seated nearest to him. If this man
was on the affirmative side, he struck
the ground with the club, then passed
it to his next neighbor. If on the neg
ative, it was passed at once and in
Q. How many people in the United
States can read books written for the
blind? Hoy fast can they read? —R, T.
A. There are more than 20,000 read
ers using Braille type in this coun
try. Blind persons can read about as
fast as the average person would
Q. Where is Seven Dials?—S. D. T
A- This is a locality in St. Giles,
London, between Trafalgar Square
and the British Museum, and was fre
quently referred to in Dickens’ books
A clock pillar with seven dial faces
once stood there.
Q. Is it true that Hessian prisoners
helped build the streets of Alexandria.
Va., during the Revolutionary War 7
D. V. McM.
A Many of the streets of Alexandria
are still paved with cobble stones
which were placed there during the
Revolution by prisoners of war, man;
of whom were Hessians.
Q. What was the origin of the dou
ble-headed eagle, which appears on
the coat-of-arms of Austria?—C. A. H.
A. The double-headed eagle of the
Holy Roman Empire was sometimes
crowned and sometimes I.ore the nim
bus upon it. The dual heads repre
sented dominion over the East and
West and came to be used in the coa*-
of-arms of both Austria and Russia.
Q. What was the loss of life in
New York in 1863 when men resisted
the draft?—D. R. M.
A. In the draft riots in New York
City from July 13 to July 16, 1863, it
is estimated that more than a thou
sand and men lost their lives, and
property valued at 11,500,000 was de
Q. What is the maturing period of
corn?—K. L. H.
A. Under average conditions, corn
matures in 100 days from seeding
time. One of the greatest advantages
of a corn crop is the dateless period
of the harvest. Once ripe, it needs no
haste in gathering, stands in the husk
or shock unaffected by exposure, no
wasting or shattering from the ear.
awaiting the convenience of the
Q. Is there a difference between
the word “devise” and “bequeath"
when used making a will? —W. M. T
A. In precise legal terminology the
word “devise'' is used when referring
to real estate, while the word “be
queath” is used in reference to per
(Frederic J. Ilaskin is ernployed by
this paper to handle the inquiries of
our r f rulers, arul you are inintcd to call
upon him as freely and. as often as
you please. Ask anything that is a
nuitter of fart and the authority wiII
be quoted you. There is no charge for
this se-rirce. Ask what you want, sign
your name and address and inclose j
cents in stamps for return postagi.
Address The Star Information Bureau.
Frederic J. Ilaskin. Director, Tvyenty
first and C streets northwest. |
if any class in the community were
allowed to have plays stopped be
cause they did that class an injustice,
we should have nothing hut Polly
anna plays—false and sugared pro
ductions in the romantic style." Re
ferring to the danger of censorship
in a country committed to the frei
dom qf the press, which also includes
the drama, the Providence Tribute*
says, "the danger is not in its being
exercised, but in its abuse. Who is
the better judge of ‘What Price
Glory,” Army and Navy officials or
competent civilians who have been
trained in their judgment of what
comprises decent and indecent drama?
If books and plays are* to be sup
pressed whenever they do not jibe
with the sentiments or the viewpoints
of a certain class of men, then the
fact must be admitted that we, in Dis
united States, are not allowed to
think imlependantly but must think
according to this class of men who
set their ideas up as a standard for
everybody to abide by.”
* ♦ ♦ if
As the Flint Journal views it; “This
play probably would not interfere with
recruiting. Young men who want to be
soldiers or sailors will enter the mili
tary profession whether it seefns to U
attractive or not. Objections of Navy
officers will only advertise the play. The
other criticism, that the drama Is ob
scene, is far more important. The
author and producer should be per
suaded, if the play his this demerit, to
change it; meanwhile, the public should
not allow its moral sense to be of
One feels that “objections against pro
fanity and kindred materia! on the stage
are well aimed,”- declares the Nashville ■
Banner, because “a lot of playwrights
and producers seem to have the idea
that the public must have realism, and
that realism consists qf all the pro
fanity and obscenity that can be mor<
or less artistically presented. • • •
No doubt obscenity and profanity are a
part of life, but that is all the more
reason why they should not be en
couraged by being paraded behind the
footlights for the public to laugh at, and
blush over and vent its inherent dia
bolical instincts upon. Certainly it
should' be the duty of the stage to ele
vate humanity instead of preying upon
its baser Instincts.”
The Worcester Telegram also thinks
“the defenders of profanity on the stage
go too far in the pursuit of realism.”
and while, “perhaps some of the critics
of ‘What Price Glory’ are prudish, the
simple fact that men, and some women,
do a certain amount of swearing docs
not make swearing on the stage a nec
essary thing.” The Savannah Press,
however, is confident the play will not
be taken off, for while “it may lose a
damn or two and have some of the In
tensity cut out of a couple of the situa
tions. the box office sales will go right
along—the advertising it has secured *
Rumor has it that Dr. Alexander
Melklejohn, former president of Am
herst, i» to start a college of his own.
If he can organize a first-class foot
ball team, the rest ought to bo easy*—
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