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. JHE EVENING STAR ' With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. Wednesday. . .August 14, 1020 THEODORE W. NOYES... .Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Business Office: Uth St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: lip East 43r>d,»• Chlcafo Office: Lake Mlchisan ButldlM. European Office: 14 Resent St., London. ' | England. t K Rate bv Carrier Within the City. The Evening 5tar............. «»c per month The Evening and Sunday Star .. (When 4 Sundays) 80c per month The Evening and Sunday Star (When 8 Sundays) 88c per month The Sunday Star ......5c per copy Collection made at the end of each month. Orders may be sent tn by mall or telephone National 5000. Rate by Mall—Payable In Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Dally and Sunday....l rr„ IIO.OO; 1 irn.. *sr Monly 1 yr.. *B.on: Imo . 50c ir only 1 yr., $4.00; 1 mo.. 40c All Other States and Canada. Dally and Sunday. . 1 yr . *l2 00; 1 mo . * LOO Dally only I yr.. »s.ro; 1 mo.. Jge feunday only 1 yr.. $5.00; 1 mo.. 60c Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republlratlon of all news dis patches credited 10 It or not otherwise cred ited In this paper end also the local ijjws published herein. All rights of publication of specie! dispatches herein are also reserved. Farm Co-operation. The era of co-oppration has set in for the farmer. Under the leadership of : the Government, the farmers are plan , ning to pool thplr produce and to market It through co-operative effort on a tremendous scale. The latest developments are the announcements from New York of a gigantic co-opera tive organization to handle fruits and vegetables and from the Federal Farm Board in Washington of plans for a co operative selling agency for the wool growers of the country’. Already, with the aid and advice of the Farm Board, there is bring creatpd a $20,000,000 grain corporation to help the farmers dispose in orderly fashion of their wheat, com and other grain crops. Not long j ago came from New Orleans reports of j a project to organize a national cham- : ' her of agricultural co-operatives, with 1 a membership of 2.000.000 farmers. , It has been the contention of the ‘ Hoover administration —and of many of the farm organizations themselves— that the qyeat problem which confronted the AmoMcan farmer was marketing. Production on the farms of this country is not a problem. The farmers know how to produce, and with diligence can do so. far exceeding at times the de mand for their products. Their trouble has laid In getting prices for their products which compensate for their Investments and their labor. It does not require great acumen to grasp the fact that if a tremendous amount of wheat or beef or tomatoes is suddenly thrown into the market, prices of that commod ity will be forced down immediately. Nor does it require great acumen to understand that the farmer, standing alone, is easily the victim of the buyer, who knows that the farmer must sell when his crops come in. The purpose of the efforts now being made by the Government and the farmers themselves is to make it possi ble for the farmers to obtain more ade t quate prices for agricultural products than they have obtained In the past. The farmers have suffered greatly in comparison with the manufacturers and , with labor when it comes to selling. They have to buy in a well organized market. If the farmers now are to benefit, by higher prices, some one must pay those prices. It remains to be seen whether the general consumer of food stuffs is to pay this bill or whether the price increases are to be squeezed out of the middle man, who Is reputed to have grown fat at the expense of the farmer. There is no question that there has been a tremendous spread between the price paid the farmer for his prod uce and the price paid by the consumer for foodstuffs. But. whoever pays the price, it has , been clear for a long time that the American farmer, generally speaking, has been entitled to a better deal. It 1 has been pledged the farmer by the Republicans and the Democrats. The Republican administration has gone ahead with its plans to give the farmer a chance to obtain better prices for his products. The huge co-operative* al ready planned are in a measure its answer to the demand for farm relief. If they work successfully, the farm problem, so far as the farmer as a class is concerned, will be solved. No plan can make every’ Individual farmer a success. —"- » mmm i Tt Is agreed by Russia and China that there need be no war if prompt dis cretion Is shown by one side or the ether in knowing when to yield a point. Sea Supremacy. The race for supremacy on the sea takes a new turn. The Germans hav ing successfully launched and broken all records for travel arross the Atlan tic with the Bremen, the pride of the North German Lloyd Line, it is re ported from London that the White Star Line has accepted the challenge and is planning a bigger and faster ship in the hope of wrezttng the honors from lta rivals. The British line has tone so far as to scrap the 1.000-foot ksel, already laid with much ceremony, of the new Oceanic. When the new vessel Is launched it is to be longer and faster still than the plans originally called for. Th? White Star is to take no chances of being unsuccessful in lowering the record now set by the now I German ship. When th# United States Government •old the United States Lines to private American owners not so many months I ago, the contract provided that within three years the ship owners should eon -1 struct two new fast passenger vessels. Already work has been under way for eome time on the designs for these ships * and the specifications for their ron atruetion. They are to be built for speed and comfort, and there is a gen eral understanding that their will be approximately 50,000. The Bremen's tonnage Is 46,000. The Gov ernment, under the contract with the 1 American owners of the United States Lines, is to aid in financing the con struction of the two new ships to the extent of 75 per cent of the cost. So Yankee shipbuilders and engineers may be expected to enter the race, too, ' for the supremacy of the sea—a suprem -1 eey which was America’s before the Civil War days, when Yankee clipper •hips sailed the seven seas and showed their heels to the merchant fleets of all the other maritime nations. It is proper that America should take lta place In the field of maritime commerce. These greet passenger ships which drive across the Atlantic Ocean today at tremendous speed have aa their destination Ameri can ports. They carry American pas sengers in perhaps greater numbers than those of any other nationality. Too long this country was satisfied to sit idly by while the ocean-going traffic of this country was carried in the mer chant vessels of the British, the Ger mans, the French, the Italians and the Scandinavians. The plight in which this country found itself at the beginning of the World War and later, when America joined the conflict, Is not yet ancient history. America needs its fleet of merchantmen, second to none. Ameri can commerce warrants it, and as a measure of national defense the con struction of fast ocean liners is second in importance only to the construction of an adequate Navy. This is the time to construct such a merchant fleet. American capital seeks many fields of investment today. Shipping is one to which it could well give greater atten tion. Compulsory Taxicab Insurance. The Public Utilities Commission ap parently is about to make another effort to force taxicab drivers to proride some sort of liability for damage which might 'be suffered by persons or property as the result of accidents. . Baffled in previous efforts by the courts, which held illegil an order in 1926 compelling all operators or owners of taxicabs not having assets satisfac tory to the commission to either file an Indemnity bond or take out insurance, the commission now has before it a recommendation by Earl V. Fisher, its executive secretary, that taxicab oper ators be required to show that they are financially responsible before they are Issued licenses to operate public vehi cles. The recommendation, which was made after a conference wtth Corpora tion Counsel Bride and his assistant, j Robert E. l ynch, seems to be due to re -1 ceive consideration, for the commlsslon ' ers announced thev would postpone I definite action, awaiting a written report ' from Mr. Bride outlining their juris diction. The private operators In 1926 claimed that thev could not afford the insurance necessarv. and that. th»re was no more reason for compelling them to Insure than for compelling owners of private automobiles to do so. Considering the thousands of miles run annually for each taxicab, it. seems only reasonable that an Independent, operator before he sets himself up In business to compete with organized operators should at least have financial assets sufficient to pro tect, the public from accidents which might or might not be due to his care lessness. and any automobile driver knows that many of the professional drivers of taxicabs are no respecters of persons or other automobiles In the competition for fares In Washington. While the movement for compulsory liability insurance for private automo bile drivers attil is at a standstill the powerful weapon which this new sug gestion seems about to put in the hands of the utilities commission certainly is a step in the right direction. The provision in the 1926 order which ex empted vehicles operated by a firm, as sociation or corporation having net clear assets of $5,000 for the first cab. $7,000 for the first two cabs and SI,OOO each for the next 43 cabs waa declared discriminatory by the Independents, and it was on this point that the court fight was made. The exemption, of course, was on the grounds that these assets in themselves represented a cash operating fund out of which claims for damages might be collected. A New Reform. A recent Associated Press dispatch In The Star announces that there is a movement on foot to abolish "love” so far as the use of the term In tennis scoring is concerned. On the ground that so tender an ex pression has no place in the slam bang, he-man game that tennis has become and that it is actually stunting the growth of the game among the boys and girls of the country, a player of some prominence around New York Is launching a vigorous assault upon the word which has always been used to Indicate “nothing" or "aero" on the court. . Perfect! Carrying the idea Just a little further, all holding hands at a card table should be tabooed as should the win ning of any horse race by a neck. Clinches should be taken out of box ing, and any one who hugs a base in the great national pastime should be ostracized. No pins should be allowed to clasp. Anything like a lure in fishing must be proscribed. Bridles and grooms should be ejected from all stables. Flowers shall be planted In anything hut bed«, and the very bosom of Mother Earth spoken of only in a whisper. Any one who apeaks of kissing In • billiard game should be deported. Perfect! Perfect drivel. Nothing can prevent New Jersey from being more famous for Its beauty con tests than for startling homicide cases. The German Republic. The German Republic- is ten years old. It celebrated its tenth anniversary on Sunday. The "republicans" staged a demonstration in Berlin which in dicated a growing respect and affection for tha form of government which came to Germany, not as an actual result of internal upheaval, but rather as the result of a disastrous interna tional war, into which the German people were led by former Kaiser Wil helm. The republican form of govern ment waa expedient after the close of the World War. It was quite clear that the reigr.lng family of Germany was not to be allowed to continue to reign; that the Allies would never agree to such a proposition. Indeed, there waa talk of dealing rather summarily ' with the former Kaiser. But while the republican form of government in Germany hes in a meas ure been a symbol of defeat, it has taken on a far more important meaning for tha people of Germany. Under that form of government the German people have arisen, have fought their wax out of the jlqugh of dept, depres sion and despair which followed In the wake of the war. They have built up again their Industries. They have achieved notable aueeeasea In many llnas, with their llghter-than-air ships and with’'their new ocean shipping. And »ndar their republican govern THE EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON, D. C„ WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 14, 1929. ment tha Germans are about to ob tain a new adjustment of reparations which will benefit them and their coun try and at the same time they will see their soil free of foreign armies. This, provided The Hague conference, now at work, Is successful. During the decade the German Re. public has been in existence there have been many predictions that it could and would not live; that eventually Ihe country would revert to the old monarchical form of government. These predictions have been less fre quent and less Insistent in recent years, as the republican form of government has manifested its benefits and has become more and more firmly in trenched in the affections of the people. Ten years is a brief period in the life of any nation. So far as the established form of government Is con cerned, such a period might be deemed merely an experimental period. It will be recalled that France passed through sev eral stages before the republican form of government became definitely estab lished in that country. There were the first and second empires in France, not to mention a brief return of thq old reigning house of France to power, following upon the French Revolution, ■ which set up a republican form -of government, at the close of the eighteenth ■ century. To say now that Germany may not revert to a monarchical form of government—perhaps a limited monarchy—that such a step would be impossible, would be at least taking a lot for granted. But. this may be said: the German Republic Ls more firmly established than it has ever been and there are strong indications that a majprity of the German people are devoted to it., and that only a civil war could overthrow It. The German Republic is subjected to attacks from two angles—from the Nationalists, who demand a return of , the old order, and from the Com munists, who object strenuously to a republican form of government. But more and more the German people, sound and constructive as they are, have come to rely upon their republic. Aviators who fly low over golf courses take a serious chance. Some of our I most Influential citizens are likely to , I become irritated by the Introduction of , a new hazard at a critical stage of the , j game. , ~~~ , | Passengers are requested not to throw . ! lighted cigarettes from planes when | passing over dry fields, liable to fire. , | Senator Smoot might Interest himself , 1 In this rather Important phase of an i anti-cigarette campaign. ! The Japanese beetle has appealed to I a sense of the picturesque, but has not . I yet succeeded in assuming responsibil ity for damage done by the ordinary caterpillar. An Atlantic City hen laid an egg , while traveling in an airplane. The hen is stolid and enslaved to habit. If the , airplane had laid an egg, "that would be news.” * While willing to establish a fishing , place for future presidential vacations. President Hoover properly refrains from any present intimation as to a person age likely to enjoy It. | The power of finance is well recog ! nised. J. Pierpont Morgan's private I yacht is more of an Influence for peace J than any present or projected battle ship. Neither Russia nor China has a keen sense of humor. There Is no encour agement to the hope that they will be able to dispose of a a’ar threat by "laughing it off." 1 It has remained for Mr. Dawes to i stress the fact that the efficacy of a diplomat is not to be estimated by the 1 kind of trousers he wears. As a magazine writer, AI Smith clings to serious comment on affairs and re -1 trains from asserting any popular : rivalry to the serial story. An accurate buslneas sense becomes Invaluable as tt points the fact that no war is a bargain for anybody. SHOOTING STARS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Worse Than War. Sometimes we heard about the deeds Os warriors who were bold. Still, Recollection bravely leada Unto the tales of pld. Alas! The gangman now employs A pistol or a knife. The dish a husband most enjoya Is poisoned by his wife. While many a heart-ache we endure, Life’s way we can’t reverse; Though War is Terrible, we’re aura Assassination's Worse. laborious Thought. "Your recent, speech,” said the close friend, "sounded a trifle dull.” “I tried to keep it from being enter taining," said Senator Sorghum, "in order to get a reputation for statesman ship. Out my way you’ve got to make the process of thought seem aa labori ous as possible.” Jud Tunklns says when you go up in an airplane the big thrill comes in won dering how you are going to get back to earth where you started from. The Barker. Th* barker lifts a voice of cheer When folks to see the sight draw near. We who have dwelt here many a day Listen to what he has to «py ; And wonder how we’ve missed so much That serves our interest to touch. Afar, in search of thrills we roam. Neglecting thoee right here at home. Reeponslblllty. "Does your wife drive from the back seat?” "Yes.” answered Mr. Chuggina. “But I have to try and be a gentleman and take all the blame when a traffic officer stops us.” “Riches,” said Hi Ho, the sage of Chinatown, “in the possession of a dyspeptic are only an optical illusion.” Queer Sense of Humor, .Your roof an aviator hits And then goes plunging through. And even if his life he quits • He thinks the joke's on you. “I used to tell my troubles to a police men,” said Uncle Eben. v “but now de traffic cop know* 'am fusti” _ ....... . THIS AND THAT . 0 BY CHAKLES t. TRACF.WIU.. ———————l ■ ■ —■■■) ■ n ■■■■■■■■»—mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmßmmmmmmmrnmmmm Is America getting to be too conscious of herself? Our life ls something of a poee. Both peace and war are made in a self-conscious manner, ss if we were afraid some one would miss seeing us. We are grandly aware that the eyes of the world are upon us. and this in turn makes us want to “show off” to impress the universe. Advertising, key to the backbone of the people, reeks with such phrases aa “smart young things.” It would seem that the country aa a Whole ls something in the boat of the pretty girl who is pretty and knows It, as the phrase is. In the past it was held proper for a pretty girl to be both pretty and at least semi-ignorant of the fact. ** * * It is difficult for an observer to tell Just what part his own awareness of events and trends plays in the general feeling which he holds that the country at large iv too conscious of itself. As one becomes older he undoubtedly secures a better grasp of life In lta entirety and in its specific parts as affecting his own little individual living. He comes to see his own place in the universe and the places of his acquaint ances and friends, and even of his ene mies and all those vast numbers of strangers who are neither friends nor enemies. This settling-down period varies with the Individual. To some it comes In the twenties, to others in the thirties, to still others in the forties or fifties, and to a few it never comes. It ls based partly on general experi ence. partly on Innate abllitiea and personal trends, and partly on the expo sure to such forces as general education, the press, advertising and transporta tion. which affect the country at large in more or less equal measure. No man, unless he be a recluse, is free from these varying influences in proportion to his sensitiveness to things modem. Almost every one may place himself Into one of two classes—either he re sents the new or he welcomes the new. In this matter he scarcely can be in different, for to be non-oommlttal is to welcome. ** * * Self-conscious America cannot even take to the healthful sport of bathing In sunshine without making a great hue and cry about It. Thousands upon thousands of men. 1 women and children have been getting "suntans" for manv years without thinking much about it. but it remained 1 for the year 1929 to put the word into the vocabulary of the Nation. Even the popular songs are taking it up. Last night we heard two "suntan” songs on the radio. One of the popular makers of "strip" cartoons has his white-skinned heroine declare as she steps onto the beach, "Why, one feels positively naked without a coat of tan.” In the old days pigmentation of the skin used to be called "sunburn" and let go at that, but today it must be nothing more nor less than "suntan." What waa simply a portion of the man or woman who played beneath the rays of the sun. either at tennis, golf, bathing or hiking, now is a "mode." a fashion of that moment which is for ever changing. A -| WASHINGTON OBSERVATIONS Republican leaders in Washington i are no longer guessing at the approxi mate date when the new tariff bill will become a law. They are now trying to determine whether they possess suffi cient strength and ingenuity to write any sort of tariff bill into law. It be comes increasingly apparent that some on the Republican side have reached a frame of mind where they believe that worse misfortunes could overtake them and the party than to have the Hawley-Bmoot bill die aborning. Chaos seems not too strong a word to apply to the present tariff situation on Capi- 1 tol Hill. The farm spokesmen profess to see in the bill a gold brick for ag riculture. Statesmen from the East are I talking about political revolutions which will ensue if the tariff raises the prices of foodstuffs and accords no new bene- ' fits to manufacturers. It is now well within the realm of possibility that all ; the hard work put in in revising the tariff since last. January and more hard 1 1 work in the months ahead may go for naught. ** * * Senator-elect William S. Vare of Pennsylvania has this week called for a "showdown” on the disputed title to i his Senate seat. He announces that he has so far recovered his health that he intends to come to Washington in the Autumn to direct in person his battle for admission to Senate membership. Last Winter when Reed of Missouri— the Vare nemesis—-on the eve of his own retirement waa demanding Anal disposi tion of the Vare contest by a flat and Anal rejection of . the Pennsylvanian, Vare’s friends worked hard and suc cessfully to stave it off. The plea was advanced, with good effect, that Vare should be accorded an opportunity to present a personal plea, which his ill health then precluded. Now- the tables ere turned. It remains to be seen whether the Senate will this Winter tackle anew the Vare case. Most prog nosticators doubt it. Senate state of mind may be expressed in the vernacu lar of the Two Black Crows, “Why bring that up, Mr. Vare?” ** * * William B. Wilson, Secretary of La bor in the Wilson cabinet and Mr. Vare'a Democratic opponent in the 1926 election, who still stands on the record as a claimant for the Vare seat, has recently found himself an important and lucrative post. He has been Jointly retained by the Illinois Coal Operators' Association and the United Mine Work ers of Illinois as permanent arbiter, umpire and referee of all disputes aris ing between them In the operation of the Illinois coal fields. He sits as a one-man court, from whose decisions there is no appeal. Both sides have contracted to accept his awards as binding and final. This new and aig nificant movement in the bituminous coal industry, "to preclude future strikes and lockouts was Initiated earlier this year in Wyoming, where John P. White, ♦he predecessor of John L. Lewis as president of the united Mine Workers, was engaged by the operators and the miners* union to fill a similar role in Wyoming. Si « a * An uncommonly long time is being al lowed to elapse in the naming of a suc cessor to Mrs. Mabel Walker Willebrandt as Assistant Attorney General. There has been no contradiction of the report that whoever is selected it will be a man rather than a woman. It is known that a list of 30 or more candidates, actual or receptive, was assembled nearly two months ago In the Depart ment of Justice and is supposed to have been receiving anxious and painstak ing scanning by Attorney General Mitchell and the President, But all in quiries as to when the appointment Is to be announced are met with the uni form response, “Not yet, but soon." Meantime, one guess is as good as an other. ** * * The first newspaper ever to be print ed on paper made from cornstalks has Juat now been placed on exhibition in the Smithsonian Institution. It is claimed that the making of news print and other varieties of paper from cornstalks is now approaching a commercial atage and foreshadows a revolution in the pa per Industry. This ■will be something else for President Grausteln of the In ternational Paper to Power Co. to worry about. Farmers will cheer and news paper proprietors will smile If the corn stalk newt print era ever arrives. *a a * Each month witnesses a new high water mark In the volume of mail • transported by air. For July the total was 638,810 pounds* equivalent to 320 . tons. The air mail sendee l* still a "■■a 11 11 '■■■ Women being more naive creatures than men, it ls among them that one may see the finest flower of the self conscious attitude. Aa always, its finest flowering comes in fashion*. It la amazing to the mas culine mind to watch the amiable strut ting* of a city full of modish women. Let some particular style become Widely heralded, all the women come forth In it. each one supremely satisfied with herself, not because she la wearing It. forsooth, but because all the other women are wearing it! This is the perennial mystery of fashion, one which the male mind will never solve. Yet mere man, who pro fesses to be above—or ls It beyond?— fashion, is extremely averse to wearing anything which the other members of his sex do not wear. The strong-minded gentleman who recently attempted)to start a fashion of pajamas as street garb for men found himself a sort of well of pajamas in an oasis of trousers. aa a a We have no doubt that it Is this self conscious attitude of mind which Euro peans resent in Americans. We are so perpetually hankering for “records” of all sorts, so childishly eager to be "first" in something or other, that our national complex must be vastly amusing to peoples who put a stronger emphasis on Intellectuality. Those who have read Abbe Dlmnet’s book. “The Art of Thinking.” which has come to the proportions of a best seller, have enjoyed his contrast of the mental attitudes of American and French schoolboys. Allowing for his national pride, one who has gone through the various steps of the educational system in the United. States must admit that the abbe wins the argument. The French youth clings to his Ideals, the American is glad to let them go. In one country pure Intelligence ls the Ideal; In the other a mixture of intelli gence and expediency. The average American will hold to hU belief that this latter Ideal is the most practical as well as the most ideal In the long run, and will point to Charles Lindbergh as the perfect exem plification of it. The answer must be that if all Americans, either young or old. were auch a sensible mixture of modesty, intelligence and tact as the heroic colonel, there would be no fault I to be found with America, even by those who love her best. As it is. hundreds of critics are cease lessly trying to “detect genius" in the new novels which pour from the presses. 1 We want to know our Dickenses before J they "arrive” and to salute our future prima donnas before they have sung a note. Sometimes this procedure is comic, sometimes tragir, but always it smacks of the self-conscious boy or girl who feels that the eyes of the entire theater are upon them when they take! their first seat in a box. When Charles Dickens came to this \ country he found Americans tobacco spitting. crude, boastful. If he could | come again, he would find them cul- I tured. cigarette-smoking, still proud of' themselves. The only fault he could J find, we believe, would be that we are.' as a Nation, just a little bit too self. 1 conscious for the happiest living and the most productive lives, especially in the spheres of intelligence and spiritu ality. long wsy from being financially self sustaining. the Post Office Department paying out to the air mail contractors much more than is taken in in air mail postage receipts. The department has reduced air mail rates with gratifying results in popu larising the service. Now it seeks to scale down the carrying costs. Pew air mall contractors, however, admit to making profits yet. ** * * The Summer suspension of public hearings in the Federal Trade public utilities investigation is merely a brief intermission in the slowly unfolding ] drama of the "power trust.” The in quiry into the propaganda activities of the network of public utility pub i Hcity bureaus, which has been a sort of first act of the play, is virtually fin ished. Next will come the probe of the financial aspects of the myriads of op erating and holding companies. Turn ing the daylight on the financial “set up” of the industry rates, capitalisation | security issues, etc., was the principal objective of the investigation, but to date it has been kept bark while the propaganda prelude has occupied the full stage. Already exhibits introduced which relate almost solely to the propa ganda phase total 4.489 and the steno graphic transcript, of testimony runs to more than 8.000 pages in 80 volumes, j Volume 14 of the printed record Is now available as a public document which carries the hearings through May 11 last. (Coprrlsht. 19J».) Lee’s Academy Career Is Held Rich Field Prom the Roanoke World-News. Secretary of War Good has approved the suggestion of MaJ. Gen. William Smith, superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point, that "large and appropriate” portraits of Gen. Robert E. Lee and of Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard be hung in the cadet mess hall of the Military Academy. Both of these Confederate generals were superintendents of the Military Academy at West Point, and small pic tures of each are already in place. Gen. Smith considers, however, that portraits of a size similar to those of other past superintendents should be substituted, and the work will be done at once at the expense of the Military Academy. The fact that Gen. Lee, when a colo nel of the United States Army, was for some years superintendent of tha Mili tary Academy at West Point is one that has been largely overlooked by his biog raphers. There would seem to be a field here for real historical study. It would be interesting to know what gen eral officers in both armies wera cadets at the academy under Lee. and how far the rather elderly Confederate com mander had the opportunity of Judging character and competence on the field of battle by what he knew of their work as cadets at West Point, President Henry Louis Smith has rendered a fine service in his study of the career of Lee as president of Wash ington College at Lexington In the five years that followed the War Between the States. Dr. Smith shows that as a college excutive Lee was far in advance of his time, proposing to his board of visitors a school of journalism, a school of business administration and other forward steps such as the larger Ameri can universities have only adopted in very recent years. As Dr. Smith points out, Lee was deeply impressed with the more serious problems of Southern re construction and with preparation of the leaders for the building up of the new South. It would be interesting to know what policies he advocated and what in struction methods he introduced while superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, and to have a list of those who later achieved eminence In the armies on both sides of the Civil War. who were trained under him In the arts of war. Popular Seizure. From the Cleveland News. Seizure of a palatial yaeht at Detroit with SIO,OOO worjii of choice liquor on board should help to make prohibition popular with the masses. Mexican Sharper*. From the Fort Wsyne News-Sentinel. A bridge expert says a lot of card sharpers are,-found in Mexico. Prob ably—but wbgi-plek on Mexico? Politics at Large By. G. Gould Lincoln. The possibility of Alfred B. Smith’s becoming again the Democratic candi date for the presidency came up for dis cussion at tne Institute of Public Af fairs, meeting at Charlottesville, Va. The publication of Gov. Smith’s auto biography, "Up to Now,” also has brought about no little talk of the possi bility of his renomlnatlon In 1932. In deed, the title of his autobiography sug gests that the former Governor of New York may have very definite Ideas for the future. But, whether he has or not, Gov. Smith Is saying nothing about them, and If he is bent on seeking to stage a "comeback” In the Held of major politics, as some of his friends believe, ne Is wisely awaiting the turn of events before making any announcement of his plans. aa * * > But whatever the hopes of Gov. i Smith’s friends may be for his renoml i nation, there are leaders of the democ racy in the South today who say with great positiveness that he will not again be the nominee of the Democratic party for President. They add a corollary, and say that if he is the party nominee In 1932 the entire Bouth will either go Re , publican or it will set up an lndepend , ent Democratic ticket and cast its elec toral votes for that candidate. These ; Democrats would much prefer the latter , course. For by following such a course they might be able to hold the Btates of the "solid South” In line for the ; democracy of the future. On the other hand. If they placed an independent Southern Democratic ticket in the field, or even nominated a dry Democrat from the West or North as their candidate, the Democratic party might become so badly split that it would disintegrate and give place to a new political align ment. The Democratic national convention still has the two-thirds rule for nomi nation of candidates for President. The Southern Democrats feel that they will be strong enough, aided by some of the party leaders in the West, to "stop" Gov. Smith, should his name be put forward seriously in the 1932 conven tion. Last year, at Houston, the South ern Democrats acquiesced in the nomi nation of the popular New York gov ernor, though it was against thPlr bet ter judgment, All the border States were lost to the ticket and four of the dyed-in-the-wool Democratic States of the “solid South.” The Democratic leaders, who have been accustomed to carrying these States of the South as regularly as clockwork, sav thev have had enough. Mr. Smith, they declare. > had his day and they do not mean to prolong it. This comes from men who their support to the former Gov ernor of New York openly and whole heartedly during the last campaign. ** * * Assuming for the moment that these i Southern Democrats—and some of their j Western colleagues are equallv rm | phatlc—are correct In their judgment ! and that the presidential nomination • of their party will not go to Mr. Smith in 1932. the question arises: "If not Smith, who will be the party nominee?” It is early to speculate—perhaps far too early. But there is no doubt that some of the Democratic leaders already are casting round for a Moses to lead them out of the wilderness. The names which they mention in their discussions are those of Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, who carried the Empire State last year when it was giving Its electoral vote to President Hoover over Mr. Smith: Owen D Young, also of New York State; Sena tor Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas. Democratic leader of the Senate, who I Smith's running mate in the last j f«mpaign; Heaton D. Baker of Ohio former Secretary of War in the Wilson ! . L r *tion. and Senator Thomas , J. Walsh of Montana, a Catholic but ; also an ardent dry. I Naturally there are many "If*” con- I nected with the chances of anv of those mentioned for the presidential nom ination Gov Roosevelt, for example, ! ,k? re-elected chief executive of , his State next year if he is to be seri for ,hp nomination, j Hi? health, fortunately, ha* been on ine mend. But that, too. prrwnts en j element, of chance. Owen D. Young 1 n P’>Wic eye todav as the adjuster of the complicated war repara [ tions and debts of the nations of f„ U ,T O K?' * nd * ,RO * s * n eminent Ameri ! «*n business man. His candidacy has I been advanced in a number of the • already. On the other 1 been intimated in some i quarte.s that, his connection with lh® i.. . r !T n . l pow / T ‘lt’velopmrnt mav art ! vhen it comes to pick • ln * ® presidential candidate. P ** * * I The Democrats who urge the nnm m S 7 lator Robinson call atten tion to his long public career and hi« success as Democratic leader of the Senate. He has been on the firing line for the party for years. He migh* well be expected to win the support of friends of Gov. Smith, whom he so **ded in the last campaign. It “ J ( he « cust ? m ’ tl »ey say, for big or ganixations to promote men to vacancies at the head of those organizations who nave served in many capacities in the organizations. This, they insist, should go for political organizations as well as those of big business. Senator Robin been * member of the General Assembly of his own State, has been a presidential elector and electoral mes senger, & Representative in Congress Governqr of Arkansas, a Senator of the United States, and, finally, the party candidate for Vice President. He has led his party on the floor of the Sen ate for eight years. The onlv other him to take, they say,* is into the White House. Some of the Democrats of the West like the thought of running Newton D. Baker of Ohio for President. They look on him as a Progressive who would have the solid support of the Democrats who followed Woodrow Wilson. They cite his great ability, and believe he lias not so far retired from the field of politics that he cannot be brought back successfully. The West also has a possible candidate in the person of Senator Walsh of Montana, a Progres sive, a dry. and one of the most prom inent figures in the party. *** * • New Jersey Republican leaders are striving to frame a slate that will fit after Senator Walter E. Edge shall have shaken the dust of the senatorial chamber from his feet and gone to Paris to represent the United States there as Ambassador to France. David Baird. jr„ one of the most active of the younger political leaders of the State, seems to be the choice of many of them. Sena tor Edge's term of office expires ordi narily March 4, 1931. His successor must be elected next year. But the governor will appoint his immediate successor soon after Senator Edge re signs from the Senate to go to France, which probably will be as soon as the tariff revision bill has been finally dis posed of. This means that at the elec tion next year a Senator must be chosen to fill out the short term, ending March 4, 1931, and also a Senator must be chosen for the long term. Former Gov. Edward C. Stokes of New Jersey, not to mention former Senator Joseph Fre llnghuysen. have their eyes on the senatorial job. Suggestion has been made that the appointment go to Stokes after Edge leaves office, and that Stokes be the candidate for the short term, leaving the long term for Batrd. This plan is looked upon with favor by many of the Republican leaders. But so far it 1* understood that Gov. Stokes has not acquiesced in any plan with strings tied to It. A combination of tha Baird and Stokes forces doubtless would be victorious in tha primariei. Frellng huyaen has an appreciable following in the State and might make trouble if the other factions were divided. ** v * The possibility of the return of Wil liam S. Vare, Senator-elect from Penn sylvania. to appear in the Senate in his own defense in the contest for his seat is not brought forward as a probability. Mr. Vare’s health has improved great ly, It Is said. However, much as the ANSWERS. TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN. i Take advantage of this free service. If you are one of the thousands who have patronized the bureau, write us again. If you' have never used the . service, begin now. It Is maintained! for your benefit. Be sure to send your i name and address with your question, and Inclose 2 cents in coins or stamps for return postage. Address The Eve ning Star Information Bureau. Frederic J. Haskln, director. Washington, D. C. Q. What Is the record size for brook . trout?—F. 6. i A. The prize specimen weighed 14 V 2 i pounds, and was taken in the Nipigon River In Ontario. Q. What became of the old Berliner Gramophone Co.?—W. F. M. A. The manufacture and sale of the gramophone was first conducted by the United States Gramophone Co., followed by the Berliner Gramophone Co., and then by the Victor Talking Machine Co., which acquired Its rights from the : former companies. 1 Q. Does It ever snow In Jerusalem?— R. B. A. It does snow In Jerusalem, but In frequently. The range of temperature Is from 25 to 112 degree Fahrenheit. The average annual precipitation Is 23 inches. Q. • What Is the Government tax on cigarettes?—E. H. S. A. The Government ta..‘ on cigarettes is $3 per 1.000. or 6 cents per package of 20 cigarettes. Q. Where Is Greenwich Village In New York City?—H. F. A. Greenwich Village Is in the vicin ity of Washington Square. In the early: history of New York a settlement was made here, and many historic events are recorded as having taken place in j the village. But the city finally ab sorbed the village, and today it has no! official or formal recognition. Green-: wich Village now merely represents a small section of the city south of Four teenth street and on the west of Fifth avenue, bounded on the south by Fourth street and on the west by Sheridan Square and the streets In the neigh- 1 borhood of the Greenwich Village Thea- ! ter. The village 1* famous because pf its studios, small art shops, restaurants.! crooked streets, and its population of artists, art students and writers. Q. Is pecan wood used for furniture? —J. A. S. A. The Forest Service says that | pecan wood is used very little for furnl ture. It is not in the same class with oak and mahogany, but it is about the same as gumwood. It is used for mis cellaneous purposes where great strength is needed. Q. What is the leading French li brary?— E. W. P. A. The principal library of France and the largest library of the world is i the Bibliotheqhe Nationale, Paris. Q. Is It now possible to witness an exhibition drill at Fort Myer?—F. B. S. I A. Exhibitions for the public at Fort Myer have been suspended, and win not be resumed until January, 1930. Q. How many species of insects are , there?—D. W. I. A. Estimates of the total number of I insects, described and undescribed, i range from 2.000,000 to 10.000.00 n. More 1 | Veteran Criminal Studied As He Leaves Prison for Farm 1 More fhan half a century ago prison 1 floors clanged behind Jess? Pomerov. rotorlous Massachusetts criminal at the | age of 17, shutting him from the out : side world. After S 3 years he traveled \ II again the being transferred from the prison In Charlestown to the i State farm at Bridgewater, and was rendered speechless with amazement at the rhanged aspect of the country he j had once known. Discussing the case, some observers suggest that he has suf ' a greater penalty than death, j Things that are commonplace to us ■, In our modem civilization "were as ! strange to thla man as if he had sud ;! drnly been transported from another ; , j planet.." is the way the Flint Dailv | I Journal describes his reactions, stating j that he had been as "isolated from the j world as if he had been a Robinson Crusoe." Or, as the St. Louis Globe i Democrat phrases it. "while this con vict of furtive look and dulled expres- 1 sien. like that of the ‘Man With the Hoe.' WBs leading a life in which he would have been startled bv a slight alteration in the masonry of‘his cell or change In the coarse fare supplied him i for breakfast, revolutions have taken place in almost all things outside his place of confinement." The St. Paul Pioneer Press observes that "Pomeroy might have lived a cycle in the Europe of yesterday and been less amazed on his return. Life and death would have made great gaps, but the material, industrial and mechanical progress of the last 50 years in America would not have been there to lay hold on him and make him a wordless won derer.' helpless before a new earth that man has made in half a century." Vet many things in the world "are not changed, as the Birmingham News-Age Herald points out. saying: "But that world, so strange to him, had changed only in part.. Across it still falls the ; black shadow of hate and greed and other evils. Today men kill and are killed, just as in the days of the con vict’s boyhood. Justice is still battling with murder and theft and other crimes against society. In some respects the world has changed. In others it re mains the same. The contest between right and wrong, good and evil, will go on until the last syllable of recorded i time." ** * * "The case of Jesse Pomeroy, life termer in a Massachusetts prison, causes some to wonder if capital punishment isn't more humane than some other methods.” says the Lincoln State Jour nal. which refers to the prisoner having been confined 58 of his 72 years. "He wss in solitary confinement for more than 40 years," explains this paper, as j it rites the fact that "his reason has | given way under the strain. If this man could have known his fate, probably have preferred the hanging to which he was first sentenced.” “Many penologists,” in the opinion of the Brooklyn Dally Eagle, "will agree that It would have been better If Jesse Pomeroy had been executed in 1876. , * * * His long life In prison has been a marked disadvantage to the prestige of criminal law in America.” As the Morgantown New Dominion puts it. "his life has been more than wasted. He actually died 53 years ago, yet his body has continued to live and his Republican leaders would like to have this matter settled as early as possible, there still appear elements or delay. Mr. Vare was elected to the Senate In 1026. Unless something is done before very long, his term of office may ex pire without his ever having been seat ed in the Senate. A majority of the Senate has been hostile to his taking his seat. Two actions against him are pending, one a contest brought by his Democratic opponent, William B. Wil son, and the other a report of the old Reed slush fund committee, declaring he should not be seated because of cor ruption and excessive expenditures of money In the primary election. The Senate has been loath to act in the Vare matter because of the serious Ill ness of Mr. Vare, and has sidestepped the matter because it was agreed that Mr. Vare should be given an opportu nity to be heard In his own defense before final action was taken. There is still an element of doubt, despite the present reports, that Mr. Vare will come to Washington to make his appeal to the Senate in person In the December session. If he doesn't the matter Is likely out still further. than half a million have been described. Q. Has Turkey l compulsory military service?—J. 8. i A. All the Turkish subjects 'male) are under the obligation of fulfilling the compulsory military service. The terms of sendee are: The compulsory military service Includes a period of 26 years, beginning from the age of 20 to 46 years. The active sendee: Infantry, one and one-half years: cavalry, artil lery, gendarmerie and military band, two and a half years. The rest of the i compulsory service consists of a period of reserve. > Q. Please give me the average meas urement of a cacao pod.—B. H. A. Cacao pods are about 8 to 12 Inches long, with a diameter of from 2 to 5 Inches. Each pod contains from 20 to 40 beans. Q. What sort of material Is vegetable flannel?—M. P. A. It Is a fabric of pine-leaf fiber treated with chemicals to free It from resin, etc. Q. Whep. was the game battledore and shuttlecock first played?—T. T. W. A. This game was Invented In the fourteenth century. Q. Which are the oldest churches In Berlin. Germany?—H. H. S. A. The oldest churches In Berlin are the Nikolai Church and Bt. Marv’a. They were built In the thirteenth cen tury, but have been restored. Q, When did Mme. Lillian Nordica give her last concert?—A. T. M. | A. Her last concert was at Melbourne, Australia, In December, 1913. •Q. Where is a monument to be erected to Joseph Priestley?—B. E. L. A. A monument to Joseph Prlestlev, i the discoverer of oxygen, is to be erected at Northumberland, Pit., by the Joseph ; Priestley Conference of Unitarians. Q. Where was Longfellow living when he wrote "The Old Clock on the Stairs"? 1 —A. D. A. It was written in his Pittsfield, Mass., home. Q. How long have honeydew melons been on the market?—H. T. H. A. Honeydew melons were Introduced Into Colorado from France In I*l3, and ] the culture has spread to every melon ' growing State In the Union. These melons prefer an arid or seml-arld re : glon. Q When was Bunker Hill Monument erected?—E. L. M. A. Bunker Hill Monument was for mally dedicated In 1843. Daniel Web -1 ster being the chief speaker at the ceremonies. The corner stone was laid In 1825. Gen. Lafayette assisting as an honored guest of the occasion. Q. Are Rhodes scholarships available to the midshipmen at Annapolis?—L. K. I A. Annapolis midshipmen mav now compete for appointment as Rhodes . scholars. Q. What proportion of the Egyptian population is addicted to the uaa of I narcotics?—A. P. T. I A. Col. Russell. British head of Cairo's drug control bureau, astimates that 500.000 Egyptians out of 15,000,000 us? narcotics in some form, apendir.a 525.000.000 annually to satisfy thrir craving. : Simple needs have been satisfied. He j has Paid for his crime a thousandfold, and yet the State continues to make him pay. Perhaps it is better that he ! be not turned loose now. but how much better it would have been had his orig inal sentence of death been carried out " On the question of the fact that Pomeroy is still a prisoner, though transfer-ed to the State farm, the Hart ! ford Daih Times has this to say: '•'Cir cumstances of the case and of Pomeroy’s confinement are such that Massaehu setts officials believe he is not a proper person to be at large. Hence the pro posal to transfer him to the State farm. Where he would have all the liberty he ■is capable of enjoying. Any disposition to criticize Massachusetts for pursuing j the Mosaic theory of punishment with inhuman vindictiveness should, under the circumstances, be restrained." ** * * As to the thoughts of the prisoner mmsclf. the Memphis Commercial Ap peal suggests that "the sunshine and the open air will be good for his phvaieal : body, but the rest, even though he has ! the temporary joy of discovery, will be an unending source of bewilderment for . his soul. It will probably not be long,” j the Tennessee dally auggests. "before he ; wishes that he rould be back in the ; solitude and quiet of his cell, and it may yet be proven that his transfer, well intentioned and kindly as was the motive which inspired it. is almost as unmerciful and blind as the type of justice that, kept him 41 years In iso lation." Hope that his fate may prove a de terrent to youths hesitating on the brink of a criminal career is expressed in various comments. Says the Wichita Beacon: "Desperate young outlaws of today, others embarking on careers of I crime, may observe the case of Jesse Harding Pomeroy. There are young men today who may have a fate similar to his. They will be shut off from the outside world of wonders. They will enter darkened cells. They. too. will be lifers, with hope gone, facing an eter nity of punishment in a lifetime. What will they see when they come forth from the shadows, aged men?" i To the Topeka Daily Capital this pitiful case warns society to endeavor to discover such criminally minded in dividuals "before they have committed major crimes. Some of them can be cured, some cannot," asserts the Capi tal, suggesting that "those who cannot should be confined permanently.” Great Universities Are Growing Greater From the Charlotte fN. C.) News. While almost all the small colleges are struggling for breath and fighting with their backs to the wall for financial sustenance, the great colleges continue to become greater. Vale received in gifts during the past year $10,000,000, and Harvard wept that mark better by having $13,500,000 dumped over Into Its resources. One reason, of course, that the outstanding institutions compel attention from the rich alumni is that they are going and growing concerns. Men do not want to Invest their money in anything that does not hold its head up and indicate that it has determination and persever ance to live. Furthermore, an explanatory fact In such cases Is that these larger Institu tions number among their alumni the men of America of great wealth. On the other hand, few rich men send their sons to the small colleges. For some reason or other, they prefer the glory and prestige that come from mere big ness and bulk. A boy can get m, suf ficient education at a small collefe and one that will ordinarily stand him In as good stead as that derived from the mammoth university, much depending upon the character of the boy himself, but, even so, the smaller institution is up against It gtfien it comes to com manding patronage from men with means. So It comes to pass that this type of a college must depend upon the loyalty of the smaller groups of limited means for their continuation. Society’ ean ill afford to get along without them. They produce men who usually make up the community leaders in all worthwhile ac tivities.