. JHE EVENING STAR
' With Sunday Morning Edition.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
Wednesday. . .August 14, 1020
THEODORE W. NOYES... .Editor
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The era of co-oppration has set in for
the farmer. Under the leadership of
: the Government, the farmers are plan
, ning to pool thplr produce and to
market It through co-operative effort
on a tremendous scale. The latest
developments are the announcements
from New York of a gigantic co-opera
tive organization to handle fruits and
vegetables and from the Federal Farm
Board in Washington of plans for a co
operative selling agency for the wool
growers of the country’. Already, with
the aid and advice of the Farm Board,
there is bring creatpd a $20,000,000
grain corporation to help the farmers
dispose in orderly fashion of their wheat,
com and other grain crops. Not long j
ago came from New Orleans reports of j
a project to organize a national cham- :
' her of agricultural co-operatives, with 1
a membership of 2.000.000 farmers.
, It has been the contention of the ‘
Hoover administration —and of many
of the farm organizations themselves—
that the qyeat problem which confronted
the AmoMcan farmer was marketing.
Production on the farms of this country
is not a problem. The farmers know
how to produce, and with diligence can
do so. far exceeding at times the de
mand for their products. Their trouble
has laid In getting prices for their
products which compensate for their
Investments and their labor. It does not
require great acumen to grasp the fact
that if a tremendous amount of wheat
or beef or tomatoes is suddenly thrown
into the market, prices of that commod
ity will be forced down immediately.
Nor does it require great acumen to
understand that the farmer, standing
alone, is easily the victim of the buyer,
who knows that the farmer must sell
when his crops come in.
The purpose of the efforts now being
made by the Government and the
farmers themselves is to make it possi
ble for the farmers to obtain more ade
t quate prices for agricultural products
than they have obtained In the past.
The farmers have suffered greatly in
comparison with the manufacturers and
, with labor when it comes to selling.
They have to buy in a well organized
market. If the farmers now are to
benefit, by higher prices, some one must
pay those prices. It remains to be seen
whether the general consumer of food
stuffs is to pay this bill or whether the
price increases are to be squeezed out
of the middle man, who Is reputed to
have grown fat at the expense of the
farmer. There is no question that there
has been a tremendous spread between
the price paid the farmer for his prod
uce and the price paid by the consumer
But. whoever pays the price, it has
, been clear for a long time that the
American farmer, generally speaking,
has been entitled to a better deal. It
1 has been pledged the farmer by the
Republicans and the Democrats. The
Republican administration has gone
ahead with its plans to give the farmer
a chance to obtain better prices for his
products. The huge co-operative* al
ready planned are in a measure its
answer to the demand for farm relief.
If they work successfully, the farm
problem, so far as the farmer as a class
is concerned, will be solved. No plan
can make every’ Individual farmer a
—"- » mmm i
Tt Is agreed by Russia and China that
there need be no war if prompt dis
cretion Is shown by one side or the
ether in knowing when to yield a point.
The race for supremacy on the sea
takes a new turn. The Germans hav
ing successfully launched and broken
all records for travel arross the Atlan
tic with the Bremen, the pride of the
North German Lloyd Line, it is re
ported from London that the White
Star Line has accepted the challenge
and is planning a bigger and faster
ship in the hope of wrezttng the honors
from lta rivals. The British line has
tone so far as to scrap the 1.000-foot
ksel, already laid with much ceremony,
of the new Oceanic. When the new
vessel Is launched it is to be longer and
faster still than the plans originally
called for. Th? White Star is to take
no chances of being unsuccessful in
lowering the record now set by the now
I German ship.
When th# United States Government
•old the United States Lines to private
American owners not so many months
I ago, the contract provided that within
three years the ship owners should eon
-1 struct two new fast passenger vessels.
Already work has been under way for
eome time on the designs for these ships
* and the specifications for their ron
atruetion. They are to be built for
speed and comfort, and there is a gen
eral understanding that their
will be approximately 50,000. The
Bremen's tonnage Is 46,000. The Gov
ernment, under the contract with the
1 American owners of the United States
Lines, is to aid in financing the con
struction of the two new ships to the
extent of 75 per cent of the cost.
So Yankee shipbuilders and engineers
may be expected to enter the race, too,
' for the supremacy of the sea—a suprem
-1 eey which was America’s before the
Civil War days, when Yankee clipper
•hips sailed the seven seas and showed
their heels to the merchant fleets of all
the other maritime nations. It is proper
that America should take lta place In
the field of maritime commerce. These
greet passenger ships which drive across
the Atlantic Ocean today at tremendous
speed have aa their destination Ameri
can ports. They carry American pas
sengers in perhaps greater numbers
than those of any other nationality.
Too long this country was satisfied to
sit idly by while the ocean-going traffic
of this country was carried in the mer
chant vessels of the British, the Ger
mans, the French, the Italians and
The plight in which this country
found itself at the beginning of the
World War and later, when America
joined the conflict, Is not yet ancient
history. America needs its fleet of
merchantmen, second to none. Ameri
can commerce warrants it, and as a
measure of national defense the con
struction of fast ocean liners is second
in importance only to the construction
of an adequate Navy. This is the time
to construct such a merchant fleet.
American capital seeks many fields of
investment today. Shipping is one to
which it could well give greater atten
Compulsory Taxicab Insurance.
The Public Utilities Commission ap
parently is about to make another effort
to force taxicab drivers to proride some
sort of liability for damage which might
'be suffered by persons or property as
the result of accidents.
. Baffled in previous efforts by the
courts, which held illegil an order in
1926 compelling all operators or owners
of taxicabs not having assets satisfac
tory to the commission to either file an
Indemnity bond or take out insurance,
the commission now has before it a
recommendation by Earl V. Fisher, its
executive secretary, that taxicab oper
ators be required to show that they are
financially responsible before they are
Issued licenses to operate public vehi
cles. The recommendation, which was
made after a conference wtth Corpora
tion Counsel Bride and his assistant,
j Robert E. l ynch, seems to be due to re
-1 ceive consideration, for the commlsslon
' ers announced thev would postpone
I definite action, awaiting a written report
' from Mr. Bride outlining their juris
The private operators In 1926 claimed
that thev could not afford the insurance
necessarv. and that. th»re was no more
reason for compelling them to Insure
than for compelling owners of private
automobiles to do so. Considering the
thousands of miles run annually for
each taxicab, it. seems only reasonable
that an Independent, operator before he
sets himself up In business to compete
with organized operators should at least
have financial assets sufficient to pro
tect, the public from accidents which
might or might not be due to his care
lessness. and any automobile driver
knows that many of the professional
drivers of taxicabs are no respecters of
persons or other automobiles In the
competition for fares In Washington.
While the movement for compulsory
liability insurance for private automo
bile drivers attil is at a standstill the
powerful weapon which this new sug
gestion seems about to put in the hands
of the utilities commission certainly
is a step in the right direction. The
provision in the 1926 order which ex
empted vehicles operated by a firm, as
sociation or corporation having net
clear assets of $5,000 for the first cab.
$7,000 for the first two cabs and SI,OOO
each for the next 43 cabs waa declared
discriminatory by the Independents, and
it was on this point that the court fight
was made. The exemption, of course,
was on the grounds that these assets in
themselves represented a cash operating
fund out of which claims for damages
might be collected.
A New Reform.
A recent Associated Press dispatch
In The Star announces that there is
a movement on foot to abolish "love”
so far as the use of the term In tennis
scoring is concerned.
On the ground that so tender an ex
pression has no place in the slam
bang, he-man game that tennis has
become and that it is actually stunting
the growth of the game among the
boys and girls of the country, a player
of some prominence around New York
Is launching a vigorous assault upon
the word which has always been used
to Indicate “nothing" or "aero" on the
Carrying the idea Just a little further,
all holding hands at a card table
should be tabooed as should the win
ning of any horse race by a neck.
Clinches should be taken out of box
ing, and any one who hugs a base in
the great national pastime should be
No pins should be allowed to clasp.
Anything like a lure in fishing must
be proscribed. Bridles and grooms
should be ejected from all stables.
Flowers shall be planted In anything
hut bed«, and the very bosom of Mother
Earth spoken of only in a whisper.
Any one who apeaks of kissing In •
billiard game should be deported.
Perfect! Perfect drivel.
Nothing can prevent New Jersey from
being more famous for Its beauty con
tests than for startling homicide cases.
The German Republic.
The German Republic- is ten years
old. It celebrated its tenth anniversary
on Sunday. The "republicans" staged
a demonstration in Berlin which in
dicated a growing respect and affection
for tha form of government which
came to Germany, not as an actual
result of internal upheaval, but rather
as the result of a disastrous interna
tional war, into which the German
people were led by former Kaiser Wil
helm. The republican form of govern
ment waa expedient after the close of
the World War. It was quite clear
that the reigr.lng family of Germany
was not to be allowed to continue to
reign; that the Allies would never agree
to such a proposition. Indeed, there
waa talk of dealing rather summarily
' with the former Kaiser.
But while the republican form of
government in Germany hes in a meas
ure been a symbol of defeat, it has
taken on a far more important meaning
for tha people of Germany. Under
that form of government the German
people have arisen, have fought their
wax out of the jlqugh of dept, depres
sion and despair which followed In the
wake of the war. They have built up
again their Industries. They have
achieved notable aueeeasea In many
llnas, with their llghter-than-air ships
and with’'their new ocean shipping.
And »ndar their republican govern
THE EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON, D. C„ WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 14, 1929.
ment tha Germans are about to ob
tain a new adjustment of reparations
which will benefit them and their coun
try and at the same time they will
see their soil free of foreign armies.
This, provided The Hague conference,
now at work, Is successful.
During the decade the German Re.
public has been in existence there have
been many predictions that it could
and would not live; that eventually
Ihe country would revert to the old
monarchical form of government.
These predictions have been less fre
quent and less Insistent in recent years,
as the republican form of government
has manifested its benefits and has
become more and more firmly in
trenched in the affections of the
people. Ten years is a brief period
in the life of any nation. So far as the
established form of government Is con
cerned, such a period might be deemed
merely an experimental period. It will be
recalled that France passed through sev
eral stages before the republican form of
government became definitely estab
lished in that country. There were
the first and second empires in France,
not to mention a brief return of thq old
reigning house of France to power,
following upon the French Revolution,
■ which set up a republican form -of
government, at the close of the eighteenth
■ century. To say now that Germany
may not revert to a monarchical form
of government—perhaps a limited
monarchy—that such a step would be
impossible, would be at least taking a
lot for granted. But. this may be said:
the German Republic Ls more firmly
established than it has ever been and
there are strong indications that a
majprity of the German people are
devoted to it., and that only a civil
war could overthrow It.
The German Republic is subjected
to attacks from two angles—from the
Nationalists, who demand a return of
, the old order, and from the Com
munists, who object strenuously to a
republican form of government. But
more and more the German people,
sound and constructive as they are,
have come to rely upon their republic.
Aviators who fly low over golf courses
take a serious chance. Some of our
I most Influential citizens are likely to
, I become irritated by the Introduction of
, a new hazard at a critical stage of the
, j game.
, | Passengers are requested not to throw
. ! lighted cigarettes from planes when
| passing over dry fields, liable to fire.
, | Senator Smoot might Interest himself
, 1 In this rather Important phase of an
i anti-cigarette campaign.
! The Japanese beetle has appealed to
I a sense of the picturesque, but has not
. I yet succeeded in assuming responsibil
ity for damage done by the ordinary
An Atlantic City hen laid an egg
, while traveling in an airplane. The hen
is stolid and enslaved to habit. If the
, airplane had laid an egg, "that would
be news.” *
While willing to establish a fishing
, place for future presidential vacations.
President Hoover properly refrains from
any present intimation as to a person
age likely to enjoy It.
| The power of finance is well recog
! nised. J. Pierpont Morgan's private
I yacht is more of an Influence for peace
J than any present or projected battle
Neither Russia nor China has a keen
sense of humor. There Is no encour
agement to the hope that they will be
able to dispose of a a’ar threat by
"laughing it off."
1 It has remained for Mr. Dawes to
i stress the fact that the efficacy of a
diplomat is not to be estimated by the
1 kind of trousers he wears.
As a magazine writer, AI Smith clings
to serious comment on affairs and re
-1 trains from asserting any popular
: rivalry to the serial story.
An accurate buslneas sense becomes
Invaluable as tt points the fact that no
war is a bargain for anybody.
BY PHILANDER JOHNSON.
Worse Than War.
Sometimes we heard about the deeds
Os warriors who were bold.
Still, Recollection bravely leada
Unto the tales of pld.
Alas! The gangman now employs
A pistol or a knife.
The dish a husband most enjoya
Is poisoned by his wife.
While many a heart-ache we endure,
Life’s way we can’t reverse;
Though War is Terrible, we’re aura
"Your recent, speech,” said the close
friend, "sounded a trifle dull.”
“I tried to keep it from being enter
taining," said Senator Sorghum, "in
order to get a reputation for statesman
ship. Out my way you’ve got to make
the process of thought seem aa labori
ous as possible.”
Jud Tunklns says when you go up in
an airplane the big thrill comes in won
dering how you are going to get back
to earth where you started from.
Th* barker lifts a voice of cheer
When folks to see the sight draw near.
We who have dwelt here many a day
Listen to what he has to «py
; And wonder how we’ve missed so much
That serves our interest to touch.
Afar, in search of thrills we roam.
Neglecting thoee right here at home.
"Does your wife drive from the back
"Yes.” answered Mr. Chuggina. “But
I have to try and be a gentleman and
take all the blame when a traffic officer
“Riches,” said Hi Ho, the sage of
Chinatown, “in the possession of a
dyspeptic are only an optical illusion.”
Queer Sense of Humor,
.Your roof an aviator hits
And then goes plunging through.
And even if his life he quits •
He thinks the joke's on you.
“I used to tell my troubles to a police
men,” said Uncle Eben. v “but now de
traffic cop know* 'am fusti” _ .......
. THIS AND THAT
BY CHAKLES t. TRACF.WIU..
———————l ■ ■ —■■■) ■ n ■■■■■■■■»—mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmßmmmmmmmrnmmmm
Is America getting to be too conscious
Our life ls something of a poee.
Both peace and war are made in a
self-conscious manner, ss if we were
afraid some one would miss seeing us.
We are grandly aware that the eyes
of the world are upon us. and this in
turn makes us want to “show off” to
impress the universe.
Advertising, key to the backbone of
the people, reeks with such phrases aa
“smart young things.”
It would seem that the country aa a
Whole ls something in the boat of the
pretty girl who is pretty and knows It,
as the phrase is.
In the past it was held proper for a
pretty girl to be both pretty and at
least semi-ignorant of the fact.
** * *
It is difficult for an observer to tell
Just what part his own awareness of
events and trends plays in the general
feeling which he holds that the country
at large iv too conscious of itself.
As one becomes older he undoubtedly
secures a better grasp of life In lta
entirety and in its specific parts as
affecting his own little individual living.
He comes to see his own place in the
universe and the places of his acquaint
ances and friends, and even of his ene
mies and all those vast numbers of
strangers who are neither friends nor
This settling-down period varies with
the Individual. To some it comes In
the twenties, to others in the thirties,
to still others in the forties or fifties,
and to a few it never comes.
It ls based partly on general experi
ence. partly on Innate abllitiea and
personal trends, and partly on the expo
sure to such forces as general education,
the press, advertising and transporta
tion. which affect the country at large
in more or less equal measure.
No man, unless he be a recluse, is
free from these varying influences in
proportion to his sensitiveness to things
Almost every one may place himself
Into one of two classes—either he re
sents the new or he welcomes the new.
In this matter he scarcely can be in
different, for to be non-oommlttal is to
** * *
Self-conscious America cannot even
take to the healthful sport of bathing
In sunshine without making a great hue
and cry about It.
Thousands upon thousands of men. 1
women and children have been getting
"suntans" for manv years without
thinking much about it. but it remained
1 for the year 1929 to put the word into
the vocabulary of the Nation.
Even the popular songs are taking it
up. Last night we heard two "suntan”
songs on the radio. One of the popular
makers of "strip" cartoons has his
white-skinned heroine declare as she
steps onto the beach, "Why, one feels
positively naked without a coat of tan.”
In the old days pigmentation of the
skin used to be called "sunburn" and
let go at that, but today it must be
nothing more nor less than "suntan."
What waa simply a portion of the
man or woman who played beneath the
rays of the sun. either at tennis, golf,
bathing or hiking, now is a "mode." a
fashion of that moment which is for
Republican leaders in Washington i
are no longer guessing at the approxi
mate date when the new tariff bill will
become a law. They are now trying to
determine whether they possess suffi
cient strength and ingenuity to write
any sort of tariff bill into law. It be
comes increasingly apparent that some
on the Republican side have reached
a frame of mind where they believe
that worse misfortunes could overtake
them and the party than to have the
Hawley-Bmoot bill die aborning. Chaos
seems not too strong a word to apply
to the present tariff situation on Capi- 1
tol Hill. The farm spokesmen profess
to see in the bill a gold brick for ag
riculture. Statesmen from the East are I
talking about political revolutions which
will ensue if the tariff raises the prices
of foodstuffs and accords no new bene- '
fits to manufacturers. It is now well
within the realm of possibility that all ;
the hard work put in in revising the
tariff since last. January and more hard
1 1 work in the months ahead may go for
** * *
Senator-elect William S. Vare of
Pennsylvania has this week called for
a "showdown” on the disputed title to
i his Senate seat. He announces that he
has so far recovered his health that he
intends to come to Washington in the
Autumn to direct in person his battle
for admission to Senate membership.
Last Winter when Reed of Missouri—
the Vare nemesis—-on the eve of his own
retirement waa demanding Anal disposi
tion of the Vare contest by a flat and
Anal rejection of . the Pennsylvanian,
Vare’s friends worked hard and suc
cessfully to stave it off. The plea was
advanced, with good effect, that Vare
should be accorded an opportunity to
present a personal plea, which his ill
health then precluded. Now- the tables
ere turned. It remains to be seen
whether the Senate will this Winter
tackle anew the Vare case. Most prog
nosticators doubt it. Senate state of
mind may be expressed in the vernacu
lar of the Two Black Crows, “Why
bring that up, Mr. Vare?”
** * *
William B. Wilson, Secretary of La
bor in the Wilson cabinet and Mr.
Vare'a Democratic opponent in the 1926
election, who still stands on the record
as a claimant for the Vare seat, has
recently found himself an important
and lucrative post. He has been Jointly
retained by the Illinois Coal Operators'
Association and the United Mine Work
ers of Illinois as permanent arbiter,
umpire and referee of all disputes aris
ing between them In the operation of
the Illinois coal fields. He sits as a
one-man court, from whose decisions
there is no appeal. Both sides have
contracted to accept his awards as
binding and final. This new and aig
nificant movement in the bituminous
coal industry, "to preclude future strikes
and lockouts was Initiated earlier this
year in Wyoming, where John P. White,
♦he predecessor of John L. Lewis as
president of the united Mine Workers,
was engaged by the operators and the
miners* union to fill a similar role in
Si « a *
An uncommonly long time is being al
lowed to elapse in the naming of a suc
cessor to Mrs. Mabel Walker Willebrandt
as Assistant Attorney General. There has
been no contradiction of the report
that whoever is selected it will be a
man rather than a woman. It is known
that a list of 30 or more candidates,
actual or receptive, was assembled
nearly two months ago In the Depart
ment of Justice and is supposed to have
been receiving anxious and painstak
ing scanning by Attorney General
Mitchell and the President, But all in
quiries as to when the appointment Is
to be announced are met with the uni
form response, “Not yet, but soon."
Meantime, one guess is as good as an
** * *
The first newspaper ever to be print
ed on paper made from cornstalks has
Juat now been placed on exhibition in the
Smithsonian Institution. It is claimed
that the making of news print and other
varieties of paper from cornstalks is
now approaching a commercial atage
and foreshadows a revolution in the pa
per Industry. This ■will be something
else for President Grausteln of the In
ternational Paper to Power Co. to worry
about. Farmers will cheer and news
paper proprietors will smile If the corn
stalk newt print era ever arrives.
*a a *
Each month witnesses a new high
water mark In the volume of mail
• transported by air. For July the total
was 638,810 pounds* equivalent to 320
. tons. The air mail sendee l* still a
"■■a 11 11 '■■■
Women being more naive creatures
than men, it ls among them that one
may see the finest flower of the self
Aa always, its finest flowering comes
in fashion*. It la amazing to the mas
culine mind to watch the amiable strut
ting* of a city full of modish women.
Let some particular style become
Widely heralded, all the women come
forth In it. each one supremely satisfied
with herself, not because she la wearing
It. forsooth, but because all the other
women are wearing it!
This is the perennial mystery of
fashion, one which the male mind will
never solve. Yet mere man, who pro
fesses to be above—or ls It beyond?—
fashion, is extremely averse to wearing
anything which the other members of
his sex do not wear.
The strong-minded gentleman who
recently attempted)to start a fashion
of pajamas as street garb for men
found himself a sort of well of pajamas
in an oasis of trousers.
aa a a
We have no doubt that it Is this self
conscious attitude of mind which Euro
peans resent in Americans.
We are so perpetually hankering for
“records” of all sorts, so childishly eager
to be "first" in something or other, that
our national complex must be vastly
amusing to peoples who put a stronger
emphasis on Intellectuality.
Those who have read Abbe Dlmnet’s
book. “The Art of Thinking.” which has
come to the proportions of a best seller,
have enjoyed his contrast of the mental
attitudes of American and French
schoolboys. Allowing for his national
pride, one who has gone through the
various steps of the educational system
in the United. States must admit that
the abbe wins the argument. The
French youth clings to his Ideals, the
American is glad to let them go. In
one country pure Intelligence ls the
Ideal; In the other a mixture of intelli
gence and expediency.
The average American will hold to
hU belief that this latter Ideal is the
most practical as well as the most ideal
In the long run, and will point to
Charles Lindbergh as the perfect exem
plification of it. The answer must be
that if all Americans, either young or
old. were auch a sensible mixture of
modesty, intelligence and tact as the
heroic colonel, there would be no fault
I to be found with America, even by
those who love her best.
As it is. hundreds of critics are cease
lessly trying to “detect genius" in the
new novels which pour from the presses. 1
We want to know our Dickenses before J
they "arrive” and to salute our future
prima donnas before they have sung a
note. Sometimes this procedure is
comic, sometimes tragir, but always it
smacks of the self-conscious boy or girl
who feels that the eyes of the entire
theater are upon them when they take!
their first seat in a box.
When Charles Dickens came to this \
country he found Americans tobacco
spitting. crude, boastful. If he could |
come again, he would find them cul- I
tured. cigarette-smoking, still proud of'
themselves. The only fault he could J
find, we believe, would be that we are.'
as a Nation, just a little bit too self. 1
conscious for the happiest living and
the most productive lives, especially in
the spheres of intelligence and spiritu
long wsy from being financially self
sustaining. the Post Office Department
paying out to the air mail contractors
much more than is taken in in
air mail postage receipts. The
department has reduced air mail
rates with gratifying results in popu
larising the service. Now it seeks to
scale down the carrying costs. Pew
air mall contractors, however, admit
to making profits yet.
** * *
The Summer suspension of public
hearings in the Federal Trade public
utilities investigation is merely a brief
intermission in the slowly unfolding
] drama of the "power trust.” The in
quiry into the propaganda activities
of the network of public utility pub
i Hcity bureaus, which has been a sort
of first act of the play, is virtually fin
ished. Next will come the probe of the
financial aspects of the myriads of op
erating and holding companies. Turn
ing the daylight on the financial “set
up” of the industry rates, capitalisation
| security issues, etc., was the principal
objective of the investigation, but to
date it has been kept bark while the
propaganda prelude has occupied the
full stage. Already exhibits introduced
which relate almost solely to the propa
ganda phase total 4.489 and the steno
graphic transcript, of testimony runs to
more than 8.000 pages in 80 volumes,
j Volume 14 of the printed record Is now
available as a public document which
carries the hearings through May 11
Lee’s Academy Career
Is Held Rich Field
Prom the Roanoke World-News.
Secretary of War Good has approved
the suggestion of MaJ. Gen. William
Smith, superintendent of the United
States Military Academy at West Point,
that "large and appropriate” portraits
of Gen. Robert E. Lee and of Gen. P.
G. T. Beauregard be hung in the cadet
mess hall of the Military Academy.
Both of these Confederate generals
were superintendents of the Military
Academy at West Point, and small pic
tures of each are already in place. Gen.
Smith considers, however, that portraits
of a size similar to those of other past
superintendents should be substituted,
and the work will be done at once at
the expense of the Military Academy.
The fact that Gen. Lee, when a colo
nel of the United States Army, was for
some years superintendent of tha Mili
tary Academy at West Point is one that
has been largely overlooked by his biog
raphers. There would seem to be a
field here for real historical study. It
would be interesting to know what gen
eral officers in both armies wera cadets
at the academy under Lee. and how
far the rather elderly Confederate com
mander had the opportunity of Judging
character and competence on the field
of battle by what he knew of their work
as cadets at West Point,
President Henry Louis Smith has
rendered a fine service in his study of
the career of Lee as president of Wash
ington College at Lexington In the five
years that followed the War Between
the States. Dr. Smith shows that as a
college excutive Lee was far in advance
of his time, proposing to his board of
visitors a school of journalism, a school
of business administration and other
forward steps such as the larger Ameri
can universities have only adopted in
very recent years. As Dr. Smith points
out, Lee was deeply impressed with the
more serious problems of Southern re
construction and with preparation of
the leaders for the building up of the
It would be interesting to know what
policies he advocated and what in
struction methods he introduced while
superintendent of the Military Academy
at West Point, and to have a list of
those who later achieved eminence In
the armies on both sides of the Civil
War. who were trained under him In
the arts of war.
From the Cleveland News.
Seizure of a palatial yaeht at Detroit
with SIO,OOO worjii of choice liquor on
board should help to make prohibition
popular with the masses.
From the Fort Wsyne News-Sentinel.
A bridge expert says a lot of card
sharpers are,-found in Mexico. Prob
ably—but wbgi-plek on Mexico?
Politics at Large
By. G. Gould Lincoln.
The possibility of Alfred B. Smith’s
becoming again the Democratic candi
date for the presidency came up for dis
cussion at tne Institute of Public Af
fairs, meeting at Charlottesville, Va.
The publication of Gov. Smith’s auto
biography, "Up to Now,” also has
brought about no little talk of the possi
bility of his renomlnatlon In 1932. In
deed, the title of his autobiography sug
gests that the former Governor of New
York may have very definite Ideas for
the future. But, whether he has or not,
Gov. Smith Is saying nothing about
them, and If he is bent on seeking to
stage a "comeback” In the Held of major
politics, as some of his friends believe,
ne Is wisely awaiting the turn of events
before making any announcement of
aa * *
> But whatever the hopes of Gov.
i Smith’s friends may be for his renoml
i nation, there are leaders of the democ
racy in the South today who say with
great positiveness that he will not again
be the nominee of the Democratic party
for President. They add a corollary, and
say that if he is the party nominee In
1932 the entire Bouth will either go Re
, publican or it will set up an lndepend
, ent Democratic ticket and cast its elec
toral votes for that candidate. These
; Democrats would much prefer the latter
, course. For by following such a course
they might be able to hold the Btates of
the "solid South” In line for the
; democracy of the future. On the other
hand. If they placed an independent
Southern Democratic ticket in the field,
or even nominated a dry Democrat from
the West or North as their candidate,
the Democratic party might become so
badly split that it would disintegrate
and give place to a new political align
The Democratic national convention
still has the two-thirds rule for nomi
nation of candidates for President. The
Southern Democrats feel that they will
be strong enough, aided by some of the
party leaders in the West, to "stop"
Gov. Smith, should his name be put
forward seriously in the 1932 conven
tion. Last year, at Houston, the South
ern Democrats acquiesced in the nomi
nation of the popular New York gov
ernor, though it was against thPlr bet
ter judgment, All the border States
were lost to the ticket and four of the
dyed-in-the-wool Democratic States of
the “solid South.” The Democratic
leaders, who have been accustomed to
carrying these States of the South as
regularly as clockwork, sav thev have
had enough. Mr. Smith, they declare.
> had his day and they do not mean to
prolong it. This comes from men who
their support to the former Gov
ernor of New York openly and whole
heartedly during the last campaign.
** * *
Assuming for the moment that these
i Southern Democrats—and some of their
j Western colleagues are equallv rm
| phatlc—are correct In their judgment
! and that the presidential nomination
• of their party will not go to Mr. Smith
in 1932. the question arises:
"If not Smith, who will be the party
It is early to speculate—perhaps far
too early. But there is no doubt that
some of the Democratic leaders already
are casting round for a Moses to lead
them out of the wilderness. The
names which they mention in their
discussions are those of Gov. Franklin
D. Roosevelt of New York, who carried
the Empire State last year when it was
giving Its electoral vote to President
Hoover over Mr. Smith: Owen D
Young, also of New York State; Sena
tor Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas.
Democratic leader of the Senate, who
I Smith's running mate in the last
j f«mpaign; Heaton D. Baker of Ohio
former Secretary of War in the Wilson
! . L r *tion. and Senator Thomas
, J. Walsh of Montana, a Catholic but
; also an ardent dry.
I Naturally there are many "If*” con-
I nected with the chances of anv of those
mentioned for the presidential nom
ination Gov Roosevelt, for example,
! ,k? re-elected chief executive of
, his State next year if he is to be seri
for ,hp nomination,
j Hi? health, fortunately, ha* been on
ine mend. But that, too. prrwnts en
j element, of chance. Owen D. Young
1 n P’>Wic eye todav as the
adjuster of the complicated war repara
[ tions and debts of the nations of
f„ U ,T O K?' * nd * ,RO * s * n eminent Ameri
! «*n business man. His candidacy has
I been advanced in a number of the
• already. On the other
1 been intimated in some
i quarte.s that, his connection with lh®
i.. . r !T n . l pow / T ‘lt’velopmrnt mav art
! vhen it comes to pick
• ln * ® presidential candidate. P
** * *
I The Democrats who urge the nnm
m S 7 lator Robinson call atten
tion to his long public career and hi«
success as Democratic leader of the
Senate. He has been on the firing
line for the party for years. He migh*
well be expected to win the support of
friends of Gov. Smith, whom he so
**ded in the last campaign. It
“ J ( he « cust ? m ’ tl »ey say, for big or
ganixations to promote men to vacancies
at the head of those organizations who
nave served in many capacities in the
organizations. This, they insist, should
go for political organizations as well as
those of big business. Senator Robin
been * member of the General
Assembly of his own State, has been a
presidential elector and electoral mes
senger, & Representative in Congress
Governqr of Arkansas, a Senator of the
United States, and, finally, the party
candidate for Vice President. He has
led his party on the floor of the Sen
ate for eight years. The onlv other
him to take, they say,* is into
the White House.
Some of the Democrats of the West
like the thought of running Newton D.
Baker of Ohio for President. They look
on him as a Progressive who would
have the solid support of the Democrats
who followed Woodrow Wilson. They
cite his great ability, and believe he
lias not so far retired from the field
of politics that he cannot be brought
back successfully. The West also has a
possible candidate in the person of
Senator Walsh of Montana, a Progres
sive, a dry. and one of the most prom
inent figures in the party.
*** * •
New Jersey Republican leaders are
striving to frame a slate that will fit
after Senator Walter E. Edge shall have
shaken the dust of the senatorial
chamber from his feet and gone to Paris
to represent the United States there as
Ambassador to France. David Baird. jr„
one of the most active of the younger
political leaders of the State, seems to
be the choice of many of them. Sena
tor Edge's term of office expires ordi
narily March 4, 1931. His successor
must be elected next year. But the
governor will appoint his immediate
successor soon after Senator Edge re
signs from the Senate to go to France,
which probably will be as soon as the
tariff revision bill has been finally dis
posed of. This means that at the elec
tion next year a Senator must be chosen
to fill out the short term, ending March
4, 1931, and also a Senator must be
chosen for the long term. Former Gov.
Edward C. Stokes of New Jersey, not
to mention former Senator Joseph Fre
llnghuysen. have their eyes on the
Suggestion has been made that the
appointment go to Stokes after Edge
leaves office, and that Stokes be the
candidate for the short term, leaving
the long term for Batrd. This plan is
looked upon with favor by many of the
Republican leaders. But so far it 1*
understood that Gov. Stokes has not
acquiesced in any plan with strings
tied to It. A combination of tha Baird
and Stokes forces doubtless would be
victorious in tha primariei. Frellng
huyaen has an appreciable following in
the State and might make trouble if
the other factions were divided.
** v *
The possibility of the return of Wil
liam S. Vare, Senator-elect from Penn
sylvania. to appear in the Senate in his
own defense in the contest for his seat
is not brought forward as a probability.
Mr. Vare’s health has improved great
ly, It Is said. However, much as the
ANSWERS. TO QUESTIONS
BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN.
i Take advantage of this free service.
If you are one of the thousands who
have patronized the bureau, write us
again. If you' have never used the
. service, begin now. It Is maintained!
for your benefit. Be sure to send your
i name and address with your question,
and Inclose 2 cents in coins or stamps
for return postage. Address The Eve
ning Star Information Bureau. Frederic
J. Haskln, director. Washington, D. C.
Q. What Is the record size for brook
. trout?—F. 6.
i A. The prize specimen weighed 14 V 2 i
pounds, and was taken in the Nipigon
River In Ontario.
Q. What became of the old Berliner
Gramophone Co.?—W. F. M.
A. The manufacture and sale of the
gramophone was first conducted by the
United States Gramophone Co., followed
by the Berliner Gramophone Co., and
then by the Victor Talking Machine
Co., which acquired Its rights from the
: former companies.
1 Q. Does It ever snow In Jerusalem?—
A. It does snow In Jerusalem, but In
frequently. The range of temperature
Is from 25 to 112 degree Fahrenheit.
The average annual precipitation Is 23
Q. • What Is the Government tax on
cigarettes?—E. H. S.
A. The Government ta..‘ on cigarettes
is $3 per 1.000. or 6 cents per package
of 20 cigarettes.
Q. Where Is Greenwich Village In
New York City?—H. F.
A. Greenwich Village Is in the vicin
ity of Washington Square. In the early:
history of New York a settlement was
made here, and many historic events
are recorded as having taken place in
j the village. But the city finally ab
sorbed the village, and today it has no!
official or formal recognition. Green-:
wich Village now merely represents a
small section of the city south of Four
teenth street and on the west of Fifth
avenue, bounded on the south by Fourth
street and on the west by Sheridan
Square and the streets In the neigh- 1
borhood of the Greenwich Village Thea- !
ter. The village 1* famous because pf
its studios, small art shops, restaurants.!
crooked streets, and its population of
artists, art students and writers.
Q. Is pecan wood used for furniture?
—J. A. S.
A. The Forest Service says that |
pecan wood is used very little for furnl
ture. It is not in the same class with
oak and mahogany, but it is about the
same as gumwood. It is used for mis
cellaneous purposes where great strength
Q. What is the leading French li
brary?— E. W. P.
A. The principal library of France
and the largest library of the world is i
the Bibliotheqhe Nationale, Paris.
Q. Is It now possible to witness an
exhibition drill at Fort Myer?—F. B. S. I
A. Exhibitions for the public at Fort
Myer have been suspended, and win not
be resumed until January, 1930.
Q. How many species of insects are
, there?—D. W.
I. A. Estimates of the total number of
I insects, described and undescribed,
i range from 2.000,000 to 10.000.00 n. More 1
| Veteran Criminal Studied
As He Leaves Prison for Farm
1 More fhan half a century ago prison 1
floors clanged behind Jess? Pomerov.
rotorlous Massachusetts criminal at the
| age of 17, shutting him from the out
: side world. After S 3 years he traveled \
II again the being transferred
from the prison In Charlestown to the i
State farm at Bridgewater, and was
rendered speechless with amazement at
the rhanged aspect of the country he
j had once known. Discussing the case,
some observers suggest that he has suf
' a greater penalty than death,
j Things that are commonplace to us
■, In our modem civilization "were as
! strange to thla man as if he had sud
;! drnly been transported from another ;
, j planet.." is the way the Flint Dailv |
I Journal describes his reactions, stating
j that he had been as "isolated from the j
world as if he had been a Robinson
Crusoe." Or, as the St. Louis Globe
i Democrat phrases it. "while this con
vict of furtive look and dulled expres- 1
sien. like that of the ‘Man With the
Hoe.' WBs leading a life in which he
would have been startled bv a slight
alteration in the masonry of‘his cell or
change In the coarse fare supplied him i
for breakfast, revolutions have taken
place in almost all things outside his
place of confinement."
The St. Paul Pioneer Press observes
that "Pomeroy might have lived a cycle
in the Europe of yesterday and been less
amazed on his return. Life and death
would have made great gaps, but the
material, industrial and mechanical
progress of the last 50 years in America
would not have been there to lay hold
on him and make him a wordless won
derer.' helpless before a new earth that
man has made in half a century."
Vet many things in the world "are not
changed, as the Birmingham News-Age
Herald points out. saying: "But that
world, so strange to him, had changed
only in part.. Across it still falls the ;
black shadow of hate and greed and
other evils. Today men kill and are
killed, just as in the days of the con
vict’s boyhood. Justice is still battling
with murder and theft and other crimes
against society. In some respects the
world has changed. In others it re
mains the same. The contest between
right and wrong, good and evil, will go
on until the last syllable of recorded i
** * *
"The case of Jesse Pomeroy, life
termer in a Massachusetts prison, causes
some to wonder if capital punishment
isn't more humane than some other
methods.” says the Lincoln State Jour
nal. which refers to the prisoner having
been confined 58 of his 72 years. "He
wss in solitary confinement for more
than 40 years," explains this paper, as j
it rites the fact that "his reason has |
given way under the strain. If this man
could have known his fate,
probably have preferred the hanging to
which he was first sentenced.”
“Many penologists,” in the opinion of
the Brooklyn Dally Eagle, "will agree
that It would have been better If Jesse
Pomeroy had been executed in 1876.
, * * * His long life In prison has
been a marked disadvantage to the
prestige of criminal law in America.”
As the Morgantown New Dominion puts
it. "his life has been more than wasted.
He actually died 53 years ago, yet his
body has continued to live and his
Republican leaders would like to have
this matter settled as early as possible,
there still appear elements or delay.
Mr. Vare was elected to the Senate In
1026. Unless something is done before
very long, his term of office may ex
pire without his ever having been seat
ed in the Senate. A majority of the
Senate has been hostile to his taking
his seat. Two actions against him are
pending, one a contest brought by his
Democratic opponent, William B. Wil
son, and the other a report of the old
Reed slush fund committee, declaring
he should not be seated because of cor
ruption and excessive expenditures of
money In the primary election. The
Senate has been loath to act in the
Vare matter because of the serious Ill
ness of Mr. Vare, and has sidestepped
the matter because it was agreed that
Mr. Vare should be given an opportu
nity to be heard In his own defense
before final action was taken. There is
still an element of doubt, despite the
present reports, that Mr. Vare will come
to Washington to make his appeal to
the Senate in person In the December
session. If he doesn't the matter Is
likely out still further.
than half a million have been described.
Q. Has Turkey l compulsory military
i A. All the Turkish subjects 'male)
are under the obligation of fulfilling
the compulsory military service. The
terms of sendee are: The compulsory
military service Includes a period of 26
years, beginning from the age of 20 to
46 years. The active sendee: Infantry,
one and one-half years: cavalry, artil
lery, gendarmerie and military band,
two and a half years. The rest of the
i compulsory service consists of a period
of reserve. >
Q. Please give me the average meas
urement of a cacao pod.—B. H.
A. Cacao pods are about 8 to 12
Inches long, with a diameter of from 2
to 5 Inches. Each pod contains from
20 to 40 beans.
Q. What sort of material Is vegetable
A. It Is a fabric of pine-leaf fiber
treated with chemicals to free It from
Q. Whep. was the game battledore
and shuttlecock first played?—T. T. W.
A. This game was Invented In the
Q. Which are the oldest churches In
Berlin. Germany?—H. H. S.
A. The oldest churches In Berlin are
the Nikolai Church and Bt. Marv’a.
They were built In the thirteenth cen
tury, but have been restored.
Q, When did Mme. Lillian Nordica
give her last concert?—A. T. M.
| A. Her last concert was at Melbourne,
Australia, In December, 1913.
•Q. Where is a monument to be
erected to Joseph Priestley?—B. E. L.
A. A monument to Joseph Prlestlev,
i the discoverer of oxygen, is to be erected
at Northumberland, Pit., by the Joseph
; Priestley Conference of Unitarians.
Q. Where was Longfellow living when
he wrote "The Old Clock on the Stairs"?
1 —A. D.
A. It was written in his Pittsfield,
Q. How long have honeydew melons
been on the market?—H. T. H.
A. Honeydew melons were Introduced
Into Colorado from France In I*l3, and
] the culture has spread to every melon
' growing State In the Union. These
melons prefer an arid or seml-arld re
Q When was Bunker Hill Monument
erected?—E. L. M.
A. Bunker Hill Monument was for
mally dedicated In 1843. Daniel Web
-1 ster being the chief speaker at the
ceremonies. The corner stone was laid
In 1825. Gen. Lafayette assisting as an
honored guest of the occasion.
Q. Are Rhodes scholarships available
to the midshipmen at Annapolis?—L. K.
I A. Annapolis midshipmen mav now
compete for appointment as Rhodes
Q. What proportion of the Egyptian
population is addicted to the uaa of
I narcotics?—A. P. T.
I A. Col. Russell. British head of
Cairo's drug control bureau, astimates
that 500.000 Egyptians out of 15,000,000
us? narcotics in some form, apendir.a
525.000.000 annually to satisfy thrir
: Simple needs have been satisfied. He
j has Paid for his crime a thousandfold,
and yet the State continues to make
him pay. Perhaps it is better that he
! be not turned loose now. but how much
better it would have been had his orig
inal sentence of death been carried out "
On the question of the fact that
Pomeroy is still a prisoner, though
transfer-ed to the State farm, the Hart
! ford Daih Times has this to say: '•'Cir
cumstances of the case and of Pomeroy’s
confinement are such that Massaehu
setts officials believe he is not a proper
person to be at large. Hence the pro
posal to transfer him to the State farm.
Where he would have all the liberty he
■is capable of enjoying. Any disposition
to criticize Massachusetts for pursuing
j the Mosaic theory of punishment with
inhuman vindictiveness should, under
the circumstances, be restrained."
** * *
As to the thoughts of the prisoner
mmsclf. the Memphis Commercial Ap
peal suggests that "the sunshine and the
open air will be good for his phvaieal
: body, but the rest, even though he has
! the temporary joy of discovery, will be
an unending source of bewilderment for
. his soul. It will probably not be long,”
j the Tennessee dally auggests. "before he
; wishes that he rould be back in the
; solitude and quiet of his cell, and it
may yet be proven that his transfer,
well intentioned and kindly as was the
motive which inspired it. is almost as
unmerciful and blind as the type of
justice that, kept him 41 years In iso
Hope that his fate may prove a de
terrent to youths hesitating on the
brink of a criminal career is expressed
in various comments. Says the Wichita
Beacon: "Desperate young outlaws of
today, others embarking on careers of
I crime, may observe the case of Jesse
Harding Pomeroy. There are young
men today who may have a fate similar
to his. They will be shut off from the
outside world of wonders. They will
enter darkened cells. They. too. will be
lifers, with hope gone, facing an eter
nity of punishment in a lifetime. What
will they see when they come forth
from the shadows, aged men?"
i To the Topeka Daily Capital this
pitiful case warns society to endeavor
to discover such criminally minded in
dividuals "before they have committed
major crimes. Some of them can be
cured, some cannot," asserts the Capi
tal, suggesting that "those who cannot
should be confined permanently.”
Are Growing Greater
From the Charlotte fN. C.) News.
While almost all the small colleges
are struggling for breath and fighting
with their backs to the wall for financial
sustenance, the great colleges continue
to become greater.
Vale received in gifts during the past
year $10,000,000, and Harvard wept that
mark better by having $13,500,000
dumped over Into Its resources. One
reason, of course, that the outstanding
institutions compel attention from the
rich alumni is that they are going and
growing concerns. Men do not want to
Invest their money in anything that
does not hold its head up and indicate
that it has determination and persever
ance to live.
Furthermore, an explanatory fact In
such cases Is that these larger Institu
tions number among their alumni the
men of America of great wealth. On the
other hand, few rich men send their
sons to the small colleges. For some
reason or other, they prefer the glory
and prestige that come from mere big
ness and bulk. A boy can get m, suf
ficient education at a small collefe and
one that will ordinarily stand him In as
good stead as that derived from the
mammoth university, much depending
upon the character of the boy himself,
but, even so, the smaller institution is
up against It gtfien it comes to com
manding patronage from men with
So It comes to pass that this type of
a college must depend upon the loyalty
of the smaller groups of limited means
for their continuation. Society’ ean ill
afford to get along without them. They
produce men who usually make up the
community leaders in all worthwhile ac
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