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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, June 13, 1929, Image 8

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THURSDAY Jun* IS, 1029
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Foreign Tariff Protests.
Prance has formally protested to the
State Department against the proposal
to Increase the American tariff on cer
tatn French products Imported Into the
United States. Official protests have
also been lodged with Secretary Stimson
by Spain. Italy and Persia. In all four
of these countries there are urgent de
mands for retaliatory action against
American goods. In this hemisphere,
Canada and Argentina are perhaps in
even angrier mood. Altogether more
than a dozen different governments
have formally or informally caused it
to be known at Washington that our
projected new tariffs are obnoxious to
them. Objection to the Hawley bill’s
Increases Is, like the shot fired at Lex
ington, ringing around the world.
The Senate finance committee has
just begun hearings with a view to ap
proval or amendment of the altitudinous
Hawley measure recently passed by the
House. Senator Smoot and his col
leagues are bound to weigh carefully
this swelling volume of indignation
Which Is rising against projected boosts
In the whole American tariff structure.
They will need to remember that protest
emanates from our best customers, now
our friends but In temper to become
our economic foes.
Congress has specialized, during the
extra session now—perhaps—winding to
a tempestuous close, that it is no re
specter of the person or wishes of the
President. Mr. Hoover’s message to the
session on April 16 specifically admon
ished moderation in new tariff legisla
tion, as far as the susceptibilities and
interests of foreign countries are con
cerned. None knows better than the
former Secretary of Commerce what it
can cost the United States if those
susceptibilities are ignored and those
interests inconsiderately violated.
It goes without saying that “America
First’’ must be the guiding motive of
our tariff-makers. But in heeding It,
they must also be actuated by the rule
of reason. That rule pertains to our
international relations in high degree.
If Uncle Bam's vast stake of ten billion
dollars a year In foreign trade is to be
maintained—4o say nothing of expand
ing it—the sooner Congress realizes the
necessity of a square deal for our over
seas neighbors, the better for all con
The Senate finance committee and
the Senate Itself have an opportunity,
which amounts to a duty, to see that
American export trade is not hamstrung
by the Hawley-Smoot tariff bill. A
situation has arisen wherein we can
easily cut off our nose to spite our own
There have been and will be English
visitors of so much distinction that the
obstinate refusal of G. Bernard Shaw to
honor America by a brief sojourn need
i not linger as a grief which cannot be
The incentive to the average "Joint
debate” is not clear. There is usually
not even so much of a reward as a
diploma or a medal.
See Monticello.
Since its partial restoration and
opening to the public a few years ago
as a national shrine an increasing num
ber of tourists are finding their way over
Virginia’s Improved highways to Monti
cello, there to climb the steep, winding
road that leads past Jefferson’s tomb
to the flattened top of “Little Moun
tain,” and to enjoy the panorama that
stretches far and away below into the
blue haze of the hills. A picture waits
there that is worth many miles of travel.
It is a picture that nature paints
afresh with new tints every day; the
same picture that attracted Jefferson
•s a boy, when he would climb the
slope to lie beneath an oak and study;
the picture that he brought bis bride
to see, after building tiny "Honeymoon
Lodge” there on top of the mountain;
the picture that ever drew him back
to Monticello from his battles in a new
world that men were shaping for them
selves. „
Thick books and weighty tomes have
been written about Jefferson and
Monticello and reams have been filled
with descriptions of the mansion and its
availability now to those who love old
things and old places. So much has
been said, in fact, that one wonders if
Monticello is not taken too much for
granted by the hordes of automobile
tourists, bent over their road maps and
intent on going from place to place
and covering their self-set quota of so
many hundreds of miles per day.
There is usually a steady, if thin,
stream of visitors to the top of the
mountain at Monticello these days.
But If the everyday motorist, with a
car, and day or so to spare, could for
get purely patriotic motives for the
time being and make Jefferson’s home
, his mecca for the sake of the delight
i ful surprise that awaits him there, the
trickle of tourists would swell to a
deluge. And as every visitor becomes
» contributor to the fund for the com
plete restoration of Monticello, a worth
while goal would be reached in no time
gt aIL
Those In charge of the restoration
And upkeep of the mansion and grounds
have done wonderfully with the funds
at hand. Everything about the place ts
' ful management. Only the lower floor
of the mansion Is open now. The
- upper story will be open to the public
soon. Informed guides take the tour
> ists through, and, unlike the guides at
our Capitol, do not pass the hat for
f their pains. If some of them have de
. veloped a sing-song description by rote,
’ that is a failing of all guides, and at
Monticello the guides have at least
been well tutored.
Two and a half miles from Monti
cello another attraction has been
opened recently, “Ash Lawn,” the old
home of James Monroe. The house is
still in private hands, and one may be
lieve that Mr. Monroe would throw up
his hands In despair at the color of
the fresh paint that nqw adorns it, and
the rather startling effect of the wall
paper. There, one is Informed, Monroe
wrote his “Doctrine,” a statement
which would undoubtedly be resented
by John Quincy Adams, who probably
witnessed more of that document than
“Ash Lawn” ever saw or knew about.
But the home of this “very amiable
gentleman,” whose greatness was
"thrust upon him,” is interesting for
its boxwood, if not for its Monroe
Jefferson, they say, used to hoist a
signal from the top of the mountain
and Monroe would come running from
“Ash Lawn.”
These are two spots which you, as a
Washingtonian, should visit this
House vi. Senate.
The contest over the export debenture
plan of farm relief has been widely
commented upon as a contest between
the Selnate and President Hoover. It
has another side. The House of Repre
sentatives has been strong In its oppo
sition to debenture. This opposition ha*
not been confined to the Republicans
of the House, but has included Demo
For years there has been an intense
rivalry, cropping out strongly at times,
between the two houses of Congress.
Both jealously guard their privileges.
In the present fight over the farm bill
many of the House members contend
that the Senate has Invaded a field
which is not sufficiently set aside par
ticularly for the House. They main
tain that the debenture clause, as
originated by the Senate, is no more
nor less than revenue legislation. House
members, generally speaking, are ready
to fight at the drop of the hat when
ever the Senate encroaches upon this
constitutional prerogative. The House
leadership has expressed Its disapproval
of the Senate action on the debenture
plan, but has agreed to leave the con
stitutional question unsettled in the In
terests of prompt farm relief legislation.
The very constitution of the two
houses lends itself to conflict. The
House of Representatives is elected
once every two years. It feels itself
more directly representative of the will
of the people. This was true even to
a greater extent in the days before the
adoption of the constitutional amend
ment providing for the direct election
of Senators. But today the feeling still
exists. Senators are elected for terms
of six years and only one-third of the
Senate membership is chosen in the
same year.
The House, under its rules and or
ganization, act* expeditiously on legis
lative matters. The Senate, with Its
rule of unlimited debate, likes to con
sider itself the greatest deliberative
body in the world, which neither adds
to its capacity for promptness nor to
its efficiency of operation. Former Vice
President Dawes has charged that the
Senate rule of unlimited debate makes
legislation In the Senate merely a mat
ter of barter. The Individual Senator,
or group of Senators, trades his vote for
what he can get, according to the for
mer Vice President.
The House apparently is about to win
its present battle with the Benate over
the debenture plan. Organized as it is,
the House may become the dominant
body in the National Legislature, despite
the efforts of the Senate. In recent
years the Senators held the limelight
rather to the disadvantage of the
Houee, due in part to Its handling of
foreign relations and to Its important
investigations of public affairs. So far
during the Hoover administration the
House has aligned itself strongly with
the President. Should it continue to do
so and should the Senate persist in its
opposition to the Chief Executive, the
House is in a fairway to be looked
upon as the legislative pacemaker. The
conflict between the two houses over
Mr. Hoover and its policies dates back
more than a year. In the pre-conven
tion campaign a large proportion of the
Republican membership of the House
demanded the nomination of Herbert
Hoover for President. It was a coalition
of Republican Senators, on the other
hand, In which the opposition to Mr.
Hoover’s nomination was most strongly
"Temperament” In an artist easily
exhaust* Itself in efforts on behalf of
public entertainment; but in a duty
bound dry agent It becomes a serious
Romantic Royal Rumors.
Inhabitants of Britain and of Scan
dinavia have for ages been in more or
less close contact. They have had their
fusses and feuds and they have had
their ententes and romances, obth royal
and common. The grandfather of the
present Prince of Wales married a
Danish princess and now it begins to
look as if his namesake will wed a beau
tiful and charming young scion of the
ruling house of the neighboring country
of Sweden.
“Sea-King’s daughter from over the
sea, Saxon and Norman and Dane are
we, but all of us Danes in our welcome
to thee, Alexandral” sang the poet
laureate in welcome to the princess
about to become the wife of him who
was later King Edward VIL Just how
much actual Scandinavian blood flowed
in the late Queen Dowager’s veins would
be hard to determine, for royal strains
are pretty much mixed. It is certain
that Princess Ingrid can claim but lit
tle, as she Is of the House of Berna
i dotte, that marshal of France whom his
Emperor placed on the throne of
Sweden about a century since. How
i ever, in the case of royalty, nationality
is largely a matter of viewpoint, of
i training, of tradition and of language,
i and it can safely be said that no na~
i ttons eend out better consorts for sov
i' ereigns than Norway, Sweden and Den
\ Auk. Xte m teautei fefe tew
1 character, and are usually above the
t average in physical pulchritude and
: good disposition. Ingrid, despite her
French descent, will without doubt
; prove a worthy descendant of the Vi
So close has been the hook-up be
tween the Scandinavian peninsulas and
, the big island to the southwestward
that of old the inhabitants of Britain
and at times even of Ireland suffered
greatly at the hands of the Northmen
sea raiders. The bulk of England was
for a time ruled by a king who was a
Dane by birth, but Canute, unlike cer
tain of the later Normans and Plantag
enets, was sensible enough, once he
liad occupied the throne, to consider
himself a genuine Englishman and to
act accordingly. The late Queen Alex
andra was perhaps more popular with
her subjects than any foreign princess
on record and It is hoped and believed
that In case Ingrid accepts young Albert
Edward David George Andrew Patrick
Windsor she may enjoy a similar en
viable status. If this marriage comes
off, she and Anne Morrow Lindbergh
will both be sitting on top of the world.
Modern ’Rithmetic.
The public schools of New York City
have taken a step forward with the Is
suance by Supt. William J. O’Shea of
a, new syllabus for arithmetic to be put
into effect with the opening of the next
Pall term.
Family budgets, installment buying,
bargain sales, figuring of home run per
centages—these are to be some of the
problems which will supersede the old
style puzzlers about “how many yards
cf carpet will It take,” etc.
Supt. O’Shea, in announcing the
change in the curriculum, stated: “The
chlld’a introduction to arithmetic should
be through Interesting experiences. The
teacher should present situations that
will hold the attention of the pupil and
create In him a desire to learn how to
meet these situations. The solution of
problems paves the way for abstract
Children will find their “problems”
connected with the home, banking, busi
ness and taxes, with some stress in the
eighth grade on Wall Street processes.
The cost of food and clothing, furni
ture and household utensils, commer
cial discount, net prices, savings and
business banks, drawing of checks, in
terest, kinds of taxes, budgets, real
property, these and other specific prob
lems will be raised and met, and when
It becomes necessary to master abstract
mathematics the scholar will see the
need for it.
Enthusiasts declare that the new sys
tem will convert the study into a game
dealing with the pupil's own life. How
ever that may be, it would seem to be a
step In the right direction. There is a
general feeling that arithmetic in the
past received too largi a share of at
tention and that it was not properly
connected with everyday life. The new
syllabus may or it may not overcome
these handicaps. Its framers believe
that it will; others can hope that It
Suggestions seem rather Inconsiderate
that imply expectation that Mr. Raskob
relinquish political activity just when,
apparently, he is beginning to enjoy
Her selection for aircraft activities
again points to Mrs. Willebrandt as a
universal genius relied on to know
something about everything.
Expert financiers intimate the fear
that debenture certificates will tend to
create in the market new problems re
lating to rediscount.
Coolidge worked the veto power hard,
but students of Hoover policies are
rather confident that this power is by
no means exhausted.
King George himself is evidently one
of the few people who see no occasion
to be seriously alarmed about his health.
The farmer will gain prosperity if he
can make hay in the same volume that
he is making political trouble.
Who can forget the village choir
That called the neighbors to admire
Sweet harmony—then some one brought
A word with sharp sarcasm fraught?
Tis not alone in music’s realm,
Even when statesmen seek the helm,
That one word “Harmony” polite
Becomes the prelude to a fight.
Alas, for all the careful rules
Learned in the legislative school*.
Some discord shows that all our skill
Can’t harmonize and never will l
The Wary Constituent.
"Did you succeed in explaining the de
benture to Farmer Contoesel?”
“Not fully,” said Senator Sorghum
regretfully. "My friend told me he had
an Idea a debenture was a kind of ne
gotiable paper and he was afraid It
might turn out to be something like
a note secured by mortgages.”
Jud Tunkins says the anti-cigarette
law may make headway. But It will
never get so far as to encourage an
officer to shoot at a pretty girl who
smokes while driving a flivver.
Out in the street of a bootleg town
A driver cried, with frightened frown—
“ Shoot at the tires is all I ask—
But spare,*oh spare, this old hip flask.”
Wisdom and Beauty.
“You may be wiser when you are
older,” was the sarcastic comment.
“It may not do me a bit of good to
be wise,” said Miss Cayenne, “if I wait
till I am no longer sufficiently good
looking to compel attention to my con
"Some books are wise," said HI Ho,
the sage of Chinatown, "but they hold
no influence over readers who are
Monotonous Repetition.
Life la a gloomy grand parade
Os bills sent by the score,
And even when you have them paid
You merely get some more.
"If you tells every little thing you
knows,” said Uncle Kben, "sensible peo
-1 pie is liable to see to it dat JM don’t
• tei awafe fit towifrnab"
“What Is the matter with the gla
diolus this year? You haven’t written
about It so far, and I vfonder if you
have given it up.”
This Is the gist of several letters re
ceived by this column recently from
gladiolus "fans” who have missed the
king of flowers from these writings.
It is about time, surely, that some
mention be made of this best of the
Summer-flowering bulbs, especially since
the queen of flowers, the rose, has been
considered here time after time.
We have not given up the gladiolus,
and never shall, so long as we have a
bit of ground in which to plant Its
No one who has ever fallen In love
'with the gladiolus will ever give It up.
although circumstances may compel
him to plant It less freely than he might
otherwise do.
The trouble with the average en
thusiast is that if he had his way noth
ing less than the whole garden would
be devoted to his "glads.”
This policy, while fine for the gla
dioli, is rather rough on the other flow
ers, especially the annuals, which de
serve a prominent place In every gar
The smaller the garden, the larger
the space which should be devoted to
the annuals, In our opinion. There is
some tendency on the part of home
gardeners to put the accent on the per
ennial plants.
No doubt they are right, from the
theoretical standpoint. If one is not
able to spend much time in the garden
during any particular Summer, the
perennials will do the best.
Yet, if one has half-time to put on
the yard, especially if it be the smaller
place, a fine crop of annuals will give
greater dividends of beauty.
Since they require more constant
care, the gardener puts more of himself
into them, and this means, of course,
that he gets more out of them.
** * *
One drawback of the gladiolus for
the average small place is the plain fact
that It tends to take certain elements
out of the soli necessary for its proper
There is no flower which is more
beautiful than the gladiolus at its best,
unless it is the rose, and certainly there
is none which seems poorer by com
parison with its best.
A gladiolus which one has seen 5 to 6
feet tall will never seem right when it
grows only 4 feet high. A bulb that
one year gives a flower spike 3 feet
long will seem to be doing poorly, in
deed, when its spike comes but a foot
He who has once seen a magnificent
spike of Mrs. Frank Pendleton can
never be satisfied with anything less.
Gladiolus "literature” puts the soft
pedal upon the fact that new soil must
be used constantly if the very best re
sults are to be secured. In other words,
if the bulbs are planted year after
year In the same bed, it is difficult to
get the same results.
Let it be understood that we speak
here of the garden of the average
home owner, not that of the expert. -
Your garden variety of gardener usu
ally is afraid of fertilizers. No doubt
he is too conservative in their use, but ;
he is always faced with the fear of
“burning” his plants, and his space
is too valuable to take a chance. He ]
must, through necessity, play safe.
Because his ground is limited, he
finds himself compelled to put his <
gladiolus bulbs in the same earth year
after year. This should demand heavier
and heavier fertilization, but he is ]
No event so fully illustrates the ad
vance In the standards of civilization as
does the action of the eight nations,
led by the United States, in the read
justment of the terms of settlement by
Germany for the greatest war—the
greatest defeat—in the history of man
Put in place of Marshal Foch and
the commanding generals of the several
allied armies any of the famous con
querors of history. Then where we find
the Kaiser and his subjects, defeated
after years of bloody, unprovoked ag
gression, consider the "barbarians” who
dared face defeat by Xerxes. Cyrus,
Darius, Alexander the Great, Caesar, or
any of the would-be world conquerors
down to Napoleon Bonaparte. Even
down to the end of the feudal ages, the
masses had nothing to do with the con
flicts of the rulers except to fight as
ordered, and suffer as defeat decreed. i
But nobody expected mercy from a con
queror. i
*# ★ ♦
Says Fustel de Coulanges in his book,
"The Ancient City,” a study of ancient
Greece and Rome:
“The conqueror as he pleased. No
human or divine law restrained his
vengeance or his cupidity. The day on
which the Athenians decreed that all
Mitylenaeans, without distinction of
age or sex, should be exterminated, they
did not dream of transcending their 1
rights; and when, on the next day, they
revoked their decree, and contented
themselves with putting a thousand
citizens to death and confiscating all
the lands, they thought themselves hu
mane and indulgent. After the taking
of Plataea, the men were put to death
and the women sold; and yet no one ac
cused the conquerors of having violated
any law.
"These men. made war not only upon
soldiers, but upon an entire population,
men, women, children and slaves. They
waged it not only against human beings,
but against fields and crops. They
burned houses and cut down trees; the
-harvest of the enemy was almost always
devoted to the infernal gods, and con
sequently burned. They exterminated
the cattle; they even destroyed the seed
which might produce a crop the follow
ing year. A war might cause the name
and race of an entire people to disap
pear at a single blow and change a fer- ,
tile country into a desert.
“It was by virtue of this law that the
Romans extended a solitude around
their city; of the territory where the
Volscians had 23 cities, it made the
Pontine marshes: the 53 cities of
Latium have disappeared; in Samnium
the places where the Roman armies had
passed could long be recognized, less
by the vestiges of their camps than by
the solitude which reigned in the
** * *
Modem peace makers are horrified— ,
and Justly so—by the cruelties and
atrocities of modem war, which they ,
declare has become so terrible by the (
use of wholesale means of destruction
that, unless it be modified by humane ,
measures of prevention, it will extermi
nate humanity. More than 30,000,000
casualties and nearly 8,000,000 deaths
in the recent World War stagger civi
lization and it has been declared that
that was the crudest war that was
ever fought. “There must never be an
other, for war has become intolerably
destructive." Become?
Yet it is not so cruel today as it was
in the savage days of ancient times,
when cruelty was the main objective
and annihilation of the enemy the
usual expectation and aim.
In our day, every nation engaged in
the World War has created a shrine of
patriotism at a tomb of an “Unknown
Soldier,” typifying the bravery and love
of country of • all its defenders.
In ancient days, it was not so;
the “supreme sacrifice” about which
our orators grow eloquent was not
the ideal of slaves or of con
scripts; there was not the spirit of vol
unteer, but the obedience only of men
who had no option except obedience or
death. Yet there was the equivalent of
the “Unknown Soldier,” since there
could be no legal treaty of peace ending
hostilities without the sacrifice of a
man—slain by a priest to seal the peace,
whether that treaty gave life to the de
jrairgd or their annibllfttt9A»
afraid to give it. Part of the fault,
therefore, is solely his own.
** * *
The plain truth is that gladiolus
bulbs, in the hands of the average home
owner, tend to “run out." This is never
mentioned in the average “glad” litera
ture, but every one who has experi
mented with this bulb for several years
knows It to be a fact.
The enthusiast buys himself a hun
dred plump bulbs from a flrst-rate
grower. They are packed with “wlm
and wigor,” so chock-full of life that
all the purchaser has to do is plant
them rightside up.
At blooming time the enthusiast be
gins to sing the praises of the gladiolus.
The next Spring he begins his planting
with as high hopes as ever, only to be
somewhat disappointed.
He did not fertilize enough. Yes, that
was it. It is true that his bulbs gar
nered in the Fall were rather flat, hav
ing lost some of that upright plump
ness which distinguished the parent
So the third year he plants, now with
less enthusiasm, to find that his flower
spikes have dwindled, with a conse
quent falling off in size and beauty
of blooms.
He is still a “fan,” but not such an
enthusiastic one as he was three years
ago. He is willing to accept part of the
blame for himself, but not all of it.
He begins to see what every gardener
must, if he uses his eyes, that in this
sport, as in most others, all is not gold
that glistens.
** * *
There can be little question that a
few gladioli, well grown, are better than
a large number poorly grown, for no
one really knows this flower until he
has seen it at its best. Then its beauty
has an almost breath-taking quality.
We feel that if any reader thinks this
overdrawn he has not seen a fine va
riety at its best.
It is our garden pride that we have.
We have grown them so in our own
back yard. Never can we forget the
first time we went into the garden and
found that Burbank's Elora had unfold
ed In the night. Or the flowering of
Byron Smith. Or those great blooms
of Youell’s Favorite. Or those Mrs.
Pendletons, more than 6 feet high.
Once a person has grown such “glads”
he becomes critical, and rightly so.
Nothing short of perfection will do.
Those who have never seen the real
thing may be satisfied with lesser
blooms, but he never will be. Always
there arises before his mind’s eye the
Vision of perfect flowers.
Now the only way for him to get such
flowers —again we speak of the average
home gardener in the average home
garden—is to buy fresh ftrst-size bulbs
every year from the best growers. Then
he can give away those of his own har
vest and help carry the gospel of the
“glads” to his friends. They will be
satisfied with what they get, since it
costs them nothing.,
We have come to the conclusion that
a dozen new gladioli each year would
be more satisfactory than two or three
hundred worn-out bulbs. The personal
pride of the gardener must be laid
away. Let him confess to himself (if
not to his neighbors) that the profes
sionals can do it better than he can.
It is their business.
The amateur who wants to keep up
his interest in the gladiolus must rec
ognize his own shortcomings, his own
failings, and be willing to buy new stock
constantly in order to keep his beds at
the peak point. Then, and then only,
we believe, will he reap the glorious
harvest of gladiolus beauty.
Says De Coulanges, the author above
“When a war did not end by the ex
termination or subjection of one of the
two parties, a treaty of peace might
terminate it. But for this a convention
was not sufficient, a religious act was
necessary. Every treaty was marked by
the immolation of a victim. • * •
These religious ceremonies alone gave
a sacred and inviolable character to in
ternational conventions. The history of
the Caudine Forks is well known. An
entire army, through its consuls, ques
tors, tribunes and centurions, had made
a convention with the Samnites, but no
victim had been offered. The Senate
therefore believed itself justified in de
claring that the treaty was not valid
In annulling it no pontiff or patrician
believed that he was committing an act
of bad faith.”
Compare that act of the Senate of
Rome with the act of the United States
Senate in merely refusing to ratify the
treaty of Versailles involving its League
of Nations pact so woven into its fiber
that it could never be unraveled, as
was the boast of President Wilson.
** * *
Furthermore, compare the whole tehor
of the ancient settlements of wars, al
ways ending in extermination or slavery
of the conquered and utter destruction
of the enemy's fields and cities, with the
generosity of the Versailles treaty, and
especially of the co-operation of the vic
torious allies toward the vanquished.
Not a single decade had passed after
the enemy had sunk merchant ships of
the allies bearing women and children,
had destroyed orchards and laid waste
thousands of miles of farms and pul
verized the stones of villages and cities
and raked hospitals with airplanes, be
fore the bitterness of hostilities was
smothered in the humaneness of efforts
to give back prosperity even to the de
A decade? Not a month after the
armistice before Humanity took note
that the people of Austria were starv
ing and millions of dollars were ad
vanced by their conquerors to feed
** * *
Although the new Young plan, suc
ceeding the Dawes plan of financing the
debt of Germany to the allies, has not
yet been ratified by the Parliaments
of the eight nations interested, there
appears to be an assumption that it is
the most satisfactory arrangement pos
sible and that it will be legalized by the
Parliaments in due time.
It does not fully reimburse the world
for the damage done by the invaders of
France and Belgium, but it binds the
German Republic for the next two gen
erations to pay all that it is possible for
them to pay—and live —about $500,000,-
000 a year every year for the next two
The payments for the first 10 years
are to be about $474,000,000 a year,
then for the next 27 years the annual
amounts will increase to a final $576,-
000,000 a year, and then for 21 years
$408,000,000 a year. The total “present
value” of the arrangement without future
interest, is less than $9,000,000,000,
which is less than the actual cash
loaned by the United States to the al
lies to carry on the defense of civiliza
tion. Most of the payments by Ger
many will be applied by the allies to
payment of their indebtedness to the
United States, yet we have already for
given and canceled billions of dollars
loaned for carrying on the war.
** * *
A grievous burden on Germany?
Yes—but not the equivalent of her in
jury to civilization. Grievous burden?
Ask history what would have been her
fate in ancient days—slavery of all her
people, carried away from home; anni
hilation of her property, destruction of
fertility of her lands f6r thousands of
years following the war. Half of the
populations of Greece and Rome were
enslaved war captives.
The penalty assessed against defeated
Germany is not the sum of damages
she caused by the war—for there is not
in all the earth gold and treasure
enough to measure that. The value of
the eight million lives and the setback
of civilization far outweigh the mate
rial aeatructlon. No, the is not to re
imburse the actual damages she caused,
hut merely ta bm “nimlmi damaaaa.* 1
Reports Say Fashions
Ruining Babies 9 Feet
BY E. E. FREE, Fh. D.
Two things ore wrcrg with the baby
shoes of America, says Dr. John D.
Adams of Boston in a report to the
American Medical Association. One is
that “shoes are made 1o sell and not to
wear.” The other Is that "the public
wants what it wants and not what it
needs.” One result. Dr. Adams Insists,
is that average American feet fall short
of their duty In supj>orting the race,
as was evidenced by the high percent
age of flat feet In men drafted during
the war. The foot of a new-born baby.
Dr. Adams states, has only a small part
of the bony structure which It will have
' later on In life. Most of Its bones are
represented by soft, flexible cartilage.
Underneath the arch of this baby foot
nature provides a thick pad of fat to
; support the child’s weight before the
true bony arch has acquired Its
strength. Any cramping of the soft
baby foot by shogp that are too tight
' or too short, or that have the wrong
shape, is apt to result, the Boston ex
pert believes, in the growth of the foot
bones in some wrong shape. A baby’s
' first shoes should resemble, he urges,
soft paper bags, merely tied around the
' foot without restraining it at all. The
fashion of teaching a child to toe out
ward is another harmful thing, he be
lieves, since the human body Is sup
ported most easily and naturally when
| the foot points straight ahead, as is
1 reported to have been true of the prim
itive and shoeless American Indians.
| Bus Hopping, Problem
For Motorists of D. C.
• To the Editor of The Star:
; One of the perplexing problems of
! automobile drivers is the ever insistent
' demand of boys for rides. It is hard to
| turn them down and often drivers give
In and sometimes are sorry afterward.
But there is another trick that is in
cessantly carried on and which should
1 be handled with firmness, namely, the
; jumping on the rear ends of the large
! busses. This thing happened at Scott
; Circle. Fortunately an Inspector was
riding and noted several boys Idling on
the east end of the circle. One of
• them made a dive for the bus and
, perched himself in a very dangerous
position. The inspector had the driver
slow down while he jumped off and
■ caught the boy before he had a chance
1 to fall or be crushed by a large car
coming behind the bus. The young
1 fellow was so taken aback that he in
' stinctively wanted to fight.
Here is a problem that no parent can
i deal with and no one but the motorists
! themselves can handle. It is up to
( drivers who see these dangerous acts to
put a stop to them by calling on the
1 driver of the bus or truck to stop and,
■ if possible, to detain the boy and give
s him some good advice.
‘ I would like to take this opportunity
to commend the Inspector, who pre
vented a possible tragedy, for his effl
; cient handling of the case.
Dogwood Drive Lauded
By Maryland Official
To the Editor of The Star:
I have noted with * cry great satis
faction the educational campaign con
ducted through The Washington Star
for the protection of dogwood, which Is
such a conspicuous and beautiful Spring
flower of the woodlands In this section
of the country. I appreciate particu
larly the publicity that has been given
to the Maryland law on the subject of
the protection of flowers, shrubs, trees,
etc., which is regarded as the most ad
vanced legislation on this subject. But
laws In themselves will not correct abuse;
it is only when public sentiment is en
listed in support of these laws that ef
fective results are obtained. This you
have obtained to a very marked degree
through the columns of The Star, and
you are to be congratulated upon the
splendid work that is being done.
In traveling over the highways on
Saturday afternoons and Sundays, when
so many people are driving along the
roads for pleasure, I have noted with
much satisfaction that In the vicinity
of Washington there Is much less dis
turbance of the roadside flowers than
in other sections of the State, and this
I feel sure Is due to the publicity work
that you inaugurated and have carried
on so effectively. I hope you will keep
up the good work. F. W. BESLEY,
Maryland State Forester.
Citizen Holds Traffic
Lights Are Confusing
To the Editor of The Star:
F street northwest, between Seventh
and Ninth, is a one-way east street for
autos, and street cars go east and west.
There are traffic lights on the corners,
which display alternately "Stop” and
"Go” signs. On the northwest corner a
"one-way street sign” is also planted
near the ground, but the traffic light
on this corner also shows the word
“Go” west. Many motorists watch for
the traffic lights and “Go” when “Go”
flashes without looking for any other
signs. You can’t blame a motorist for
using a one-way street west when he
has such conflicting directions given to
him. Hang a red lantern on the "one
way street” sign and avoid possible ac
cidents. Street car men could go by the
traffic light and pass the red lantern on
the “one-way street sign.”
or “exemplary damages,” measured by
what she can pay and yet rebuild her
own prosperity. Thus far has civili
zation grown since the ancient ideals
were superseded. We are our brother’s
keeper, even against himself.
Would an ancient conqueror have per
mitted the Kaiser to find asylum in
little Holland without demanding his
surrender and execution, even to the
1 extent of Insistence under penalty of
laying waste all Holland?
** * *
Nothing Is said of the other nations
involved with Germany In the war—
Austria-Hungary, Turkey and the small
nations of Central Europe. Why are
they not required to make reparations
also? Because they were found to be
starving and helpless at the close of
hostilities. When it was reported that
thousands of Austrians were starving—
literally starving—and that millions
were without hope of employment be
cause the war had taken away the
great areas of the former Austria-Hun
gary, and the sliced-off countries were
protecting their own “Infant indus
tries” with tariffs, preventing Austria-
Hungary from either buying raw ma
terial or selling manufactured goods—
when all this tragic situation became
known to the allies they agreed to
waive all Immediate claims for repara
tions and to finance Austrian relief
bonds, to the amount of $126,000,000,
indorsed and guaranteed by Great Brit
ain, France, Czechoslovakia and
the United States, so that Austrians
would not die. The United States float
ed some $24,000,000 of those relief
bonds. "Love your enemies, do good
to those who despitefully use you," is
the keynote of modern humanity, utter
ly inconceivable to the peoples of 2,000
years or 1,000 years ago—the days of
the original Huns.
By 1927 all of that first flotation of
Austrian relief bonds was exhausted,
and yet Austria had not regained pros
perity, for she Is not an agricultural
country, but mountainous, and she still
required capital to create manufactures
and a market from which tariff duty
walls of her rivals shut her off. So In
1928 the eight allied and associated
nations again agreed to come to her
aid with another $100,000,000 for the
purpose of capitalizing profitable en
terprises. After the next two decades,
or by 1943, it Is hoped, she will begin
settling reparations—not now. Turkey
and the lesser countries—never.
- MmauAjmMKtaumm ,
What do you need to know? Is
there some point about your business or
> personal life that puzzles you? Is there
t something you want to know without
. delay? Submit your question to Fred
eric J. Haskin, director of our Wash
- ington Information Bureau. He is em
■ ployed to help you. Address your in
quiry to The Evening Star Information
1 Bureau. Frederic J. Haskin. director,
Washington, D. C., and inclose 2 cents
: in coin or stamps for return postage,
Q. How Is pairing done in Con
■ gress?—J. A. C.
A. When a member of the Congress
. desires or is obliged to be absent, and
i the vote is expected, he seeks some
» member of the opposite party who
s would vote differently and makes an
i arrangement whereby neither will cast
; his vote on the question. This nullifies
• the effect of the member’s absence and
: is called “pairing.”
Q. What part of Philadelphia is the
i original city?—W. F. P.
, A. Founded by William Penn in 1682,
. the original city extended from the
. Delaware River to the Schuylkill River
. and from Vine street to South street.
Q. In what country did geometry and
algebra originate?—C. M.
. A. They probably originated in Egypt.
It is said that geometry was invented
because of the need of surveying lands
Inundated by the Nile floods. The old
est manuscript treating of algebra is
that of Ahmes. an Egyptian, who about
1700 B.C. copied a treatise dating prob
ably from 2500 B.C.
Q. Does the clock in the Metropolitan
Insurance Building, New Tork City,
’ strike the hour?—V. E.
A. At each quarter hour the notes of
the historic Cambridge chimes are
' played, and following the fourth or last
quarter the hour is sounded.
Q. Has it yet been decided which was
the best play for the year 1928?
; H. T. T.
A. This honor goes to Elmer L. Rice,
. playwright, for “Street Scene,” which
, was chosen as the most original Ameri
t can play and wins the Pulitzer prize.
i Q. Is hay-fever or asthma con
tagious?—E. S. T.
, A. Dr. Ray M. Balyeat, authority on
. the subject, says: “Emphatically no.
[ Unless an individual has been born with
, the ability to become .sensitive, it is
. practically impossible for that individ
ual to become sensitive to any pro
. tein.”
Q. How long has printed wall paper
| been in use I ? —W. D.
i A. A recent exhibition in a Paris
, museum showed wall papers which
. originated in France in the sixteenth
century. The first papers were mar
i bled or “illuminated" by hand, later
printed designs and imitation leathers
r or embossed papers were most popular.
In 1481 “frescoes” were painted on rolls
of paper for the covering of salon
walls. Jean Bouchardon in this year
painted 50 rolls for Louis XI. “The
Passion of Christ” and "The Destruc
tion of Jerusalem” were reproduced on
[ Q. Please tell something about the
Futurity Race run in England.—G. B.
A. A futurity race is a race for fu
turity stakes—that is, stakes to be
' raced for long after the nominations
or entries are made, the possible com
. petitors often being nominated before
their birth. The Futurity Race in
1 England is for 2-year-olds and is run
at Sheepshead Bay in the Autumn.
| Q How big is Cain’s Theatrical
Storehouse In New York City?—B. A.
, A. It consists of five stories and a
basement and is partitioned off to hold
; the shows of the different producers.
Q. Are petrol and gasoline the same
thing?—R. M. B.
A. Petrol is petroleum spirit such as
is used for producing motive power.
1 It is the same as gasoline.
Q. When did horse cars disappear
from the streets of New York City?—
R. F.
A. The last horse car was taken off
i the streets of New York City August 1,
1917. This was on the Madison Street
and Avenue car line.
Q. Please give the five largest mu
nicipal parks in the order of their
size.—J. W. C.
A. The five largest municipal parks
lying within the boundaries of the mu
nicipality are: Fairmount Park, Phila
President’s Attitude on Tariff
May Prove Decisive Influence
Discussion of the new tariff bill is
marked by forecasts of presidential pres
sure to bring about a measure in accord
with Mr. Hoover’s views as to “limited
, revision’’ of schedules, and there are
suggestions of a possible veto in case
the Senate accepts the bill substantially
as it was passed by the House.
“The aim of the administration is
clear enough,” says the Charleston Dally
Mail (independent Republican). “Not
to have at the extraordinary session a
remaking of the entire tariff, but con
sideration only of those schedules which
could be changed so as to help the
farmer, and whatever is done to be done
at this session, in order that the relief
may come as soon as possible.”
“It will require a strong Senate and a
courageous President to withstand the
swarms of the hungry faithful now
reaching out toward the tariff pork
barrel,” asserts the Asheville Times (in
dependent Democratic), while the Co
lumbus Ohio State Journal (Repub
lican), charging that "the bill as it
stands is a great fraud upon the con
suming public, including the farmers.”
and fearing that “despite presidential
pressure it is likely to be no better when
the Senate gets through with it,” ad
vises, "The Democrats have the mak
ings of a great issue here, but, in their
eagerness to stand in with localities and
groups, do not seem disposed to take
advantage of the opportunity.”
** * *
“If the President proves willing to see
enacted a successor of the existing tariff
bill more calamitous to the unprotected
than any of its predecessors have been,”
in the opinion of the Louisville Times
(independent), “his disposition will
prove that fundamentally he is a party
man, through and through; a man loyal
to the foundational principle of the
party.” The Times, however, observes
that Mr. Hoover "has many progressive
ideas, and has made an excellent im
pression upon observers who are suf
ficiently independent, or sufficiently dis
passionate, to welcome evidence of in
tention of well-doing in any executive,
regardless of party.”
“Mr. Hoover certainly knows more
about the workings of tariffs than any
President since McKinley, and probably
much more than McKinley had oppor
tunity to know.” according to the Mil
waukee Journal (independent). “Find
ing this new tariff bill not greeted as
something prepared by the gods to be
accepted by a subservient party press
and an apathetic country, as was the
Fordney-McCumber tariff of 1922.” adds
the Wisconsin daily, “he will be able to
judge the discreditable things which
must be revealed if it is subjected to
analysis. He cannot afford to let the
first act of Congress in his administra
tion be an act of bad faith.”
Commenting on the plea of the Na
tional Association of Manufacturers
that “the tariff be put on an adminis
trative basis and removed from the con
stant legislative bickerings," the Lansing
State Journal (independent) observes:
“But, however attractive the proposal
of the manufacturers may seem, yet it
will have to be remembered that back
in 1910 and 1912, and about that time,
there was much talk and feeling in
behalf of a tariff commission for taking
the tariff out es politics. The com
mission fu turned, and it ha* func
delphia. 3,881 acres: Grifllth Park. Los
Angeles. 3,751 acres: Bidwell Park,
Chico, Calif., 2.391 acres; Pelham Park
Bay. New York, 1,756 acres; Rock
Creek Park, Washington. D. C., 1,632
acres. The five largest municipally
owned parks lying outside of the
boundaries of the municipality are:
Mountain Park. Phoenix, Ariz., 15.080
acres; Thompson Park, Butte. Mont.,
3,520 acres: Lake Worth Park, Fort
Worth, Tex., 2,779 acres: White Rock
Park, Dallas, Tex., 2,500 acres: Mohawk
Park, Tulsa, Okla., 2,200 acres.
Q. When will Gold Star Mothers be
sent to Europe?—M. T.
A. The free trips to Europe for Gold
Star Mothers will be from May 1, 1930,
to October 31, 1933.
Q. How many glider clubs are there
in Germany?—G. E. N.
A. There are about 200 clubs. In
1928 about 10,000 flights and short
glides were made.
Q. How much will the Washington
Cathedral cost when completed?—
A. N.
A. The estimated cost of the Cathe
dral is $14,000,000. An additional sum
will be needed for symbolic features
such as stained glass, sculpture, wood
carving and bas-reliefs. Since the
Cathedral Foundation was established
under charter from Congress in 1893
more than $8 ,000,00 has been given to it
for land, schools, library, bishop's house,
• endowments and other buildings, in
cluding the Cathedral itself. Os this,
a little more than $3,000,000 has been
expended upon the Cathedral up to
now. It is estimated that more than
$30,000,000 will be required ultimately
to build and endow all the buildings
planned for Mount St. Alban.
Q. What rights has a cemetery as
sociation in regard to the upkeep of a
; lot?—D. J. L.
A. The rights of a cemetery associa
tion depend entirely on the act of in
corporation. Usually a clause is put
[ into the deed of sale of a cemetery lot
to an individual, providing (in modem
cemeteries) for the right of the ceme
tery association either to keep the lot
in condition at the expense of the
owner, if necessary, or to resume pos
session if it is permitted to fall into a
state of neglect.
Q. How long have wedding ringi
been worn? —M. M. C.
A. The use of a wedding ring ap
pears to be as old as the observance
of a marriage ceremony.
Q. How are the people of Russia
i represerfted in the Soviets?—M. B.
1 A. The basis of representation in the
1 Soviet Union is occupational rather
than geographical. The Soviets, which
are councils of delegates, handworkers
i and brainworkers, are designed to
. represent directly the productive life
of the country. Each village elects its
local Soviet, which selects an executive
' committee that exercises administra
: tive powers. Delegates from the various
village Soviets in a township (Volost)
assemble in a township Soviet, and the
various township Soviets in a province
(Gubernia) send delegates to the pro
vincial Soviet. In this fashion, from
the original local or occupational unit,
the Soviets pyramid up to the Con
gresses of Soviets representing the larg
-1 er administrative divisions, the autono
mous republics and areas, the constitu
ent republics and the entire Soviet Union.
The supreme organ of authority is the
All-Union Congress of Soviets. The Coun
cil of the Union is elected by congress
from representatives of the six con
stituent republics in proportion to the
population, a total of 450 members. The
central executive committee meets three
times a year, the Congress of Soviets
once, unless an extraordinary session
Is called. Between sessions of the cen
tral executive committee, the presidium
of the committee is the supreme legis
lative, executive and administrative au
Q. How many patients are there at
Walter Reed Hospital?—E. W. S.
A. There are between 900 and 1,000
patients at Walter Reed.
Q. What do the letters *‘c.i.f.»
mean? —C. 8.
A. They stand for “cost, insurance,
Q. What birds sing while flying?—
W. E. W.
A. Many birds sing while flying.
Among these are the meadow lark,
bobolink and goldfinch.
i tioned in some degree, but very little
in the way expected. Whether or not
1 the idea can now be revived and made
effectual remains to be seen. It is a
! good idea, but it rests back on disin
terested public spirit.”
** * ♦
"At best we may be sure that the
measure which comes from the Senate
will increase the cost of living. It will
then be up to the President,” declare*
! the New York Evening World (inde
, pendent). The Columbus, Ohio, Eve
, ning Dispatch (independent) sees the
, proposed measure as “peculiarly near
■ the veto line.” and the Beloit Daily
News (Republican) is convinced that
President Hoover “does not belong to
! the Pennsylvania Grundy school that
. regards only the sky as the limit.” Yet
the Fresno Bee (independent) argues:
; "The President is supposed to favor
. ‘limited’ revision only. But what is
, ‘limited’ revision? The proponents of
the Smoot-Hawley bill claim that its
' revisions are limited: indeed that they
are very, very limited. If the President
agrees with them, the bill will ride as
it is.”
“Here in New England where protec
tion is the political gospel,” says the
Worcester Evening Gazette (independ
ent), “the Hawley bill it not hymned
harmoniously. There are discordant
notes. New England approves the treat
ment proposed for textiles, and accepts
as the best obtainable the tariff on
shoes together with its qualifying tariff
on hides. But other provisions come in
for sincere denunciation.”
** * *
The Topeka Daily Capital (Republi
can) declares that “the Hawley bill dis
tinguishes itself by mobilizing world
wide criticism and three ts of reprisals
against ‘Uncle Shylock,’ ” and the
Charleston Evening Post (South Caro
lina) (independent Democratic) says:
“American industry is no longer im
mune to such reprisals as it was before
we developed a great export trade.”
The Birmingham News (Democratic) re
marks: “The President’s plight is al
most tragic. By every instinct of his
nature and his tradition, he hates the
hate-breeding high-tariff laws enacted
by his party.”
The prospect of "unlimited debate on
the tariff provisions’’ in the Senate is
welcomed by the Schenectady Gazette
(independent Democratic), and the im
portance of publicity is emphasized also
by the San Antonio F.xpress (inde
pendent Democratic) and the Haverhill
Gazette (independent).
The South Bend Tribune (independ-.
ent Republican), looking to changes in
the Senate, holds that "a bill in which
more account is taken of agriculture’s
requirements and general national eco
nomic conditions can be anticipated.”
In answer to critics of the measure,
the Lexington Leader (Republican)
maintains: “While no doubt some of
the rates put into the new bill will be
changed before the Senate has finished
its discussion of the measure, most of
the opposition to the bill as a whole
comes from those who object, in fact,
to the policy upon which the act has
been framed. But the American people
in the recent campaign certainly in
dorsed protection, and they expect to
get tt."

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