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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 24, 1927, Image 65

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Law Always Wins in War Between Postal Service and Robbery
BY J. A. FOX. !
A SCRAP of paper Is crumpled
carelessely in the pencil pocket
of a pair of overalls—and three
youths go to prison for life
for an attempt to rob the mail
car of a Southern Pacific express
train, in which four of the crew are
brutally slain.
A thumbscrew works loose from the
clutch of an automobile —and a former
school athlete, who not so long ago
rejoiced in the pluudits of his asso
ciates, starts serving 50 years behind
stone u r alls, convicted of robbing a
mail truck and slaying a deputy
sheriff in a mad dash for freedom.
The railroad station of a Midwest
ern city is the scene of a $1,000,000
mail robbery; the skilled hand of a
notorious gunman is seen in the crime,
bat all efforts to locate him fail. He
makes the mistake, however, of lur
ing away the wife of another member
of the. underworld, and the husband
in the ease gives the tip that brings
the philanderer and his accomplices
to stern justice.
An armed band, taking a page ,
from the history of the late war and 1
using gas bombs in attack, holds up
a mail train on the Chicago, Milwau
kee & St. Paul Railroad, getting $2,- ;
500,000. But in the excitement one
of the bandits riddles a companion
with bullets in the belief he is a
trainman, and the wounded man un
wittingly furnishes a clue that in
creases the population of Leavenworth
Federal Penitentiary by eight.
A Union Pacific train in the Far j
West is held up and $245,000 taken, j
From somewhere comes the word that ;
r certain woman may know something ;
of the case. She is watched closely—j
and very shortly a gang of nine is ,
landed, including the woman.
Always the explanation is the same ;
—the postal inspection service of the
United States is functioning 100 per
cent; the grimly-efficient machine of j
535 men which operates from head- ;
quarters in the Post Office Depart- j
ment here has quietly and unostenta- j
tiously added another chapter to a '
history replete with brilliant victories ;
in the never-ending war with those
who prey on society.
** * *
'T'HE greatest man hunt ever staged
A by the Post Office Department— !
one of the most extensive in criminal
annals—had come to an end. The
three De Autremont brothers—Hugh,
Ray and Roy—were behind the gray,
forbidding fortress that is the Oregon
State Prison, there to spend the re
mainder of their natural lives; cap
tured after a tireless search that had
lasted almost four years and covered
remote parts of the globe: brought to
bay by an intricate net woven by
two men—Charles Riddiford. the
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ROBBERY OF AUGUST 14, 1926. _______
Plane Used in Freer Gallery’s Archeological Research in China
ON returning to Washington
about August 1. Carl Whiting
Bishop, associate curator of
the Freer Gallery of Art, will
bring with him the fruits of
four vears of archeological reconnais
ance 'in China, data which he obtain
ed by the use of airplanes, long trips
afoot, on horseback and by other
means of transportation in the north
ern half of that country.
When China settles down sufficient
]v for the work to be resumed, the
data will be an invaluable guide for
Mr. Bishop, or any one else to whom
they may be made available for the
actual task of excavating or clearing
up ruins which will throw much light
on ancient Chinese civilization. There
is still needed a considerable change
in the attitude of the masses of the
Chinese toward exploring tombs and
burial mounds, etc., before really ef
fective research will be possible, but
a growth in sentiment in favor of ob
taining historical data by this method
is discernible among the Chinese, ac
cording to Mr. Bishop.
The reverence in which Chinese
peasants hold burying grounds and
old temples is an obstacle to more
kinds of progress there than that of
archeological research. Building a
railroad is a difficult matter in China,
since the burial mounds dot the fields
indiscriminately, and it is next to im
possible to lay a straight line of track
in any flat country without disturbing
some graves. From a railroad car
window, for instance, riding from
Tientsin up to Peking, one sees these
burial grounds dotting the fields
tinder cultivation, and one wonders
how the line was laid without much
opposition. In point of fact, the rail
roads of China were resisted often
with great force because of this fac
The use of airplanes by archeolo
gists is strongly favored by Mr.
Bishop. He made two trips of this
kind with gratifying results, the first
being in a Vickers-Vimy eight-passen
ger plane, with an American pilot em
ployed by the Peking government.
From a height of 3.000 feet, and then
on a lower level, Mr. Bishop was able
to get a comprehensive idea of the
layout of the site of an ancient city
in' Northern China 200 miles from
Peking. The city was destroyed
about 225 B.C. by the Chinese ruler,
chin Shih-hung, who built the Great
"Wall. Mr. Bishop previously had been
over tho site on horseback, but the
view from the plane showed the earth
works. mounds, embankments and
foundations in a connected way. It
would have required six weeks to
make a detailed survey of the site on
foot. , .
When Kermit Roosevelt was in
China in 1923 he expressed to Mr.
Bishop a favorable opinion of the
value of airplanes in research work,
for during the \\ orld \\ ar Roosevelt
had served as an air officer In Mesopo
tamia. where he frequently flew over
the sites of ancient cities and noted
the perfect picture of the sites which
It was possible to get from the air.
Mr. Bishop’s second airplane recon
Always Xhere Is Shme Clue Which Careless Criminal Has Overlooked and Eventually the Record Is Completed Grimly
Efficient Machine, With Headquarters Here, Operates With Success D Autremont Case Is Latest Victory Pursuits Not
Confined Within National Boundaries.
slight, white-haired chief of the Spo
kane division of the inspection serv
ice. whose steely eyes belie a laugh
ing confidence, and Tennyson Jef
ferson, lanky young Texan, who for
more than two years devoted every
minute of his waking hours to the De
naisance trip was to Peitaiho, where
there now is a seaside Summer resort
used mainly by missionaries in North
ern China. It is near this point on
the sea that the Great Wall of China
has one terminus. There are the re
mains at Peitaiho of a fortified post
dating from about the first century,
A.D. Stone weapons found there in
dicate that far back in the Stone Age
the same place had military value in
resisting invasions from Manchuria.
The plane trips made the natural
strategic value of the mountains and
rivers appear much more vividly than
other trips on ground had permitted.
In the first of these trips many of the
Chinese peasants thought the air
plane, the first one they ever had
seen, was a flying dragon. The peas
ants could be seen running excitedly
away from the course of the plane.
As there is a tradition of flying
dragons in China, and since dragons
are the royal mascots, so to speak, of
Chinese rulers, this assumption by
the peasants is understandable.
** * *
THE Far East was not a strange
land to Mr. Bishop. He was born
in Tokio. and spoke Japanese before
he did English. After receiving his
education in the United States he
made his first research trip to China
for the University of Pennsylvania, in
1915. Prior to that, however, he had
been on an exploration trip to Central
America for the Peabody Museum of
Harvard University. In 1917 Mr.
Bishop again went to China for the
University of Pennsylvania, but his
scientific activities were interrupted
by the entrance of the United States
into the World War, Mr. Bishop serv
ing in the Navy. Some of his naval
work carried him to China before the
war ended.
Joining the Freer Gallery in 1922,
Mr. Bishop was sent in 1923 on the
trip to China from which he soon will j
return after four years of steady work i
in the field, broken by a brief visit ot j
one month to the United States in j
1925. He left Peking on April 30 of I
this year, closing the office of the |
Freer Gallery in that city and shipping j
to "’ashington all his files, records, j
field notes and other data. A vast j
amount of work will he required to
select and co-ordinate this material to
make it available for future use.
Miss Daisy Furscott of San Fran
cisco, who has been secretary to Mr.
Bishop and librarian of the records in
Peking, is returning as far ns Europe
with Mr. Bishop. She will arrive in
"Washington probably in September.
In the two years she lived.in Peking
Miss Furscott saw the city under sev
eral war lords, and had some experi
ences in being held up at night in the
streets of Peking by soldiers, which
experiences, however, terminated with
out anything worse than a scare.
Since Chang Tso-lin has been In con
trol of Peking, for the last year the
eity has been peaceful. Now it is
again the objective of the civil war,
and the chances of Chang Tso-lin’s
holding it are dubious.
It was this uncertainty In the
Chinese situation which made furth<*r
ivtfldk in the field of research not only
dangerous but probably impossible,
Autremont. case, and now, with that
over, hazards the guess that he’ll
“have to go to work for a living
It was a proud time for Grant Mil
ler, head of the service, as he sat at
his desk here, first to hear that the
that prompted the withdrawal of the
Freer Gallery's expedition. Mr. Bish
op experts some work to continue, be
cause he made It a point to encourage
research by the Chinese themselves,
and there is a steady, if slow, growth
in appreciation of its value among
Chinese. The Nationalist attitude
toward research is believed to be en
lightened, but the Nationalists now
are so absorbed in the military phase
that little can be expected from them
until comparative peace prevails.
The armies that are sweeping back
and forth over China do not destroy
much archeological material, because
most of it Is under ground. A dis
tinctive feature of Chinese civiliza
tion i., that it never had a stone ar
chitecture and no ruins such as one
may see in Egypt, Greece Rome, As
syria, etc., exist in China. They used
timber and when this fell it usually
was covered up, where some of it sur
Mil Bishop worked mainly north of
the l angtsze River. The river valleys
possess certain naturally desirable
sites for cities, past and present. It
is in the valley of the Yellow River
that Mr. Bishop believes has been
found the earliest Chinese scripture.
This was in Shansi and Shensi pro
vinces, west and southwest of Peking.
There are animals carved on stone,
and one group of a man struggling
with a bear is thought to date back
to the third century B.C. It was
carved on a boulder used in a ; mb.
The Chinese had no writing in the
prehistoric ages and seldom used it,
except for religious inscriptions. The
priests long were the only Chinese
who could write. Mr. Bishop found
sites dating from the Stone Age, or,
roughly, about 3,000 years B.C.
Bronze then began to appear, as
shown by relics uncovered.
** * *
j'T'ilE points of cultural contact be
i ■*- tween ancient China and the
| countries to the west, and even the
i Mediterranean countries are diseerni
| ble in the two provinces mentioned.
| Some pottery found is like that also
j found in Turkestan, Russia, Mesopo
-1 tamia and the Balkans, of a civiliza
i tion as far !r«ok as 3,000 B.C.
It is deducibie from these discoveries
that China borrowed much of her
craftsmanship from other nations,
sometimes, of course, improving upon
the ideas that circulated over the con
tinent of Asia. Trading caused much
of this mutuality of craftsmanship, as
traders from India or some, other
country would leave utensils, vessels,
art work and other articles among
th- Chinese to be copied. In the in
vontion of porcelain China carried
pottery making to a very high plane.
W; chariots discovered in central
China are similar to those found in
Mediterranean countries. Ideas neces
sarily were slow in reaching China
from such distant countries, since the
only locomotion was of a primitive na
ture. Th? use of iron, in China, ac
cordingly, was much later than its use
by Western peoples.
Guttavus Adolphus, Crowr. Prince
of Sweden, who visited Washington
to unveil the Ericsson Monument,
latsf visited China and went out to
|De Autremont brothers had been,
j taken, and later, that they had con
! Cessed to holding up the Southern Pa
! eific train in the fastness of the Sis
kiyou Mountains of southern Oregon,
arid killing three trainmen and the
mail clerk —a crime which netted not
a penny.
The case, unsolved, had heen a con
stant irritant; Postmaster General
New characterized it as “the only
blot” on the record of the service.
Not in criticism had the Postmaster
General made this remark, for it sim
ply reflected the attitude of the in
spectors themselves.
Now all that was over; there was an
addition to the “closed” files of the
chief inspector's office, and the usually
taciturn Miller, justly prideful in the
accomplishment, was drawn into a
i discussion of the department with
i which he has long been associated,
i and of the methods that are fol
lowed by the little band that is forced
I at times to turn, perhaps, from such
j a prosaic task as measuring a new
rural route to pitting their lives
against cruel, relentless foes to guar
antee the integrity of Uncle Sam’s
mail system, with its daily burden of
hundreds of millions of dollars.
"Generally successful?” he re
sponded to a query. “Yes, the inspec
tors are.”
“First and foremost, because the in
spector always proceeds on the prem
ise that there is a weak link in every
| crime that is committed. It is an old
and trite saying that ‘there is no per
fect crime,’ and that is as true today
jas when it was first said. I don’t care
what pains are taken by the criminal
I to hide his tracks, nor how smart he
; is—or thinks he is—he is going to
i make one mistake, and when you find
! that, you’re on the right trail. That is
the inspector’s duty—to find that mis
take —and he goes on the assumption
that sooner or later that mistake is
going to make itself evident.
** * *
“TV’EXT comes the question of
’ morale. There is no place I
know of where the spirit is better than
among the inspectors. There are two
main reasons for this. See that man
out there as you came in?’’—and he
pointed toward the outer office, where
his assistant. Cyrus Zimmerman, sat
working—well, he's been around a
long time; no telling on how many
cases he’s worked, but he’s yet to see
the ugly form of ‘influence’ permitted
to shield a criminal: nor have any of
the rest of us. You cannot build
morale in an establishment of this sort
if the men think that at any time they
may be forced to relax their efforts, or
even, perhaps, drop a case cold, be
cause some one has a ‘friend.’
“This same thing holds good in the
courts. Very often, we are not forced
to carry a case into the court, strictly
speaking. I mean by that, that the
case is letter perfect—the prisoner
makes a confession, goes into court
and pleads guilty, and takes his sen
tence. But when an inspector does
have to fight for a conviction, he
knows that, in the Federal courts, he
is going to see justice administered;
that no crook is going to escape
through some technicality, or because
of lax administration, and that knowl
edge also tends greatly to strengthen
the morale of the service.
“This is not intended as a knock at
State courts, but is simply a plain
statement of facts. Your confirmed
criminal will steer clear of Federal
crimes, because he fears the sureness
and severity of the punishment.
"Here’s an example; A few months
ago a young fellow .held up a mail
truck, got more than $35,000 that
was en route to a depot for shipment,
and kidnaped the messenger and made
him drive him away in a waiting
“A screw in the clutch of his auto
mobile worked loose, the car refused
to take a grade, and, after the bandit
had forced the mail messenger to help
him roll the car into a garage, the
latter, regaining his nerve, ran from
the place screaming. The bandit,
hastily gathering up the sacked
money, also left hurriedly. He stole
another car to get out of town: killed
gnpr y g§Baft ' •
' i i|§| \f • i
Shansi Province to see the ruins. He
was orofoundly interested, and having
just come from Japan and Korea, he
praised the archeological work of the
Japanese in high terms to Mr. Bishoo.
The Japanese have developed a sound
technique in saving ruins and relics
far gone in decay or mutilation.
While the Chinese hitherto have
no done any field work of importance
they have made antiquarian studies.
a deputy sheriff who attempted to i
halt his flight, and got away.
“We traced him through the num
ber on the engine of the automobile
left in the garage, and by a taxi
driver who had picked him up after
the gun fight with the deputy in
which he was wounded by flying glass,
and abandoned his stolen car.
“Got the money, confession also,
and in Federal Court the judge gave
him 25 years. He fought the killing
case, and escaped there —in a State
court —with the same identical sen
tence. The judge bitterly criticized
the jury for such a verdict, but it
stood. There are the comparative
values; 25 years in a Federal court
for a robbery in which he was forced
to give up the loot; the same in a'
State court for a killing.”
*** * |
ANOTHER thing made clear in this
connection by Miller is that the
postal inspectors must build up their
own wall of evidence: at least, to the
extent of corroborating, personally,
any “tips” they may receive. In
other words, in establishing a case
they cannot depend on the testimony
of informers or “stool pigeons.”
Again, the inevitable "Why?”
Because, as Chief Miller explains,
those who today war on crime are
confronted with the most
ruthless class in the memory of man,
and this is particularly true, he
emphasizes, where the stakes are j
large. When the underworld stalks j
abroad, every avenue is watched.
The chief brought out that postal
inspectors are not hampered by
boundary lines, either national or in- j
ternational. when they are on the ;
trail of a criminal. Not only do they
get unstinted co-operation from other
Federal officers and from State peace i
officials, but also, when it becomes
necessary to step across the lines
which limit the United States and Its
territories in which they work—
Alaska and Porto Rico —they find
ready assistance from the authorities
It often happens, as Miller makes
clear, that the inspectors are not “in
on the death” in a chase, but there is
never a time when they’re not first
on the scene or so near first that there
is no room for quibbling, and every
scrap of evidence they are able to
muster is broadcast to every policing
agency in a concerted effort to block
til avenues of escape to the quarry.
The capture of the De Autremor.ts,
for instance, was not made by postal
inspectors. Hugh, the youngest, was
picked up in the Philippines, where
he was serving as a private in the
Arntv —and where there is an inde
pendent postal service—when another
soldier noticed the resemblance, upon
seeing one of the 4,500.000 circulars,
bearing pictures and descriptions of
the De Autremonts, the Post Office
Department had sent over the woild.
Ray and Roy, the twin older broth
ers, were found in Steubenville, Ohio,
shortly afterward through the same
medium, when they thought their
identity was carefully shielded as
they went about their daily tasks in
one of tb» large industrial establish
ments thare, the Department of Jus
tice having ft hand in their unmask
If was a strange quirk of fate, too,
that the De Autremonts should have
been trapped in Steubenville just a
few months after the theft of an au
tomobile in that Ohio city had put
officers on the trail of another "super
bandit,” Gerald Chapman, who finally
was tracked to Muncie, Ind., and
started on his way to doom in Con
necticut State Prison.
** * *
THE De Autremont case will always
A stand out in the history of the
postal service as a perfect example
of the painstaking care and persist
ence of the inspectors.
On the night of October 11. 1923,
Southern Pacific train No. 13 was
stopped in a tunnel just beyond
Siskiyou, Oreg.. in the southernmost
part of the State. E. E. Dougherty,
the clerk, alone in the mail car, was
shot down as he opened the door to
ascertain the cause of the halt.
depending upon data obtained by
tracing down legends, traditions and
studying other history. Two Chinese
who worked with Mr. Bishop are
carrying on In North China, and the
China-for-the-Chinese movement may
result in the work being largely under
Chinese supervision in the future, al
though outside technical skill may be
given opportunities to co-operate.
There has been an enormous and
There was an explosion, and when
others on the train rushed to the
head end they found the mail car in
flames, while out on the right of way
lay the bulletriddled bodies of C. O.
Johnson, the brakeman; Marvin
Seng, the fireman, and Sid Bates, the
It was evident that an attempt had
been made to hold up the train, and
it was equally evident that whoever
was responsible ‘had been scared
Then Charles Riddiford, the chief j
of the Seattle division —one of the 15 I
in which the service is divided —came
on the scene. For three days he
combed the vicinity looking for some
clue, then finally turned up a pair
of dirty overalls. Deep down in the
pencil pocket of these he found a
postal receipt from a Roy de Autre
mont to a Verne de Autremont (a
fourth brother, who had no connec
tion with the case). It was decided
then to see just who the De Autre
monts were, and a little investigation
disclosed that there were three
brothers, known in the vicinity of
the Siskiyous as loggers and barbers.
One of these, Ray, had served a year
for syndicalism in Monroe, Wash.
Search was organized for the trio, and
the fact was blazoned to the country
that they were wanted.
The Bertillion files at Monroe gave
up a picture of Ray. it w'as easy to
acquire pictures of Roy, who had a
weakness for having himself photo
graphed for women, and a school
journal from Artesia, N. Mex., furnish
ed a picture of Hugh, who was only
19 years old at the time—4 years
the junior of his brothers.
Then young Tennyson Jefferson
went to work to reconstruct the
characteristics and habits of this
trio. A circular unique in depart
mental annals—written in seven
languages—was the result. For this.
Jefferson passes the credit to his
steady drift of Chinese art and
archeology to Europe and America
for several centuries. The Chinese
modernists want to stop this, just as
Egypt has stopped the flow of early
Nile Valley antiquities to other coun
tries. It is part of the nationalistic
feeling in all Asiatic countries. They
have been taught the value of this
material by the foreigner’s eagerness
to obtain it.
The army of the so-called Christian
general. Feng Yu-hsiang, Is credited
in Peking with having taken much
valuable art when it was driven out
of the capital by Chang Tso-lin about
a year ago. This art commands high
prieds from dealers and rich collectors,
and Chinese soldiers in need of cash
for their pay and to buy ammunition
find a great temptation in the art
treasures left in Peking. If Chang
Tso-lin is driven out it remains to be
seen if h;s army will help itself to any
of the art.
The way the Asiatics learn of the
value of old art or other ancient
material is illustrated in the experi
ence of Roy Chapman Andrews. He
found dinosaur eggs in Mongolia, and
the papers in America spoke of
them as being worth $5,000 each.
Naturally, any native who finds
dinosaur eggs, henceforth, will hold
them for the highest bidder. But
it still is true that a liberal offer
will attract, by smuggling or other
wise, much art from China, despite
the growing desire among Chinese in
tellectuals to save for their own mu
seums a representative collection.
Chinese in the future may have to
go to America or Europe to see the
finest Chinese art.
The Freer Gallery was not, how
ever, engaged in collecting such ma
terial. Mr. Bishop’s work was solely
to survey the field and to make prac
ticable effective exploration whenever
China is ready for that. The work
of the Freer Gallery should serve to
improve cultural relations between
China and the United States, in Mr.
Bishop’s view.
Tombs of the North Wei dynasty,
founded by Tartars from Mongolia,
and continuing from the fourth to
the sixth century. A.D., wei-e among
the most interesting things seen by-
Mr. Bishop. These are 200 miles west
of Peking, in the vicinity of the site
of the ancient city which Mr. Bishop
surveyed from an airplane. About
1.500 years old, one tomb is entirely
of earth. It is 80 feet high and
has a circumference of nearly half
a mile. In front of this was a great
altar and impressive temples un
doubtedly marked the site. There is
a cairn of stones on top, from which,
according to native tradition, a shaft
leads down to the burial chamber.
The funerary chamber is believed to
be in the center, and there is a local
tradition that robbers once tried to
enter the chamber. A dragon, they j
say, drove aw-ay the desecrators of i
the grave. As the peasants are hos
tile to any disturbance of the tomb, ,
fearing the wrath of spirits, the in- i
terior condition is not known. Before :
any exploration of this great mound i
or others of the same typo will be
possible local sentiment will have to’ '

chief, Riddiford, and refers to him
self as a "paperhanger,” to describe
his activities in spreading the circu
lar even across the seas.
Riddiford just laughs and pointing
to his youthful aide, says, “There's
the boy who did it."
At any rate, this circular was so
thorough that it even told what sort
change decidedly. It might yield ma
terial of the highest historical im
** * *
A BOUT 30 miles distant from this
royal burial mound are Buddhist
temples carved out of the living rock.
This also was done during the North
Wei dynasty, which patronized the
temples. Now the fronts of the rock
temples have crumbled down, and
much of the art work is buried in
the dirt and fragments of rock at the
base of the cliff. The temples are
known as the Yun Kung temples and
consist of single chambers in which
are figures of Buddha, certain saints
and others.
A Buddha observed is a fifth or
sixth century creation. This statue
probably would be 50 feet high if the
debris were cleared from the lower
part of it. Incidents of Buddha’s life
are shown in carvings on the w-alls.
The work was done in the best period
of Buddhist art. North Wei art ob
jects are found in many museums
throughout the world.
The full scope of Mr. Bishop’s work
can only be hinted at in a single
article. One hope he entertains as
a result of his work is that a wider
knowledge of Chinese history, myths
and civilization generally will be de
veloped in America, so that Ameri
cans going through museums such
as the Freer Gallery, which makes
Chinese art one of its specialties, will
see much more than ‘‘a pretty vase,”
for instance. The vase carries to
the understanding eye much more
light on China and the particular
period it represents than that of
beauty. This, of course, is true of
the art of any country.
Stopping off in Egypt on his way
to Washington, Mr. Bishop met Dr.
George A. Reisner, head of the Har
vard-Boston Museum expedition, who
has been exploring the ruins in Egypt
for 30 years. Dr. Reisner escorted
Mr. Bishop over his recent excava
tions near the pyramids of Gizeh and
the Sphinx, taking him into several
tombs not yet open to the public, and
later exhibiting beautiful gold embel
lishments, alabaster vases, jewelry
and furniture found in the tombs,
which will not be on public display
for a year at least.
In Egypt, as in China and most
other places where archeological
research is going on, the scientists
are handicapped by a lack of funds.
This work usually is financed by
wealthy Americans. At times funds
run low and the work necessarily
lags. With a wider appreciation of
the historical importance of research,
the work could be pressed much
more rapidly, until the few remaining
gaps in Egyptian history probably
could be closed by new discoveries,
supplying data about certain kings
and dynasties now largely subject to
While the Egyptian government
jealously guards any discoveries, for
the purpose of keeping them in
Egypt, foreign scientists have con
siderable latitude in making explora
tions under governmental super
vision. Dr. has a home and
of books the hunted youths read, and
the songs they sang.
But this was not all. Thousands
of false tips were run down; more
thousands of miles were covered;
Central America, Mexico. Canada,
Alaska, all furnished clues that
looked promising, but brought noth
ing, the authorities on both borders
sparing no efforts as they sought
to lend their aid in avenging the four
Siskiyou murders. Then, just as
| Jefferson was nreparing to follow
j another trail into the Antipodes.
; came the word from the Philippines
that Hugh had been taken, and next
Hay and Roy were brought in.
** * *
| JN the history of the postal inspec
j tion service, which dates back
! actually to the founding of the Gov
| ernmcnt, there have been four crime
j cycles, and the present is declared the
First, in the old stagecoach days,
were mounted bandits who swooped
down with sawed-off shotguns and
cxaeted their tributes.
Then came the days of the James
brothers. Youngers and other noto
rious train bandits.
Next, the unobtrusive "petermen”
or safeblowers, whose stock in trade
! was a little nitroglycerin, a bit of soap
i and a few' inches of fuse; a species
I that scorned killing.
| But now. Miller is authority for the
statement that the young crook of the
present day is the most desperate and
most lawless with which the depart
ment ever had to contend. They're or
ganized, kill without warning or cause
and go into banditry on an elaborate
scale with machine guns, and, even as
in the $2,500,000 Roundout, 111., rob
bery—the largest in history, where a
solid mail train from St. Paul to Chi
cago was attacked—with gas bombs.
But the postal inspectors have taken
a leaf of this for their own book, too.
Armored mail cars of a “banditproof *
type are being developed and have
been shown In tests to be highly effi
cacious. The glass windows are built
to resist the stoutest missiles, and in
the bottom of a car are apertures
through which may be thrown mag
nesium candles, which light up the
surrounding area for yards, thus de
priving the bandits of one of their
best allies—darkness. Additional "port
holes” serve for the employment of
shotguns. The bottoms of these cars
also are equipped with conical de
flectors, which rain shot on all be
neath, thus forestalling any effort by
the bandits to seek protection from
fire under the floors or end trucks.
Armored automobile trucks are find
ing use and speedy planes are being
brought into play to rush Inspectors
to the scene of crimes.
And Miller advocates an even stern
er remedy.
"You’ve got to give them ‘the
rope,’ ” he says, and in that he Is
borne out by Postmatser General New,
who in his last annual report advo
cated capital punishment for armed
mail banditry.
workshop on a ridge to the west of
the Pyramids, where the breeze from
the Sahara Desert is always strong
and cooling. A magnificent panorama
of the Nile Valley and the desert is
afforded from the Reisner home.
- ■ •
Letters by Telephone.
JN one great mercantile establish
ment all correspondence is dictated
through the telephone. Ten stenogra
phers are employed in the conduct of
the store’s correspondence. They per
form their duties in one large room.
In this room an especially designed
table has been installed which is pro
vided with five typewriting positions
on each side, the typewriting ma
chines being placed about 8 inches be
low' the surface of the table. A 10-
inch panel extends dowrn the center of
the table and on this panel, immedi
ately in front of each stenographer’s
position, an annunciator and a spring
jack are installed. Each of the 10
typewriting positions is equipped with
a breast transmitter and a head re
ceiver terminating in a plug. The
spring jack circuits connect to a 40-
line standard sub-switchboard, which
is located at the head of the stenog
raphers’ table.
With the equipment now Installed,
when the services of a stenographer
are desired the party wishing to give
dictation merely lifts his receiver and
says, “Stenographer, please.” His ex
tension station to the main house
switchboard is immediately connected
by a tie line to the sub-swdtchboard in
the stenographers’ room. The oper
ator answering the sub-switchboard
glances down the stenographers’ po
sition, observes which girl is the least
busy and then connects here with the
person wishing to dictate.
Real Color of Gold.
pEW persons have ever been en
x abled to familiarize themselvee
with the color of pure gold, for the
reason that gold, for practical pur
poses. must be alloyed. It is a curi
ous fact that, while one might nat
urally expect to find pure gold richer
in color than the alloy, such is not
the case. Indeed, pure gold is con
siderably paler than the alloyed metal,
wherein thero is a small proportion
of copper or copper and silver, a cir
cumstance that gives it a reddish
tinge. Then, too, all gold Is not alike
when refined. Australian gold, for in
stance, Is distinctly redder than the
metal found In the United States.
Furthermore, placer gold is yellower
than gold taken from quartz, one of
the mysteries of metallurgy, since the
gold in placers comes from that which
is in quartz.
It is said that the purest coins ever
struck were the 50-dollar gold pieces
in common use on the Pacific Coast.
The coinage of these pieces was
stopped by reason of the great loss
by abrasion and also because it was
easy to remove the interior of these
coins and to substitute baser metals.
The California 50-dollar gold pieces
were octagonal in shape.

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