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iTHE EVENING STAR With gmtoy Moralaf MWw. WASHINGTON, D. 0. THURSDAY Jun* IS, 1029 THEODORS W. NOYES... .Editor The Evening Star Newipaper Company Business OD«: 11th St. and Pennsylvania As*. Haw York Offlea: 110 Bast SSnd SS. Chleato Office: Lake Mlchlrsr Bulldlna. European Office: 14 Recent Bt.. London* Eneland. Rate by Carrier Within the City. The Evening 5tar............ .458 par month tlie Evening and Sunday Star (when 4 Sundays) «0e par month The Evening and Sunday Star (when 5 Sundays) 65e per month The Sunday Star Be per copy Collection made at tha end of each month. Orders may ba sant la by mall or telephone Main 6000. Rate by Mall — Payable In Advance. Maryland end Virginia. Dally and Sunday....! yr.. 610.00: 1 mo.. Me bally only 1 yr., |$ 00; J mo.. Me Sunday only 1 yr.. 14.00: 1 mo.. 40c All Other States end Canada. Dally and Sunday..l yr.. *l3 00; 1 mo., 11.00 Dally only 1 yr.. *8 00: 1 mo.. 78c Sunday only .......1 yr.. 15.00; 1 mo.. 60c Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Prese is escluslvely entitled to the use for republlcatlon of eu rews dls satehe* credited to It or not otherwise cred ited In this paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein are also reserved. Foreign Tariff Protests. Prance has formally protested to the State Department against the proposal to Increase the American tariff on cer tatn French products Imported Into the United States. Official protests have also been lodged with Secretary Stimson by Spain. Italy and Persia. In all four of these countries there are urgent de mands for retaliatory action against American goods. In this hemisphere, Canada and Argentina are perhaps in even angrier mood. Altogether more than a dozen different governments have formally or informally caused it to be known at Washington that our projected new tariffs are obnoxious to them. Objection to the Hawley bill’s Increases Is, like the shot fired at Lex ington, ringing around the world. The Senate finance committee has just begun hearings with a view to ap proval or amendment of the altitudinous Hawley measure recently passed by the House. Senator Smoot and his col leagues are bound to weigh carefully this swelling volume of indignation Which Is rising against projected boosts In the whole American tariff structure. They will need to remember that protest emanates from our best customers, now our friends but In temper to become our economic foes. Congress has specialized, during the extra session now—perhaps—winding to a tempestuous close, that it is no re specter of the person or wishes of the President. Mr. Hoover’s message to the session on April 16 specifically admon ished moderation in new tariff legisla tion, as far as the susceptibilities and interests of foreign countries are con cerned. None knows better than the former Secretary of Commerce what it can cost the United States if those susceptibilities are ignored and those interests inconsiderately violated. It goes without saying that “America First’’ must be the guiding motive of our tariff-makers. But in heeding It, they must also be actuated by the rule of reason. That rule pertains to our international relations in high degree. If Uncle Bam's vast stake of ten billion dollars a year In foreign trade is to be maintained—4o say nothing of expand ing it—the sooner Congress realizes the necessity of a square deal for our over seas neighbors, the better for all con cerned. The Senate finance committee and the Senate Itself have an opportunity, which amounts to a duty, to see that American export trade is not hamstrung by the Hawley-Smoot tariff bill. A situation has arisen wherein we can easily cut off our nose to spite our own face. There have been and will be English visitors of so much distinction that the obstinate refusal of G. Bernard Shaw to honor America by a brief sojourn need i not linger as a grief which cannot be assuaged. The incentive to the average "Joint debate” is not clear. There is usually not even so much of a reward as a diploma or a medal. See Monticello. Since its partial restoration and opening to the public a few years ago as a national shrine an increasing num ber of tourists are finding their way over Virginia’s Improved highways to Monti cello, there to climb the steep, winding road that leads past Jefferson’s tomb to the flattened top of “Little Moun tain,” and to enjoy the panorama that stretches far and away below into the blue haze of the hills. A picture waits there that is worth many miles of travel. It is a picture that nature paints afresh with new tints every day; the same picture that attracted Jefferson •s a boy, when he would climb the slope to lie beneath an oak and study; the picture that he brought bis bride to see, after building tiny "Honeymoon Lodge” there on top of the mountain; the picture that ever drew him back to Monticello from his battles in a new world that men were shaping for them selves. „ Thick books and weighty tomes have been written about Jefferson and Monticello and reams have been filled with descriptions of the mansion and its availability now to those who love old things and old places. So much has been said, in fact, that one wonders if Monticello is not taken too much for granted by the hordes of automobile tourists, bent over their road maps and intent on going from place to place and covering their self-set quota of so many hundreds of miles per day. There is usually a steady, if thin, stream of visitors to the top of the mountain at Monticello these days. But If the everyday motorist, with a car, and day or so to spare, could for get purely patriotic motives for the time being and make Jefferson’s home , his mecca for the sake of the delight i ful surprise that awaits him there, the trickle of tourists would swell to a deluge. And as every visitor becomes » contributor to the fund for the com plete restoration of Monticello, a worth while goal would be reached in no time gt aIL Those In charge of the restoration And upkeep of the mansion and grounds have done wonderfully with the funds at hand. Everything about the place ts ' ful management. Only the lower floor of the mansion Is open now. The - upper story will be open to the public soon. Informed guides take the tour > ists through, and, unlike the guides at our Capitol, do not pass the hat for f their pains. If some of them have de . veloped a sing-song description by rote, ’ that is a failing of all guides, and at Monticello the guides have at least been well tutored. Two and a half miles from Monti cello another attraction has been opened recently, “Ash Lawn,” the old home of James Monroe. The house is still in private hands, and one may be lieve that Mr. Monroe would throw up his hands In despair at the color of the fresh paint that nqw adorns it, and the rather startling effect of the wall paper. There, one is Informed, Monroe wrote his “Doctrine,” a statement which would undoubtedly be resented by John Quincy Adams, who probably witnessed more of that document than “Ash Lawn” ever saw or knew about. But the home of this “very amiable gentleman,” whose greatness was "thrust upon him,” is interesting for its boxwood, if not for its Monroe Doctrine. Jefferson, they say, used to hoist a signal from the top of the mountain and Monroe would come running from “Ash Lawn.” These are two spots which you, as a Washingtonian, should visit this Summer. House vi. Senate. The contest over the export debenture plan of farm relief has been widely commented upon as a contest between the Selnate and President Hoover. It has another side. The House of Repre sentatives has been strong In its oppo sition to debenture. This opposition ha* not been confined to the Republicans of the House, but has included Demo crats. For years there has been an intense rivalry, cropping out strongly at times, between the two houses of Congress. Both jealously guard their privileges. In the present fight over the farm bill many of the House members contend that the Senate has Invaded a field which is not sufficiently set aside par ticularly for the House. They main tain that the debenture clause, as originated by the Senate, is no more nor less than revenue legislation. House members, generally speaking, are ready to fight at the drop of the hat when ever the Senate encroaches upon this constitutional prerogative. The House leadership has expressed Its disapproval of the Senate action on the debenture plan, but has agreed to leave the con stitutional question unsettled in the In terests of prompt farm relief legislation. The very constitution of the two houses lends itself to conflict. The House of Representatives is elected once every two years. It feels itself more directly representative of the will of the people. This was true even to a greater extent in the days before the adoption of the constitutional amend ment providing for the direct election of Senators. But today the feeling still exists. Senators are elected for terms of six years and only one-third of the Senate membership is chosen in the same year. The House, under its rules and or ganization, act* expeditiously on legis lative matters. The Senate, with Its rule of unlimited debate, likes to con sider itself the greatest deliberative body in the world, which neither adds to its capacity for promptness nor to its efficiency of operation. Former Vice President Dawes has charged that the Senate rule of unlimited debate makes legislation In the Senate merely a mat ter of barter. The Individual Senator, or group of Senators, trades his vote for what he can get, according to the for mer Vice President. The House apparently is about to win its present battle with the Benate over the debenture plan. Organized as it is, the House may become the dominant body in the National Legislature, despite the efforts of the Senate. In recent years the Senators held the limelight rather to the disadvantage of the Houee, due in part to Its handling of foreign relations and to Its important investigations of public affairs. So far during the Hoover administration the House has aligned itself strongly with the President. Should it continue to do so and should the Senate persist in its opposition to the Chief Executive, the House is in a fairway to be looked upon as the legislative pacemaker. The conflict between the two houses over Mr. Hoover and its policies dates back more than a year. In the pre-conven tion campaign a large proportion of the Republican membership of the House demanded the nomination of Herbert Hoover for President. It was a coalition of Republican Senators, on the other hand, In which the opposition to Mr. Hoover’s nomination was most strongly centered. "Temperament” In an artist easily exhaust* Itself in efforts on behalf of public entertainment; but in a duty bound dry agent It becomes a serious problem. Romantic Royal Rumors. Inhabitants of Britain and of Scan dinavia have for ages been in more or less close contact. They have had their fusses and feuds and they have had their ententes and romances, obth royal and common. The grandfather of the present Prince of Wales married a Danish princess and now it begins to look as if his namesake will wed a beau tiful and charming young scion of the ruling house of the neighboring country of Sweden. “Sea-King’s daughter from over the sea, Saxon and Norman and Dane are we, but all of us Danes in our welcome to thee, Alexandral” sang the poet laureate in welcome to the princess about to become the wife of him who was later King Edward VIL Just how much actual Scandinavian blood flowed in the late Queen Dowager’s veins would be hard to determine, for royal strains are pretty much mixed. It is certain that Princess Ingrid can claim but lit tle, as she Is of the House of Berna i dotte, that marshal of France whom his Emperor placed on the throne of Sweden about a century since. How i ever, in the case of royalty, nationality is largely a matter of viewpoint, of i training, of tradition and of language, i and it can safely be said that no na~ i ttons eend out better consorts for sov i' ereigns than Norway, Sweden and Den \ Auk. Xte m teautei fefe tew THE EVENING STAN, WASHINGTON, T>. C., THURSDAY JUNE 13, 1323. 1 character, and are usually above the t average in physical pulchritude and : good disposition. Ingrid, despite her French descent, will without doubt ; prove a worthy descendant of the Vi kings. So close has been the hook-up be tween the Scandinavian peninsulas and , the big island to the southwestward that of old the inhabitants of Britain and at times even of Ireland suffered greatly at the hands of the Northmen sea raiders. The bulk of England was for a time ruled by a king who was a Dane by birth, but Canute, unlike cer tain of the later Normans and Plantag enets, was sensible enough, once he liad occupied the throne, to consider himself a genuine Englishman and to act accordingly. The late Queen Alex andra was perhaps more popular with her subjects than any foreign princess on record and It is hoped and believed that In case Ingrid accepts young Albert Edward David George Andrew Patrick Windsor she may enjoy a similar en viable status. If this marriage comes off, she and Anne Morrow Lindbergh will both be sitting on top of the world. Modern ’Rithmetic. The public schools of New York City have taken a step forward with the Is suance by Supt. William J. O’Shea of a, new syllabus for arithmetic to be put into effect with the opening of the next Pall term. Family budgets, installment buying, bargain sales, figuring of home run per centages—these are to be some of the problems which will supersede the old style puzzlers about “how many yards cf carpet will It take,” etc. Supt. O’Shea, in announcing the change in the curriculum, stated: “The chlld’a introduction to arithmetic should be through Interesting experiences. The teacher should present situations that will hold the attention of the pupil and create In him a desire to learn how to meet these situations. The solution of problems paves the way for abstract work.” Children will find their “problems” connected with the home, banking, busi ness and taxes, with some stress in the eighth grade on Wall Street processes. The cost of food and clothing, furni ture and household utensils, commer cial discount, net prices, savings and business banks, drawing of checks, in terest, kinds of taxes, budgets, real property, these and other specific prob lems will be raised and met, and when It becomes necessary to master abstract mathematics the scholar will see the need for it. Enthusiasts declare that the new sys tem will convert the study into a game dealing with the pupil's own life. How ever that may be, it would seem to be a step In the right direction. There is a general feeling that arithmetic in the past received too largi a share of at tention and that it was not properly connected with everyday life. The new syllabus may or it may not overcome these handicaps. Its framers believe that it will; others can hope that It will. Suggestions seem rather Inconsiderate that imply expectation that Mr. Raskob relinquish political activity just when, apparently, he is beginning to enjoy himself. Her selection for aircraft activities again points to Mrs. Willebrandt as a universal genius relied on to know something about everything. Expert financiers intimate the fear that debenture certificates will tend to create in the market new problems re lating to rediscount. Coolidge worked the veto power hard, but students of Hoover policies are rather confident that this power is by no means exhausted. King George himself is evidently one of the few people who see no occasion to be seriously alarmed about his health. The farmer will gain prosperity if he can make hay in the same volume that he is making political trouble. SHOOTING STARS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Harmony. Who can forget the village choir That called the neighbors to admire Sweet harmony—then some one brought A word with sharp sarcasm fraught? Tis not alone in music’s realm, Even when statesmen seek the helm, That one word “Harmony” polite Becomes the prelude to a fight. Alas, for all the careful rules Learned in the legislative school*. Some discord shows that all our skill Can’t harmonize and never will l The Wary Constituent. "Did you succeed in explaining the de benture to Farmer Contoesel?” “Not fully,” said Senator Sorghum regretfully. "My friend told me he had an Idea a debenture was a kind of ne gotiable paper and he was afraid It might turn out to be something like a note secured by mortgages.” Jud Tunkins says the anti-cigarette law may make headway. But It will never get so far as to encourage an officer to shoot at a pretty girl who smokes while driving a flivver. Pursuit. Out in the street of a bootleg town A driver cried, with frightened frown— “ Shoot at the tires is all I ask— But spare,*oh spare, this old hip flask.” Wisdom and Beauty. “You may be wiser when you are older,” was the sarcastic comment. “It may not do me a bit of good to be wise,” said Miss Cayenne, “if I wait till I am no longer sufficiently good looking to compel attention to my con versation.” "Some books are wise," said HI Ho, the sage of Chinatown, "but they hold no influence over readers who are foolish.” Monotonous Repetition. Life la a gloomy grand parade Os bills sent by the score, And even when you have them paid You merely get some more. "If you tells every little thing you knows,” said Uncle Kben, "sensible peo -1 pie is liable to see to it dat JM don’t • tei awafe fit towifrnab" 1 THIS AND THAT BY CHARLES E. TRACEWELL. “What Is the matter with the gla diolus this year? You haven’t written about It so far, and I vfonder if you have given it up.” This Is the gist of several letters re ceived by this column recently from gladiolus "fans” who have missed the king of flowers from these writings. It is about time, surely, that some mention be made of this best of the Summer-flowering bulbs, especially since the queen of flowers, the rose, has been considered here time after time. We have not given up the gladiolus, and never shall, so long as we have a bit of ground in which to plant Its corms. No one who has ever fallen In love 'with the gladiolus will ever give It up. although circumstances may compel him to plant It less freely than he might otherwise do. The trouble with the average en thusiast is that if he had his way noth ing less than the whole garden would be devoted to his "glads.” This policy, while fine for the gla dioli, is rather rough on the other flow ers, especially the annuals, which de serve a prominent place In every gar den. The smaller the garden, the larger the space which should be devoted to the annuals, In our opinion. There is some tendency on the part of home gardeners to put the accent on the per ennial plants. No doubt they are right, from the theoretical standpoint. If one is not able to spend much time in the garden during any particular Summer, the perennials will do the best. Yet, if one has half-time to put on the yard, especially if it be the smaller place, a fine crop of annuals will give greater dividends of beauty. Since they require more constant care, the gardener puts more of himself into them, and this means, of course, that he gets more out of them. ** * * One drawback of the gladiolus for the average small place is the plain fact that It tends to take certain elements out of the soli necessary for its proper growth. There is no flower which is more beautiful than the gladiolus at its best, unless it is the rose, and certainly there is none which seems poorer by com parison with its best. A gladiolus which one has seen 5 to 6 feet tall will never seem right when it grows only 4 feet high. A bulb that one year gives a flower spike 3 feet long will seem to be doing poorly, in deed, when its spike comes but a foot long. He who has once seen a magnificent spike of Mrs. Frank Pendleton can never be satisfied with anything less. Gladiolus "literature” puts the soft pedal upon the fact that new soil must be used constantly if the very best re sults are to be secured. In other words, if the bulbs are planted year after year In the same bed, it is difficult to get the same results. Let it be understood that we speak here of the garden of the average home owner, not that of the expert. - Your garden variety of gardener usu ally is afraid of fertilizers. No doubt he is too conservative in their use, but ; he is always faced with the fear of “burning” his plants, and his space is too valuable to take a chance. He ] must, through necessity, play safe. Because his ground is limited, he finds himself compelled to put his < gladiolus bulbs in the same earth year after year. This should demand heavier and heavier fertilization, but he is ] BACKGROUND OF EVENTS BY PAUL V. COLLINS. No event so fully illustrates the ad vance In the standards of civilization as does the action of the eight nations, led by the United States, in the read justment of the terms of settlement by Germany for the greatest war—the greatest defeat—in the history of man kind. Put in place of Marshal Foch and the commanding generals of the several allied armies any of the famous con querors of history. Then where we find the Kaiser and his subjects, defeated after years of bloody, unprovoked ag gression, consider the "barbarians” who dared face defeat by Xerxes. Cyrus, Darius, Alexander the Great, Caesar, or any of the would-be world conquerors down to Napoleon Bonaparte. Even down to the end of the feudal ages, the masses had nothing to do with the con flicts of the rulers except to fight as ordered, and suffer as defeat decreed. i But nobody expected mercy from a con queror. i *# ★ ♦ Says Fustel de Coulanges in his book, "The Ancient City,” a study of ancient Greece and Rome: “The conqueror as he pleased. No human or divine law restrained his vengeance or his cupidity. The day on which the Athenians decreed that all Mitylenaeans, without distinction of age or sex, should be exterminated, they did not dream of transcending their 1 rights; and when, on the next day, they revoked their decree, and contented themselves with putting a thousand citizens to death and confiscating all the lands, they thought themselves hu mane and indulgent. After the taking of Plataea, the men were put to death and the women sold; and yet no one ac cused the conquerors of having violated any law. "These men. made war not only upon soldiers, but upon an entire population, men, women, children and slaves. They waged it not only against human beings, but against fields and crops. They burned houses and cut down trees; the -harvest of the enemy was almost always devoted to the infernal gods, and con sequently burned. They exterminated the cattle; they even destroyed the seed which might produce a crop the follow ing year. A war might cause the name and race of an entire people to disap pear at a single blow and change a fer- , tile country into a desert. “It was by virtue of this law that the Romans extended a solitude around their city; of the territory where the Volscians had 23 cities, it made the Pontine marshes: the 53 cities of Latium have disappeared; in Samnium the places where the Roman armies had passed could long be recognized, less by the vestiges of their camps than by the solitude which reigned in the neighborhood.” ** * * Modem peace makers are horrified— , and Justly so—by the cruelties and atrocities of modem war, which they , declare has become so terrible by the ( use of wholesale means of destruction that, unless it be modified by humane , measures of prevention, it will extermi nate humanity. More than 30,000,000 casualties and nearly 8,000,000 deaths in the recent World War stagger civi lization and it has been declared that that was the crudest war that was ever fought. “There must never be an other, for war has become intolerably destructive." Become? Yet it is not so cruel today as it was in the savage days of ancient times, when cruelty was the main objective and annihilation of the enemy the usual expectation and aim. In our day, every nation engaged in the World War has created a shrine of patriotism at a tomb of an “Unknown Soldier,” typifying the bravery and love of country of • all its defenders. In ancient days, it was not so; the “supreme sacrifice” about which our orators grow eloquent was not the ideal of slaves or of con scripts; there was not the spirit of vol unteer, but the obedience only of men who had no option except obedience or death. Yet there was the equivalent of the “Unknown Soldier,” since there could be no legal treaty of peace ending hostilities without the sacrifice of a man—slain by a priest to seal the peace, whether that treaty gave life to the de jrairgd or their annibllfttt9A» afraid to give it. Part of the fault, therefore, is solely his own. ** * * The plain truth is that gladiolus bulbs, in the hands of the average home owner, tend to “run out." This is never mentioned in the average “glad” litera ture, but every one who has experi mented with this bulb for several years knows It to be a fact. The enthusiast buys himself a hun dred plump bulbs from a flrst-rate grower. They are packed with “wlm and wigor,” so chock-full of life that all the purchaser has to do is plant them rightside up. At blooming time the enthusiast be gins to sing the praises of the gladiolus. The next Spring he begins his planting with as high hopes as ever, only to be somewhat disappointed. He did not fertilize enough. Yes, that was it. It is true that his bulbs gar nered in the Fall were rather flat, hav ing lost some of that upright plump ness which distinguished the parent corms. So the third year he plants, now with less enthusiasm, to find that his flower spikes have dwindled, with a conse quent falling off in size and beauty of blooms. He is still a “fan,” but not such an enthusiastic one as he was three years ago. He is willing to accept part of the blame for himself, but not all of it. He begins to see what every gardener must, if he uses his eyes, that in this sport, as in most others, all is not gold that glistens. ** * * There can be little question that a few gladioli, well grown, are better than a large number poorly grown, for no one really knows this flower until he has seen it at its best. Then its beauty has an almost breath-taking quality. We feel that if any reader thinks this overdrawn he has not seen a fine va riety at its best. It is our garden pride that we have. We have grown them so in our own back yard. Never can we forget the first time we went into the garden and found that Burbank's Elora had unfold ed In the night. Or the flowering of Byron Smith. Or those great blooms of Youell’s Favorite. Or those Mrs. Pendletons, more than 6 feet high. Once a person has grown such “glads” he becomes critical, and rightly so. Nothing short of perfection will do. Those who have never seen the real thing may be satisfied with lesser blooms, but he never will be. Always there arises before his mind’s eye the Vision of perfect flowers. Now the only way for him to get such flowers —again we speak of the average home gardener in the average home garden—is to buy fresh ftrst-size bulbs every year from the best growers. Then he can give away those of his own har vest and help carry the gospel of the “glads” to his friends. They will be satisfied with what they get, since it costs them nothing., We have come to the conclusion that a dozen new gladioli each year would be more satisfactory than two or three hundred worn-out bulbs. The personal pride of the gardener must be laid away. Let him confess to himself (if not to his neighbors) that the profes sionals can do it better than he can. It is their business. The amateur who wants to keep up his interest in the gladiolus must rec ognize his own shortcomings, his own failings, and be willing to buy new stock constantly in order to keep his beds at the peak point. Then, and then only, we believe, will he reap the glorious harvest of gladiolus beauty. Says De Coulanges, the author above quoted: “When a war did not end by the ex termination or subjection of one of the two parties, a treaty of peace might terminate it. But for this a convention was not sufficient, a religious act was necessary. Every treaty was marked by the immolation of a victim. • * • These religious ceremonies alone gave a sacred and inviolable character to in ternational conventions. The history of the Caudine Forks is well known. An entire army, through its consuls, ques tors, tribunes and centurions, had made a convention with the Samnites, but no victim had been offered. The Senate therefore believed itself justified in de claring that the treaty was not valid In annulling it no pontiff or patrician believed that he was committing an act of bad faith.” Compare that act of the Senate of Rome with the act of the United States Senate in merely refusing to ratify the treaty of Versailles involving its League of Nations pact so woven into its fiber that it could never be unraveled, as was the boast of President Wilson. ** * * Furthermore, compare the whole tehor of the ancient settlements of wars, al ways ending in extermination or slavery of the conquered and utter destruction of the enemy's fields and cities, with the generosity of the Versailles treaty, and especially of the co-operation of the vic torious allies toward the vanquished. Not a single decade had passed after the enemy had sunk merchant ships of the allies bearing women and children, had destroyed orchards and laid waste thousands of miles of farms and pul verized the stones of villages and cities and raked hospitals with airplanes, be fore the bitterness of hostilities was smothered in the humaneness of efforts to give back prosperity even to the de feated. A decade? Not a month after the armistice before Humanity took note that the people of Austria were starv ing and millions of dollars were ad vanced by their conquerors to feed them. ** * * Although the new Young plan, suc ceeding the Dawes plan of financing the debt of Germany to the allies, has not yet been ratified by the Parliaments of the eight nations interested, there appears to be an assumption that it is the most satisfactory arrangement pos sible and that it will be legalized by the Parliaments in due time. It does not fully reimburse the world for the damage done by the invaders of France and Belgium, but it binds the German Republic for the next two gen erations to pay all that it is possible for them to pay—and live —about $500,000,- 000 a year every year for the next two generations. The payments for the first 10 years are to be about $474,000,000 a year, then for the next 27 years the annual amounts will increase to a final $576,- 000,000 a year, and then for 21 years $408,000,000 a year. The total “present value” of the arrangement without future interest, is less than $9,000,000,000, which is less than the actual cash loaned by the United States to the al lies to carry on the defense of civiliza tion. Most of the payments by Ger many will be applied by the allies to payment of their indebtedness to the United States, yet we have already for given and canceled billions of dollars loaned for carrying on the war. ** * * A grievous burden on Germany? Yes—but not the equivalent of her in jury to civilization. Grievous burden? Ask history what would have been her fate in ancient days—slavery of all her people, carried away from home; anni hilation of her property, destruction of fertility of her lands f6r thousands of years following the war. Half of the populations of Greece and Rome were enslaved war captives. The penalty assessed against defeated Germany is not the sum of damages she caused by the war—for there is not in all the earth gold and treasure enough to measure that. The value of the eight million lives and the setback of civilization far outweigh the mate rial aeatructlon. No, the is not to re imburse the actual damages she caused, hut merely ta bm “nimlmi damaaaa.* 1 Reports Say Fashions Ruining Babies 9 Feet BY E. E. FREE, Fh. D. Two things ore wrcrg with the baby shoes of America, says Dr. John D. Adams of Boston in a report to the American Medical Association. One is that “shoes are made 1o sell and not to wear.” The other Is that "the public wants what it wants and not what it needs.” One result. Dr. Adams Insists, is that average American feet fall short of their duty In supj>orting the race, as was evidenced by the high percent age of flat feet In men drafted during the war. The foot of a new-born baby. Dr. Adams states, has only a small part of the bony structure which It will have ' later on In life. Most of Its bones are represented by soft, flexible cartilage. Underneath the arch of this baby foot nature provides a thick pad of fat to ; support the child’s weight before the true bony arch has acquired Its strength. Any cramping of the soft baby foot by shogp that are too tight ' or too short, or that have the wrong shape, is apt to result, the Boston ex pert believes, in the growth of the foot bones in some wrong shape. A baby’s ' first shoes should resemble, he urges, soft paper bags, merely tied around the ' foot without restraining it at all. The fashion of teaching a child to toe out ward is another harmful thing, he be lieves, since the human body Is sup ported most easily and naturally when | the foot points straight ahead, as is 1 reported to have been true of the prim itive and shoeless American Indians. | Bus Hopping, Problem For Motorists of D. C. • To the Editor of The Star: ; One of the perplexing problems of ! automobile drivers is the ever insistent ' demand of boys for rides. It is hard to | turn them down and often drivers give In and sometimes are sorry afterward. But there is another trick that is in cessantly carried on and which should 1 be handled with firmness, namely, the ; jumping on the rear ends of the large ! busses. This thing happened at Scott ; Circle. Fortunately an Inspector was riding and noted several boys Idling on the east end of the circle. One of • them made a dive for the bus and , perched himself in a very dangerous position. The inspector had the driver slow down while he jumped off and ■ caught the boy before he had a chance 1 to fall or be crushed by a large car coming behind the bus. The young 1 fellow was so taken aback that he in ' stinctively wanted to fight. Here is a problem that no parent can i deal with and no one but the motorists ! themselves can handle. It is up to ( drivers who see these dangerous acts to put a stop to them by calling on the 1 driver of the bus or truck to stop and, ■ if possible, to detain the boy and give s him some good advice. ‘ I would like to take this opportunity to commend the Inspector, who pre vented a possible tragedy, for his effl ; cient handling of the case. IRVING M. GREY. Dogwood Drive Lauded By Maryland Official To the Editor of The Star: I have noted with * cry great satis faction the educational campaign con ducted through The Washington Star for the protection of dogwood, which Is such a conspicuous and beautiful Spring flower of the woodlands In this section of the country. I appreciate particu larly the publicity that has been given to the Maryland law on the subject of the protection of flowers, shrubs, trees, etc., which is regarded as the most ad vanced legislation on this subject. But laws In themselves will not correct abuse; it is only when public sentiment is en listed in support of these laws that ef fective results are obtained. This you have obtained to a very marked degree through the columns of The Star, and you are to be congratulated upon the splendid work that is being done. In traveling over the highways on Saturday afternoons and Sundays, when so many people are driving along the roads for pleasure, I have noted with much satisfaction that In the vicinity of Washington there Is much less dis turbance of the roadside flowers than in other sections of the State, and this I feel sure Is due to the publicity work that you inaugurated and have carried on so effectively. I hope you will keep up the good work. F. W. BESLEY, Maryland State Forester. Citizen Holds Traffic Lights Are Confusing To the Editor of The Star: F street northwest, between Seventh and Ninth, is a one-way east street for autos, and street cars go east and west. There are traffic lights on the corners, which display alternately "Stop” and "Go” signs. On the northwest corner a "one-way street sign” is also planted near the ground, but the traffic light on this corner also shows the word “Go” west. Many motorists watch for the traffic lights and “Go” when “Go” flashes without looking for any other signs. You can’t blame a motorist for using a one-way street west when he has such conflicting directions given to him. Hang a red lantern on the "one way street” sign and avoid possible ac cidents. Street car men could go by the traffic light and pass the red lantern on the “one-way street sign.” H. T. McCONVEY. or “exemplary damages,” measured by what she can pay and yet rebuild her own prosperity. Thus far has civili zation grown since the ancient ideals were superseded. We are our brother’s keeper, even against himself. Would an ancient conqueror have per mitted the Kaiser to find asylum in little Holland without demanding his surrender and execution, even to the 1 extent of Insistence under penalty of laying waste all Holland? ** * * Nothing Is said of the other nations involved with Germany In the war— Austria-Hungary, Turkey and the small nations of Central Europe. Why are they not required to make reparations also? Because they were found to be starving and helpless at the close of hostilities. When it was reported that thousands of Austrians were starving— literally starving—and that millions were without hope of employment be cause the war had taken away the great areas of the former Austria-Hun gary, and the sliced-off countries were protecting their own “Infant indus tries” with tariffs, preventing Austria- Hungary from either buying raw ma terial or selling manufactured goods— when all this tragic situation became known to the allies they agreed to waive all Immediate claims for repara tions and to finance Austrian relief bonds, to the amount of $126,000,000, indorsed and guaranteed by Great Brit ain, France, Czechoslovakia and the United States, so that Austrians would not die. The United States float ed some $24,000,000 of those relief bonds. "Love your enemies, do good to those who despitefully use you," is the keynote of modern humanity, utter ly inconceivable to the peoples of 2,000 years or 1,000 years ago—the days of the original Huns. By 1927 all of that first flotation of Austrian relief bonds was exhausted, and yet Austria had not regained pros perity, for she Is not an agricultural country, but mountainous, and she still required capital to create manufactures and a market from which tariff duty walls of her rivals shut her off. So In 1928 the eight allied and associated nations again agreed to come to her aid with another $100,000,000 for the purpose of capitalizing profitable en terprises. After the next two decades, or by 1943, it Is hoped, she will begin settling reparations—not now. Turkey and the lesser countries—never. - MmauAjmMKtaumm , | ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN. What do you need to know? Is there some point about your business or > personal life that puzzles you? Is there t something you want to know without . delay? Submit your question to Fred eric J. Haskin, director of our Wash - ington Information Bureau. He is em ■ ployed to help you. Address your in quiry to The Evening Star Information 1 Bureau. Frederic J. Haskin. director, Washington, D. C., and inclose 2 cents : in coin or stamps for return postage, Q. How Is pairing done in Con ■ gress?—J. A. C. A. When a member of the Congress . desires or is obliged to be absent, and i the vote is expected, he seeks some » member of the opposite party who s would vote differently and makes an i arrangement whereby neither will cast ; his vote on the question. This nullifies • the effect of the member’s absence and : is called “pairing.” Q. What part of Philadelphia is the i original city?—W. F. P. , A. Founded by William Penn in 1682, . the original city extended from the . Delaware River to the Schuylkill River . and from Vine street to South street. Q. In what country did geometry and algebra originate?—C. M. . A. They probably originated in Egypt. It is said that geometry was invented because of the need of surveying lands Inundated by the Nile floods. The old est manuscript treating of algebra is that of Ahmes. an Egyptian, who about 1700 B.C. copied a treatise dating prob ably from 2500 B.C. Q. Does the clock in the Metropolitan Insurance Building, New Tork City, ’ strike the hour?—V. E. A. At each quarter hour the notes of the historic Cambridge chimes are ' played, and following the fourth or last quarter the hour is sounded. Q. Has it yet been decided which was the best play for the year 1928? ; H. T. T. A. This honor goes to Elmer L. Rice, . playwright, for “Street Scene,” which , was chosen as the most original Ameri t can play and wins the Pulitzer prize. i Q. Is hay-fever or asthma con tagious?—E. S. T. , A. Dr. Ray M. Balyeat, authority on . the subject, says: “Emphatically no. [ Unless an individual has been born with , the ability to become .sensitive, it is . practically impossible for that individ ual to become sensitive to any pro . tein.” Q. How long has printed wall paper | been in use I ? —W. D. i A. A recent exhibition in a Paris , museum showed wall papers which . originated in France in the sixteenth century. The first papers were mar i bled or “illuminated" by hand, later printed designs and imitation leathers r or embossed papers were most popular. In 1481 “frescoes” were painted on rolls of paper for the covering of salon walls. Jean Bouchardon in this year painted 50 rolls for Louis XI. “The Passion of Christ” and "The Destruc tion of Jerusalem” were reproduced on rolls. [ Q. Please tell something about the Futurity Race run in England.—G. B. A. A futurity race is a race for fu turity stakes—that is, stakes to be ' raced for long after the nominations or entries are made, the possible com . petitors often being nominated before their birth. The Futurity Race in 1 England is for 2-year-olds and is run at Sheepshead Bay in the Autumn. | Q How big is Cain’s Theatrical Storehouse In New York City?—B. A. , A. It consists of five stories and a basement and is partitioned off to hold ; the shows of the different producers. Q. Are petrol and gasoline the same thing?—R. M. B. A. Petrol is petroleum spirit such as is used for producing motive power. 1 It is the same as gasoline. Q. When did horse cars disappear from the streets of New York City?— R. F. A. The last horse car was taken off i the streets of New York City August 1, 1917. This was on the Madison Street and Avenue car line. Q. Please give the five largest mu nicipal parks in the order of their size.—J. W. C. A. The five largest municipal parks lying within the boundaries of the mu nicipality are: Fairmount Park, Phila President’s Attitude on Tariff May Prove Decisive Influence Discussion of the new tariff bill is marked by forecasts of presidential pres sure to bring about a measure in accord with Mr. Hoover’s views as to “limited , revision’’ of schedules, and there are suggestions of a possible veto in case the Senate accepts the bill substantially as it was passed by the House. “The aim of the administration is clear enough,” says the Charleston Dally Mail (independent Republican). “Not to have at the extraordinary session a remaking of the entire tariff, but con sideration only of those schedules which could be changed so as to help the farmer, and whatever is done to be done at this session, in order that the relief may come as soon as possible.” “It will require a strong Senate and a courageous President to withstand the swarms of the hungry faithful now reaching out toward the tariff pork barrel,” asserts the Asheville Times (in dependent Democratic), while the Co lumbus Ohio State Journal (Repub lican), charging that "the bill as it stands is a great fraud upon the con suming public, including the farmers.” and fearing that “despite presidential pressure it is likely to be no better when the Senate gets through with it,” ad vises, "The Democrats have the mak ings of a great issue here, but, in their eagerness to stand in with localities and groups, do not seem disposed to take advantage of the opportunity.” ** * * “If the President proves willing to see enacted a successor of the existing tariff bill more calamitous to the unprotected than any of its predecessors have been,” in the opinion of the Louisville Times (independent), “his disposition will prove that fundamentally he is a party man, through and through; a man loyal to the foundational principle of the party.” The Times, however, observes that Mr. Hoover "has many progressive ideas, and has made an excellent im pression upon observers who are suf ficiently independent, or sufficiently dis passionate, to welcome evidence of in tention of well-doing in any executive, regardless of party.” “Mr. Hoover certainly knows more about the workings of tariffs than any President since McKinley, and probably much more than McKinley had oppor tunity to know.” according to the Mil waukee Journal (independent). “Find ing this new tariff bill not greeted as something prepared by the gods to be accepted by a subservient party press and an apathetic country, as was the Fordney-McCumber tariff of 1922.” adds the Wisconsin daily, “he will be able to judge the discreditable things which must be revealed if it is subjected to analysis. He cannot afford to let the first act of Congress in his administra tion be an act of bad faith.” Commenting on the plea of the Na tional Association of Manufacturers that “the tariff be put on an adminis trative basis and removed from the con stant legislative bickerings," the Lansing State Journal (independent) observes: “But, however attractive the proposal of the manufacturers may seem, yet it will have to be remembered that back in 1910 and 1912, and about that time, there was much talk and feeling in behalf of a tariff commission for taking the tariff out es politics. The com mission fu turned, and it ha* func delphia. 3,881 acres: Grifllth Park. Los Angeles. 3,751 acres: Bidwell Park, Chico, Calif., 2.391 acres; Pelham Park Bay. New York, 1,756 acres; Rock Creek Park, Washington. D. C., 1,632 acres. The five largest municipally owned parks lying outside of the boundaries of the municipality are: Mountain Park. Phoenix, Ariz., 15.080 acres; Thompson Park, Butte. Mont., 3,520 acres: Lake Worth Park, Fort Worth, Tex., 2,779 acres: White Rock Park, Dallas, Tex., 2,500 acres: Mohawk Park, Tulsa, Okla., 2,200 acres. Q. When will Gold Star Mothers be sent to Europe?—M. T. A. The free trips to Europe for Gold Star Mothers will be from May 1, 1930, to October 31, 1933. Q. How many glider clubs are there in Germany?—G. E. N. A. There are about 200 clubs. In 1928 about 10,000 flights and short glides were made. Q. How much will the Washington Cathedral cost when completed?— A. N. A. The estimated cost of the Cathe dral is $14,000,000. An additional sum will be needed for symbolic features such as stained glass, sculpture, wood carving and bas-reliefs. Since the Cathedral Foundation was established under charter from Congress in 1893 more than $8 ,000,00 has been given to it for land, schools, library, bishop's house, • endowments and other buildings, in cluding the Cathedral itself. Os this, a little more than $3,000,000 has been expended upon the Cathedral up to now. It is estimated that more than $30,000,000 will be required ultimately to build and endow all the buildings planned for Mount St. Alban. Q. What rights has a cemetery as sociation in regard to the upkeep of a ; lot?—D. J. L. A. The rights of a cemetery associa tion depend entirely on the act of in corporation. Usually a clause is put [ into the deed of sale of a cemetery lot to an individual, providing (in modem cemeteries) for the right of the ceme tery association either to keep the lot in condition at the expense of the owner, if necessary, or to resume pos session if it is permitted to fall into a state of neglect. Q. How long have wedding ringi been worn? —M. M. C. A. The use of a wedding ring ap pears to be as old as the observance of a marriage ceremony. Q. How are the people of Russia i represerfted in the Soviets?—M. B. 1 A. The basis of representation in the 1 Soviet Union is occupational rather than geographical. The Soviets, which are councils of delegates, handworkers i and brainworkers, are designed to . represent directly the productive life of the country. Each village elects its local Soviet, which selects an executive ' committee that exercises administra : tive powers. Delegates from the various village Soviets in a township (Volost) assemble in a township Soviet, and the various township Soviets in a province (Gubernia) send delegates to the pro vincial Soviet. In this fashion, from the original local or occupational unit, the Soviets pyramid up to the Con gresses of Soviets representing the larg -1 er administrative divisions, the autono mous republics and areas, the constitu ent republics and the entire Soviet Union. The supreme organ of authority is the All-Union Congress of Soviets. The Coun cil of the Union is elected by congress from representatives of the six con stituent republics in proportion to the population, a total of 450 members. The central executive committee meets three times a year, the Congress of Soviets once, unless an extraordinary session Is called. Between sessions of the cen tral executive committee, the presidium of the committee is the supreme legis lative, executive and administrative au thority. Q. How many patients are there at Walter Reed Hospital?—E. W. S. A. There are between 900 and 1,000 patients at Walter Reed. Q. What do the letters *‘c.i.f.» mean? —C. 8. A. They stand for “cost, insurance, freight.” Q. What birds sing while flying?— W. E. W. A. Many birds sing while flying. Among these are the meadow lark, bobolink and goldfinch. i tioned in some degree, but very little in the way expected. Whether or not 1 the idea can now be revived and made effectual remains to be seen. It is a ! good idea, but it rests back on disin terested public spirit.” ** * ♦ "At best we may be sure that the measure which comes from the Senate will increase the cost of living. It will then be up to the President,” declare* ! the New York Evening World (inde , pendent). The Columbus, Ohio, Eve , ning Dispatch (independent) sees the , proposed measure as “peculiarly near ■ the veto line.” and the Beloit Daily News (Republican) is convinced that President Hoover “does not belong to ! the Pennsylvania Grundy school that . regards only the sky as the limit.” Yet the Fresno Bee (independent) argues: ; "The President is supposed to favor . ‘limited’ revision only. But what is , ‘limited’ revision? The proponents of the Smoot-Hawley bill claim that its ' revisions are limited: indeed that they are very, very limited. If the President agrees with them, the bill will ride as it is.” “Here in New England where protec tion is the political gospel,” says the Worcester Evening Gazette (independ ent), “the Hawley bill it not hymned harmoniously. There are discordant notes. New England approves the treat ment proposed for textiles, and accepts as the best obtainable the tariff on shoes together with its qualifying tariff on hides. But other provisions come in for sincere denunciation.” ** * * The Topeka Daily Capital (Republi can) declares that “the Hawley bill dis tinguishes itself by mobilizing world wide criticism and three ts of reprisals against ‘Uncle Shylock,’ ” and the Charleston Evening Post (South Caro lina) (independent Democratic) says: “American industry is no longer im mune to such reprisals as it was before we developed a great export trade.” The Birmingham News (Democratic) re marks: “The President’s plight is al most tragic. By every instinct of his nature and his tradition, he hates the hate-breeding high-tariff laws enacted by his party.” The prospect of "unlimited debate on the tariff provisions’’ in the Senate is welcomed by the Schenectady Gazette (independent Democratic), and the im portance of publicity is emphasized also by the San Antonio F.xpress (inde pendent Democratic) and the Haverhill Gazette (independent). The South Bend Tribune (independ-. ent Republican), looking to changes in the Senate, holds that "a bill in which more account is taken of agriculture’s requirements and general national eco nomic conditions can be anticipated.” In answer to critics of the measure, the Lexington Leader (Republican) maintains: “While no doubt some of the rates put into the new bill will be changed before the Senate has finished its discussion of the measure, most of the opposition to the bill as a whole comes from those who object, in fact, to the policy upon which the act has been framed. But the American people in the recent campaign certainly in dorsed protection, and they expect to get tt."