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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 07, 1929, Image 29

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Lady of British Cabinet
(Continued From First Page.)
Jected Into the age of jazz and alr
planea and labor movements.
Sha owes more to Industry and faith
than to subtlety or cleverness, and she
never has believed in either tact or
tactics—a characteristic, this latter,
which has got her into hot water more
than once.
Her politics are simply explained.
They are also her religion. She regards
socialism as the exemplification of
Christianity. Useless to argue with her
about the weak points of the Socialist
creed applied to industrial and business
life. As well try to start a debate wltn
a priest about his god . . .
One of Eleven Children. ,
One of the 11 children of a Somer
setshire lacemaker, she was born into a
world where the right of every man to
do what he liked with his own was
asserted to the hilt and beyond it. Con
ditions for the factory hand and hired
help generally were fierce. The work
ers were rather worre off under the new
rule of the industrial magnates than
they had been under the paternalistic
rule of the old feudal lords.
Shop assistants were especially help
less. They were inadequately protected
by law, and as most of them were
boarded like domestic servants they were
cut off from the benefits of the work
men's compensation law. Members of
the ruling class would get up periodi
cally in Parliament ana solemnly de
clare that if the workers were not kept
at it for 12 hours at least a day they
would become debauched and take the
road to ruin.
Margaret Bondfield served her ap
prenticeship In a little dry goods store
and was graduated to a large store
where the help became “numbers” and
She was 14. The working hours of
this growing girl were from 7:30 am.
to 8 p.m. Once a week she got a half
dav off. Once or twice a week there
would be a late night, and then every
one worked till 10 or 11 o'clock.
On Saturday shops stayed open till
midnight. The one Margaret Bondfield
•worked in was owned by a prominent
church member. He was very stem
about the sanctity of the Sabbath, and
Insisted on the shutters going up at
11:50 sharp on Saturday night to avoid
the accusation of Sunday labor.
Girl’s Average Income.
.The girl's average working week was
hours, and her pay was *125 a year.
Even this meager wage was cut into
by the living-in system, by which an
employer provided board and lodging as
part payment. Overcrowded. Insanitary
bedrooms and poor and insufficient food
were the main characteristics of the
Conditions like this—worse in the
factories—were fertilizing the trade
union soil. The shop assistants’ union
came late upon the scene, shop assist
ants not being of the stuff of which
labor pioneers are made. Margaret
Bondfield no sooner heard about the
union than she joined it and started to
form a woman's branch.
She was educated, quick, hard work
ing and an organizer. She became
prominent in the union very rapidly.
At 23 she was on the district council
of its London branch and writing in its
little journal. "The Shop Assistant.”
She had a happy journalistic touch in
those days. Later, her style became
more dry. more concerned with figures
and statistics. She was not con
cerned w-ith appeals to the heart. Her
job was to marshal the facts of indus
trial life, conduct patient researches,
evolve concrete arguments backed by
mathematically precise statements.
Called to Another Field.
She was kept busy collecting informa
tion about housing conditions and com
piling figures and measurements. Then
the woman's co-operative movement en
gaged her In another field of inquiry-.
So she laid’ the foundation for her
future campaigns for shorter shop hours,
trade boards and national health serv
Her frail, diminutive figure, perched
on a wooden kitchen chair, would pop
up at street corners. The earnest face.
Its bright eyes glowing, its long, thin
mouth precisely articulating, became a
familiar sight on platforms and in main
streets. At a moment's notice the
young union leader was prepared to
take train or bus to a meeting and get
up and deliver a lecture at the rate of
200 words a minute.
She extended the field of her activ
ities. She raised funds to get decent
lodging houses established in various
centers for working girls. An experi
ence of her own gave added ginger to
her efforts and she used to relate it
with great effect at appeal meetings.
She had gone up to a big steel city
late one night, and, having nowhere to
ep l l he asked a policeman if he could
direct her to a cheap lodging or a clean
place of some sort. He sent her to a
local hotel for girls. It was 11:30 p.m.
She knocked, explained her
she was a stranger and had nowhere to
go^and asked “ she could have a bed.
'Certainly not!” snapped the matron
and slammed the door in her face.
“1 shall never forget the frying of
utter helplessness which possessed me.”
confesses Miss Bondfield when she tells I
this story of the bad old days of yes- 1
terday. .
Serves Union as Secretary.
She was 25 when she was appointed
assistant secretary of the union of shop
assistants, clerks and warehousemen,
and 26 when she attended her first
trades union congress—the first wom
an to do so.
. Her union wasn’t exactly a powerful
body then. In fact, it numbered no
wore than 2.000 members. In 10 years,
however, the membership was driven
up to 20,000 by the united efforts of
Margaret Bandfleld and her associate,
the evangelist of the movement, the
late Mary Mac Arthur.
They founded the National Feder
ation of Women Workers, and when it
merged with the General Workers’
Union (of which Clynes. the new
home aecretary, was the architect and
president) it added 50,000 women to
the union’s membership roll of 500,000.
Margaret Bondfield has been secretary
of the woman’s section of that union
since then, varying her office job with
lecture* and attendance as labor rep
resentative at various international
labor conferences In Paris, Berlin,
Washington and Geneva.
Her outlook on life and the woman’s
movement blends old and new ideas.
The mixture at times has proved
Modern Woman Not a Model.
She deplores the modern woman’s at
tVude toward mating and homemaking,
ffhey simply want to express them
selves, she says, and have a good time.
They don’t regard it as a vocation—and
any woman who does not address her
self to marriage and motherhood as a
vocation is unfit, says Margaret Grace
"It is the mind that the woman
brings to bear on the child, on concep
tion, on the making of the little life
within her own, on the Influences with
which she surrounds her boys and girls,
that has the most profound Influence
on the trend of the civilized world.”
She believes that the race depends
more on women than on men. The
feminists agree with her. But when
she begins .to develop her idea they
edge away and end up by denouncing
her as reactionary and Victorian.
She starts well, for example, by as
serting that there is no past, even that
of an army commander, which some
woman cannot fill efficiently; but when
she goes on to qualify that by aaying
that architects and doctors and such
are entirely inferior to homemakers
there is trouble.
Women, she insists, must fulfill the
function belonging to her sex. She
must build up the life of the family
around her. She must secure for the
better running of the home every device
of science. Her influence in the home
must be used to raise the whole line of
civilisation to a higher plane. That is
, her best and biggest work in the world.
fibs denounce* Uw woman who would
leave husband and child to the care of
’ paid labor while she seeks outside work
. because it is more Intellectual. Femi
nists like Viscountess Rhondda, head of
i the Six Point group, who left her hus
. band in suffragette days In order to
■ agitate with the militants and go to
prison, and who advocates theories ex
, actly contrary to those of Margaret
Bondfield in regard to the place of paid
labor in the modem civilised home, are
| distinctly cool In reference to the doyen
of the woman’s trade union movement.
Tact is not and never has been Miss
Bondfield's forte. She is forthright, be
, lieves in saying what she thinks, and
cares little whether she pleases or
grieves. For she is always convinced
of the fundamental truth and justice
of her statements, and regards those
who differ from her as unfortunately
, wrong-headed. For her there is no
i other side to a question.
Speaking of the slowness of the
growth of the peace spirit, for instance,
she announced that the vitality of the
war spirit was due to the persistence
with which the leaders of governments,
religion and society glorify war. The
leaders of religion distinctly reaented
Ritknlea Russian Customs.
She went to Russia with a British
labor delegation to get at ttie truth
about conditions in that nightmarish
land. She came back and roused loud
laughter among a sympathetic audience
when she described how in the land of
Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin and company
people are compulsorily bathed if they
do not have a bath of their own accord,
and how the superintendent and chief
I engineer of a railway were sent to prison
| for not finding out the source of unrest
I which had led to a strike and prevent
ing the said strike—and had had the
prison term deducted from their
! holidays!
She found in Rus-ia "nothing that
I can materially help us." but declared
that if she lived in Russia she would
still support the government as the only
possible government.
This pleased the labor crowd, who
thought it a skillful presentation of the
case. But it infuriated the enemies of
Communism and especially the pillars
of a church at which she had been
invited to preach. Said the churchmen,
strong supporters of God, king and
“This woman wants to use our pulpit
in order to disseminate her socialistic
doctrines. Mark. also, that although
; she has fulminated against capitalists.
she has never said a word to
i condemn the scoundrels who rule in
Russia and who have suppressed re
ligion, defiled and robbed the churches
and slaughtered and imprisoned priests
and prelates and openly propagated
Margaret Bondfield did not enter into
■ argument with these critics. When it Is
: advisable to avoid battle or definite
declarations she is a oast mistress of
, the art of talking without saying any
;; thing and evading the dangerous point
i at issue.
Her Views Cause Clash.
There was another storm when she
addressed a church gathering and ad
, vised her hearers to study the literature
on industrial conditions issued by the
International Labor Office at Geneva.
: Her view was that industrial conditions
I are a matter of religious moment, but
the view of most of her hearers was
, that religion is religion and business is
business. And so there was a clash.
' "Homemaking.” she announced one
; day. "is the real vocation of a woman.”
That brought the feminists down on
her like a load of bricks falling from a
■ height. "What is this back-to-the
home shriek?” demanded one promi
nent woman leader. "Margaret Bond
flpld seems to have gone to sleep around
1900 and only just, awakened,”
There was also a hot period when
she got wrought up about stenographers
and said that she had come across girls
who, "because they can wear pneumonia
blouses and high heels think they have
Joined a noble profession. But often
they are inefficient and responsible for
more profanity than any other class.”
The Clara Bows of England voted this
a bit thick and said so in no uncertain
i tones. But Margaret didn't argue.
What she had said, she had said. She
just let the clamor wear itself out,
In the Summer of 1918 the British
rrade Union Congress sent her to repre
sent them at the annual convention of
the American Federation of Labor. That
was, in a sense, poetic Justice. She had
been scheduled to go in the second war
year, but couldn't get a visa.
Visitor at Buckingham Palace.
Not. that she was a pacifist or a de
featist. Indeed, she ranged herself with
the school of Arthur Henderson, the
new foreign secretary (who w*s taken
into the Lloyd George war cabinet as
Labor's representative), and against the
school of MacDonald (which, blindly
pacifist, advocated defeatist policies),
and during the war was a regular visitor
to Buckingham Palace to assist Queen
Mary in her schemes of relief.
In 1623 there was some dispute in the
inner circles of the Trades Union Con
gress as to whether she ought to be
elected president for the year. As senior
member of the general council it was
her turn: but there were some who ar
gued that it was not right to put a
! woman, however distinguished, however
1 long associated with the trade union
movement, at the head of the world's
largest proletarian movement.
The latter view did not hold, and
Margaret Bondfield was duly elected —
the first woman president, of the Trades
Union Congress. She managed that un
ruly body very ably. Scarcely was that
job over than she was involved in her
official capacity in a great boilermakers’
dispute, involving 70,000 men, which
had defied settlement for six months.
She promptly interviewed the fountain
heads tn the dispute and got under way
negotiations which ended six weeks later
In an amicable settlement. Her pres
tige was notched up quite a bit after
Friends Slated Her for Cabinet.
When the first Labor government
swung into office In 1824 over the pros
trate corpse of Baldwin's sudden pro
tection program, there was a general
expectation among the leaders of the
woman movement that Margaret Bond
field would be taken into the cabinet.
They were animated less by love for
this trenchant little woman—whom
some of them privately regard as a bit
jf a wasp—than by the notion that they
must unite against the common enemy,
But Ramsey MacDonald went only
half way and gave Margaret Bondfield
the white-and-gold office in Whitehall
which belongs to the parliamentary sec
retary of the ministry of health. In the
subsequent uproar in feminist and equal
rights and woman's circles generally.
Lady Astor. Miss Bondfield's political
opposite, got up at a mass meeting of
the National Union of Societies for
Equal Citiaenshlp and excitedly declared
that It was a scandal and a shame, and
all due to "subconscious prejudice be
ginning with Adam and coming down
to our time.”
The new parliamentary secretary did
well, but the House was critical about
her because she was too confident. The
I British Parliament closely resembles a
I public school. It doesn't like the new
boy (or girl) to be too cocky. It appre-
II elates a show of diffidence so that it
can have the generous glow of giving
1 1 an encouraging cheer.
!! Excels aa Dispatch Box Thumper.
Yet here was this bit of a woman,
the first woman to be intrusted with
, replying for a government upon a
. measure of importance (It was an un
employment insurance bill, a subject
which Margaret Bon’field has at her
fingers’ end), as good as laying down
the law to the assembled Commons, and
with a gold-mounted lorgnette vigor
ously rapping the dispatch box which
I stands on the table in front of the
government benches and has been bat
tered and banged by so many eminent
statesmen (you can see on it yet the
venerable scars left by the signet ring
worn by the great Gladstone, the most
energetic dispatch box thumper Eng
land ever knew).
1 Miss Bondfield was If Canada an
Science Aids Gvilization
! (Continued From Third Pag*.)
arouse among normal people are proof
that mankind has gone a ior.i way to
ward wiping out the cannibalistic in
-1 stlnct and will probably succeed In
1 completely eliminating it.
Incest, which cannot be discussed
fully in a lay publication such as this,
Is more firmly intrenched than canni
balism, but nevertheless It also is being
slowly subordinated. Records show that
even savage tribes have many taboo 6
against it and frequently punish it with
death. In higher states of civilization
everywhere it is regarded with horror.
Mankind's Chief Fight.
Therefore, the chief fight which man- j
kind faces today is against the crime j
of murder. .This leaning toward mur
der is much more common than is real
ized by decent, gentle-mannered people.
Every one of us has in his make-up a
little of the sadist. This is why a
moving picture audience is Immediately
aroused to interest when the great fight
scene Is flashed on the screen and men
struggle primitively in An effort to kill
each other. The sadistic instinct is also
at the base of a number of strenuous
sports, through which it finds a mild
expression and a *afe outlet. Under
the old rules, for instance, foot ball re
leased much of the deeply hidden desire
to injure which lurks in many men.
The gentlest souls In the world may
be surprised to find brutal instincts in
them coming to the surface under the
pressure of circumstances. A woman I
know, who is one of the finest, most
tender-hearted persons of my acquaint
ance, went one night to a prize fight.
It would have been my gus» that she
would either have fainted or would
have rebelled at remaining at the fight
when it became bloody and brutal.
But such did not turn out to be the
case. The combat was between a big.!
strong man and a smaller, younger, j
weaker one. The smaller man msde a
brave fight and took his punishment
heroically. When his face was cut. one!
eye closed, a tooth knocked out and one j
ear lacerated, he was still gamely stick-,
ing on. At this point the woman jumped 1
to her feet and cheered him. She was ]
completely lifted out of herself. She j
was urging him to stand up and receive j
even more brutal blows than he had;
already taken, but she had no realiza-1
tion either of what she was doing or'
why she was diong it. Defp in her na- j
ture was a fear born of her own physical
weakness, and her enwmragement to
the weaker man to go on, not to accept'
defeat, was actuated by the fact that I
she had mentally put herself in his|
place. She was fighting with her back
to the. wall.
But though the instinct to injure is
present in almost every one and is so
strong in some atavistic types that they
actually injure for the pleasure of it,
there is no doubt that even this—the
most stubborn of all bestial instincts— |
is gradually being weakened by the
forces which are building up civiliza
Progress Through Years.
Though retarded in his uDward climb,
and sometimes under the blows of war,
pestilence or famine, actually losing
ground which it takes him several cen
turies to regain, the human being is
slowly crawling toward the light. He
has evolved to his present state from
lowly beginnings, and the very power
for growth which that implies is a guar
anty that he will grow to even larger
spiritual stature, even though it »may
not be possible for us to observe any
appreciable biological or psythologiral
change in one century or even 10. We
much remember that, a hundred thou
sand years are almost nothing in the
infinity of time. Furthermore, we
must remember that this tendency to
injure and to destroy Is capable of
serving socially vsluable end* when it
is directed against structures and
usages which are evil.
Some occult force In the world—we
cannot exactly define it—makes for
progress. This force is represented in
religion, law. education, science, busi
ness and’ many other institutions. One
of its manifestations is the power of
physical growth. The mere instinct to
grow all inherent in even the lowest
forms of life is amazing. A striking
example of this lies in a recent state
ment of Prof. Carrel, who has devoted
many years of research to experiments
in keeping animal cells alive. He says
that if the small group of cells which he
has kept alive in his laboratory during
the last 16 years had been allowed to
grow and reproduce without hindrance
they would In that short time have be
come a mass as large as our universe
ItselL This gives us a vivid indication
of the vast energy back of all life.
Has Spiritual Side.
Nor is that energy all physical; It
also has its spiritual side. Even in the
comparatively short period of recorded
history we can observe groups of people
here and there yesmlng for better
things, for a higher plane of living, but
unable to pull themselves up to this
plane until some great spiritual leader
rises to show them the way. When such
a leader doe* appear many of them fol
low him eagerly. The Oriental religious
leaders. Confusius and Buddha, per
formed this service. Christ Is the com
paratively modem outstanding example.
It Is noticeable in all upward move
ment* that men set for themselves an
unattainable goal. They strive for
something for which they have a need
within themselves, and though they may
not achieve it. in the effort to do so
thrv take a long step forward. Pro
hibition is an example of this straining
toward an ideal. Men and women would
like to feel that they could say to them
selves. "We shall never again have
drunkards; we shall eliminate all
temptation to excessive drinking."
government business, asking an audi
ence at Edmonton, Alberta, if over
worked fanners would or would not
welcome woman immigrants from Brit
ain to help them in the house, when
news of the political crisis which had
arisen over MacDonolds attitude to
ward Russia and the Zinoviev letter
reached her. She left that night and
raced across Canada, caught a liner two
hours before it sailed, and was back in
her constituency in time to fight. They
welcomed her with a> torchlight proces
sion, and 50 men drew her miles
through the streets In a decorated
carriage amid scenes of hysterical en
But the Zinoviev letter was too much
for her. She was defeated by the
worthy general the Tory enemy had put
up against her, and as a consequence
was not a fto-re in the last Parliament. |
Asset to Party in Campaign.
She was a considerable asset to her
party during the last election. *Her
broadcast denunciation of the Con
servative party as "the party which had
again revived suspicion and fear among
the nations” was effective. "Labor
never failed to Assist every attempt to
improve the position of women, to im
prove social life, to create a healthy
environment,” came her thin, precise
voice through the ether and spilled into
several million homes. “If you want a
Parliament of peace, vote Labor.”
She now has a neat formula to ex
press her political creed—" Capitalism
organises human beings for material
ends; Socialism organises material re
sources for human ends.”
It may not be good economics, but
it is an effective line —and she believes
in the ability of men and women to
put it through as a practical program.
She won’t be able to make much
progress with that Socialist program in
this Parliament, anyway; but as min
ister of labor she has to deal with
familiar problems which have always
Interested her. and at any rate she can
go ahead with schemes far her pet
projects of improving general conditions
by urbanising the countryside and ru
: rsilting the towns.
That is a practical ideal which sounds
more like Henry Ford than Margaret
Bondfield. but she has quite a few
basic ideas and Ideal* in common with
the great individualist Henry, although
■ probably even she'does not quite grasp
their implications as she frames them
. in neat BoetalMto phraaw.
■ ’ i • . ■ ; .
Similarly they would like to aay. "We
have wiped out the menace of drugs.”
Neither of these goal* seems pos-ible
of attainment, but humanity wul grow
taller in reaching for them.
The Sermon on the Mount is perhaps
the greatest evidence of man’s ability!
to set for himself a godlike ideal. His
substitution of It* precepts as his rules
of conduct is a distinct moral advance
from the prehistoric code based on the
rightness of might. Only now and then
are isolated men able to put into prac
tice the precept* of the Great Teacher,
but that they should want to do so is
an upward step.
I believe that there is a fundamental
principle at the bottom of all things
living, a law, if you will, whereby every
i harmful force that may be Introduced
1 into a situation Is immediately met by
a counter force of equal strength
which is corrective in it* tendencies,
Ju*t a* an electric current moving
through a conductor excites a counter
current. It is, therefore, necessary when
we are looking at any situation which
appears to be productive of evil to see
if, there 1* not also something in It pro
ductive of good.
Queeiian of Standardization.
M. Calllaux and other alarmist* see
. In the forward march of science and the
i development of machinery only what
:hey feel are the evil result* of standard
ization and the crushing of Individual
ity. They deplore the fact that most
civilized people* today wear the same
kind of clothe* made by the same ma
chines. see the same motion pictures,
read the same books and absorb the
same ideas, thus lasing the opportunity
for individual expression. In the in
terest which science takes in the ali
mentary canal—that is, the material
betterment of man—they see the ne
glect, and hence the destruction of the
I human soul.
j What they overlook Is the fact that
! science is also giving the human soul
! In the mass greater opportunities for de
| velopment than it has ever known be
-1 fore. I think that the danger of stand
ardization, which has been much writ
j ten about of late, has been greatly ex
; aggerated. Let us look at the fact*. We
I say, for instance, that our clothes are
i standardized, that there Is no indlvid-
I tiallty in them. Yet every woman on a
i Spring shopping tour will admit that
she has hundreds, literally thousands.
{ of poaslble combinations of costume
from which to choose.
On the contrary, lrt an unmachinized
I rural European community, we find that
| the peasant women are not only wear-
I lng costumes almost exactly alike, but
that often the pattern* have not chang
ed for centuries. They have become so
standardized that sometimes, a* in Brit
tany. the very to am from which a
woman comes may be determined from
the trimming on her bonnet. What
chance of individual expression have
. such women? If we go still further
afield to the savage man, who ha*
never seen a machine of any kind,
we find the possible styles of breech
cloths and beads limited to perhaps
a dozen.
The ijame analogy may be carrid out
in the matter of reading. Before the
maheine came to make books cheap and
plentiful the average man had never
read even one. Even if he belonged
to that small group who could read
there were perhaps not more than a
dozen books within his reach, each one
laboriously mSde by hand. Now the
lowliest, man is given the ability to
read and has plentiful opportunity to
stimulate his mind and broaden his
view by knowledge of what is going
on all over the world and what other
people are thinking. His mental horiz
on is widened as greatly as was - the
horizen of the known heavens by Co
pernicus. How has his soul or his
individuality been stifled by this fling
ing open of the prison of ignorance?
Again, take the automobile, a typical
standardized machine. Before it* com
ing many a man lived and died with
out ever having ventured a hundred
miles from the spot where he' was
bom. Now, with its help, people in
every walk of life go from one end
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of the continent to the other, seeing,
learning, Increasing their understanding
and widening their viewpoint. Life to
day Is In constant flux, thanks to the
machine, and flux means change, chance
We are told that education is stand
i ardlsed. To a certain extent this is eer
’ tsinly and deplorably so. On the other
! hand, here, too, we have our corrective
r force. For never before In recorded
history education also been so in
i dividual ized nor have there been so
H many educational experiments in prog
■ ress, nor ha* so much effort been made
> to fit education to personal needs.
Has Time to Develop.
The most important corrective force,
however, that ha* been brought in by
the machine age ia the opportunity
which it has given to labor to enjoy a
1 few leisure hours every day, hours free
! from the crushing pressure of poverty
and overwork. In this country today we
have the highest wages and the short
est hours of labor ever developed any
where. and we are going In the direc
tion of still higher wages and still
shorter hours. The poor man is no
longer poor. In ever greater numbers
he ha* time for self-improvement and
Not only has the machine given more
leisure to labor, but It has in a sense
given more opportunity for individual
expression. Specialization and differen
tiation may have made Individual jobs
■ monotonous, but they have also created
; satisfactory opportunities for self-sup
. port and independence for thousands of
people who before the machine age
, would have been forced to be common
i laborers because they could not develop
the all-around skill of the artisans.
In the old days if a man could not
1 learn all there was to know about a
■ trade he was relegated to a very in
, ferior position, but today the industrial
world is so divided and subdivided in
i its needs that people of all kinds, even
, those with abilities in only one or two
, 1 directions, can find a place therein,
j The defective boy with a low intelli
■ gence who a hundred years ago would
! undoubtedly have been a criminal, or
; | at le*st a total economic liability, today
i can find a pimple occupation and be a
good, self-supporting citizen.
I A* we become more and more intelll
gent we will learn how to use still more
new way avoids cutting
OVER 3,000,000 people have
cured painful corns and cal
luses by this amazing method. One
drop of new scientific liquid deadens
pain in 3 seconds then dries up
com. You peel it off with fingers.
Doctors use it widely. Beware of
imitations. Get the real “Gets-It”—
for sale everywhere. “GETS-IT,”
Inc., Chicago, U. S. A.
"To children on tnnl of merry. l ' Where
directions are followed, IT NEVE*
FAILS. Despite scarcity and enormous
coat of SANTONIN*. It contains foil doe*, i
Stood sixty yean' test. Sold eyerywherw
or by mall, 50c a bottle.
Set. C. A. Voorheee. M. D.. Philadelphia I
people la our el vocation who sow are
unable to find a particular niche In
which they can function effectively.
Thus we see that the machine ha*
greatly increased the number of. groups
In which an Individual workman may
find himself, which Is a tendency away
from, Instead of toward standardiza
It has been frequently argued that
our conquest of nature has proceeded
much more rapidly than our conquest
of ourselves. There would seem to be
some Justification for this accusation
If It were not for the fact that never
In the history of the world has there
been such a widespread Interest taken
by man In himself as has grown up
during the present century.
The Greek philosopher said “Know
thyself,” but probably very few of the
men In the street paid any attention
to this precept. However, hundreds of
thousands of people In the United
States are now reading the books and
the stories, the periodicals and the
newspaper articles which help man to
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II *
search his ipwa soul. Perhaps he still
has far to igo in the search, but the
Important flact is that he has begun.
We canrtot have anything in this
world withreat accepting all of the lia
bilities that go with it as well as the
assets. We< cannot have automobiles
without thejir casualty lists. Most, if
not all, of our potent medicines are
poisons if fn wisely used. Bo science
has unleashed tremendous forces in na
ture that mjay be used for good or ill.
Feat Repetition of War.
We have .fust witnessed their destruc
tive use in the World War, and it is
but natural Tthat we should fear a repe
tition of this disaster. But the counter
force is at work. We hear today infi
nitely more of peace treaties, of ways to
prevent the horrors and stupidities of
war than wet ever heard before, and we
can aoe thati there Is slowly being built
up a public Intelligence which demands
that scientific forces should be guided |
into constructive rather than destruc- ,
tive channels.
It may be, as Bpengler thinks, that
each nation, each civilization, has its
youth, Its maturity, its age and its de
cadence, Just as an individual does,
and so it may be that the present civ
ilization will perish from the earth as
completely as have others before it. On
the other hand, there are reasons to
think that it may not. It may be saved
from destruction because it has in it at
least two elements enjoyed by no one
of the vanished civilizations of the
These are the general literacy of the
people, and hence the easy communica
tion of ideas, and the fact that no civ
ilized nation can now be isolated. We
are all, so to speak, holding hands, and
no one group can sink, as past civiliza
tions have done, without the knowledge
of the others. Even if it does sink the
additions which it has made to the sum
of human understanding cannot be lost.
I because they have been so widely dls
i seminated. Somewhere they will flower
I and fruit again.

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