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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, October 26, 1929, Image 6

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6
THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Meriting Edition.
■WASHINGTON, D. C.
SATURDAY October 26, 1929
THEODORE W. NOYES Editor
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The Conviction of Fall.
With a recommendation of mercy, a
Jury has found a verdict of guilty
•gainst Albert B. Pall, former Senator
of the United States, former Secretary
of the Interior, accused of accepting a
bribe for an official transaction in the
interest of an oil company. That this
finding is a surprise to the country re
sults from the fact that preceding trials i
in Criminal Court in this connection |
have come to different conclusions. Now,
at last, one who was accused of betray
ing his official trust has been pronounced
guilty, and although there is a general
feeling of pity for him in his shame and
mental and physical suffering from ill
ness, there is likewise a feeling of grati
fication that the law has been vindi
cated.
For of some guilt on the part of
Albert B. Pall in this transfer of the oil
reserves of the United States there has
been little doubt in public opinion. The
Supreme Court has itself, in a civil
case, condemned as a fraud the transac
tion in which he was a principal
and has annulled the contracts based
upon that transaction because of that
fraud. The verdict tendered yesterday,
surprising though it was. merely car
ried into specific terms as to the part
played by the former Secretary of the
Interior the already indirectly indi
cated judgment of the highest court.
In all the history of the American
Government there have been few in
stances of malfeasance in office, cor
rupt conduct for the sake of personal
gain. The charge of bribery has rarely
been brought against those intrusted
with the affairs of state. It is, there
fore, the more distressing that this of
fense should have been committed, that
ope who was charged with high Federal
responsibilities should have failed in his
trust. The transaction Involving this
act of betrayal was not necessarily or
assuredly in Vself harmful to the public
welfare, though on that question there
are variant opinions. Had there been
no bribery, or nothing in the way of
personal financial dealings between the
beneficiaries and the official even short
of actual bribery, the transfer of the
oil reserves to private hands would
have been subject to criticism, though
not to the point of demanding punish
ment. A mistake in judgment might
have been the maximum charge to be
brought against the official conducting
the transfer. But the passage of money
between the principal on any case
•nd the Secretary of the Interior,
camouflaged as personal gift or as the
purchase price of a tract of land, con
stitutes a crime against the public, a
crime against the fundamental law of
the Republic.
That crime has now been declared
specifically by a jury. Its verdict will be
appealed. It may be set aside. That
the defendant will yield to it now is
Impossible, in all the circumstances.
Perhaps there may have been technical
errors of ruling in this trial, flaws of
judgment in the instructions to the
Jury. The higher courts will hear argu
ments on such points and will In time
—lt ia to be hoped a very brief time—
render opinions, which will determine
whether the jury’s verdict is conclusive.
The stock ticker is the so-called
"Robot,” that plays an inexorable and
emotionless part In the affairs of
finance.
American "humor” has been financed
to a degree that makes it a somewhat
important and even solemn affair.
Two-Story Traffic Lanes.
Will the New York of the future be
a two-story town? That question is
prompted, despite the towering sky
serapers that make the metropolitan
roofline the highest in the world, by
a proposal Just advanced to deck-over
Park avenue from Ninety-sixth street
to the Harlem River, to create an ar
terial traffic-way. If this plan Is
adopted and proves effective in relieving
congestion and promoting free travel
it may be extended to other thorough
fares, even to the lower portions of
Manhattan.
Already there is a short stretch of
second-story traffic-way, in the Im
mediate vicinity of the Orand Central
Station. It permits fairly free access
to that extremely busy transportation
center. Thus the more northerly Park
avenue upper-deck roadway will not be
an entire innovation. Indeed, New
York made a beginning with upstairs
traffic lines many years ago when it
built the first elevated railways. For
a time the elevated lines were regarded
as the assured means of solving the
traffic problem, even then considered to
be acute. More lines were built on
stilts and trestles, until even they were
found to be inadequate, and tunnels, or
tubes, were bored and used for rapid
transit.
Meanwhile the surface traffic, espe
cially the motor traffic, became a prob
lem. The streets were Jammed, the
crossings were maelstroms of confusion
and danger. Traffic regulation merely
adjusted conditions and lessened the
chances of disaster. The capacity of the
channels was not increased. Travel
was slowed down. With the subways
working at their capacity, and the old
elevated lines running on the closest
possible headway and the streets jam
med with vehicles, New York’s traffic
x problem is indeed a grave one.
Now comes this suggestion of a two-
Hggy street, ■ The plan is to raise the
roadway to a maximum height of four
stories above the street surface. That,
it is believed, will prevent the dark
ening of the surface, at least in the
area proposed for the initial work, where
the buildings are only moderately high.
Just what could be done in this regard
in the canyon area of downtown New
York is a question.
Really little doubt may b« felt on
the score of this undertaking. The
situation in the big town is acute. The
traffic is growing and the streets can
not be widened. To provide a second
story for vehicles would therefore seem
the most logical remedy. Perhaps in
time there will be a third story. MAybe
the Manhattan of a couplS of centuries
hence—if one exists—will be a veritable
layer cake of traffic.
Mr. Macdonald Goes Home.
Prime Minister Macdonald has sailed
for home, embarking from Canada,
which was the scene of his farewell
activities in North America. Before an
j other week is gone he will be back in
! l,ondon and In the throes of a perlla
! mentary session with which the fate
! and fortunes of the British Labor party
are Immediately and Intimately In
volved.
The ensuing months are destined to
bring prompt indication of the staying
powers of the Macdonald government.
At present It is basking in the high
favor of a united country and of a
more or less united House of Commons.
Mr. Snowden'S Gibraltarian stand at
The Hague Reparations Conference and
Mr. Macdonald’s accomplishments In
Wash ngton have obliterated British
party lines, as far as the Labor cabinet's
foreign program is concerned.
It is with respect to purely domestic
affairs that Labor’s worries are about
to set in. Mr. Macdonald will need all
the political acumen he and his asso
ciates can muster to survive the period
of stress and storm whlph awaits them.
Reparations and naval limitation are
vital issues for Britain, but unemploy
ment, still rife throughout John Bull's
tight little island, Is paramount. It
still stalks specterlike throughout the
length and breadth of the kingdom.
None of these considerations dims
the luster of Mr. Macdonald’s visit to
our own shores. It will gleam for all
time as a bright page in British-Amer
ican history. Probably no description
of its object or of its effect is more
accurate than to say that it created a
new state of mind. The responsible
rulers of the two great English-speaking
realms came together, not to patch up
an alliance or a secret understanding,
as sovereign statesmen in unregenerate
international times were wont to do on
similar occasions. Prime Minister Mac
donald and President Hoover com
muned to no such antiquated purpose.
They met as modem heads of atates to
discuss modem questions in the modem
manner, devoid of intrigue, circumlocu
tion or selfish aim.
As time passes it will be revealed to
what practical ends the official leaders <
of the British and American peoples
put their heads together in Washington
this month. Bo much has undoubtedly
been achieved already: the peril of a
serious clash of views between the two
countries has been rendered unlikely to
the point of Impossibility. That is a
result of the Macdonald visit almost
beyond the power of appraisement
America bids the prime minister hall
and farewell. He came, he saw, he
conquered. We made the acquaintance
of a statesman of transparent sincerity,
unquenchable earnestness and com
pelling charm. To watch him in action,
as many of us in the East were privi
leged to do, was to understand his
meteoric career in British politics. As
long as Ramsay Macdonald adorns that
arena In the post of power, the cause
of Anglo-American friendship, with
which is wrapped up the peace of the
world, is In safe and sturdy hands,
“Luck Charm.”
Belief of human beings in good luck,
whatever that may be, continues to get
them into trouble. Recently in this
city two gypsy women persuaded a
housewife, met in a grocery store, that
it would be well for her if she permitted
them to deposit a "charm” In her
poeketbook.
Later when she opened the money
container she discovered that aueh
"charms” work one way only. Report
ing the loss of $5 to the police, she
said she at first supposed that she was
to profit from the good luck the
strangers invoked.
It would seem that desire for personal
gain is at the bottom of most such
mulctlngs. Yet no doubt the strange
inability of the average person to say
“no” to the average voluble stranger
plays a part, too.
Long before modem business had
developed the science of salesmanship,
which depends so largely upon the gift
of gab, the members of Romany Rye
had evolved their own little art of talk
ing strangers into doing something they
wanted them to do.
Scarcely a month goes by in a large
city but some gullible person is re
lieved of hard-earned cash by so-called
confidence men. The confidence of the
victim Is gained. The strange fear of
saying "no” is bolstered by the secret
desire for personal gain.
The tendency of others is to laugh
at all such accounts, and to wonder how
any one eould be so foolish, but the
sad fact is that many such would be
the first to succumb to the lure of the
mysterious when It is presented by a
persuasive talker.
Beware the stranger who promises to
do something for you out of a clear
sky! The chances are that he wants
to help himself at your expense.
■ ..I -■ . ■ »
Business gets bigger and bigger. A
I financial pow’er, however great today,
I may meet its boss tomorrow.
A Musical Lecture.
Leopold Stokowski, conductor of the
Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra, re
buked an audience at Carnegie Hall,
New York, for hissing one of the “mod
ernistic” compositions of Arnold Schoen
berg. When the demonstration died
down, according to news reports, the
distinguished conductor told the audi
ence that if they did not like his pro
grams they might stay away, as long
as he conducted, he added, he Intended
to perform the "greatest music of the
past and the best music of th- present.”
This little musical lecture, not on the
program, probably did both sides some
good. Mr. Stokowski should know that
the average music lover often feels like
hissing when one of the so-called "mod
em” compositions is played. After all,

THE EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON, D. C„ SATURDAY, OCTOBER 26. 1929.
there la no law requiring that applause,
end applause only, must come from au
diences. Perhaps Mr. Stokowski took
the matter a bit too personally. No one
who has ever heard that master of the
baton, and certainly none of his season
subscribers, could find fault with him
as conductor or program builder.
But with aome of the "modern music”
a lover of Beethoven may take excep
tion. He may be wrong. Perhaps the
"new" composition, with its dissonances
and unconventional quirks, in time may
come to sound beautiful to the average
ear. At one stage In the progress of
American musical appreciation the
works of the mighty Wagner were sim
ilarly hissed, and the great conductor,
Theodore Thomas, declared of that mu
sic, "If they do not like it they must
hear it till they do lfke it.”
Today music lovers everywhere np
i predate Wagner. Perhaps time msv do
the seme for them with the work of
some of the moderns, but nnt.il that
time arrives it would serm slightly more
appropriate if symphony conductors,
warned by the hissing before Stokowski,
would refra n from giving musical lec
tures as well as music. A man who In
terprets music, when he has given his
interpretation, has done his work; it is
no particular business of his what those
who listen think of the music itself.
Orchid Million!.
The average person associates the
orchid with money, but perhaps not
every one Is aware of the fact that
this tropical flower has got Into tne
"big money” class In the United Staten.
Recently two New Jersey nurseries
specializing in the orchid were sold
for a sum said to have been 82,500.000.
Ever, in this day of large sums two
and a half million dollars remains
highly respectable.
Orchids are expensive, not only be
cause the supply Is limited, but be
cause great care Is required in growing
them. Seven years are necessary in
many Instances to produce a bloom.
Os fifty acres included In the recent
sales thirty-five are under glass.
The orchid, to the average flower
lover, is an interesting but unattain
able plant. There are so many other
beautiful flowers Ir. the world, which
give him every floral satisfaction, that
he cannot see why he should pine for
orchids.
The booklover whose means are lim
ited finds himself similarly situated In
regard to books. He, too, would like
to own some old. rare or costly edition
of a classic, or some interesting num
ber of which only two or three exist
lr. the world, but he finds this im
possible, so resigns himself to reading
about them.
Flower enthusiasts everywhere will
be Interested in the orchid millions,
but will shed no tears because they
cannot buy these flowers for daily us*.
The pansy is a cheap little thing,
but it has satisfied millions of people
and is remarkably like some of the
'orchids ir. appearance, some of tne
rarer of the orchids, too. Flower lovers
everywhere may well rest content witn
the rose, the gladiolus, the chrysanthe
mum and the dahlia.
Bulls, bears, goats and lambs dis
port with varying fortunes in the stock
market. Only the Ringllng Brothers
continue to conduct the really reliable
menagerie.
Washington, D. C., is regarded as the
model city of the country. For this
reason the regulation of its police ad
ministration becomes impor
tant.
Every time an airplane crashes the
question arises as to whether some one
has been “alr-mlnded" or only "hare
brained.”
Byway of getting back to first prin
ciples, inland waterways may yet tevlve
the lyrical enthusiasm addressed in
olden songs to the “Erie Canal.”
■ i —■ » « ■
An aviator crashes and a plane flops.
The subject of “conservation” needs
study from a new angle.
Vagaries of the stock market are re
lentless In the reminders of uneasy
money.
SHOOTING BTAES.
BY PHILANDER JOHNSON.
Promenade.
Wishin’ for the good old days
When motor cars might spare
Your life, If on the public ways
You would proceed with care.
At Progress, I am well aware,
It is unwise to balk—•
And yet those good old days seemed fair,
When I could take a walk.
Wondering how the airplane high
Will finally alight;
Locomotive, speeding by.
Fills the scene with fright.
Wish I were a traffic cop
With just a piece of chalk—
Enough to make the tumult stop,
6o I could take a walk.
Discretion.
“You have been re-elected many
times."
“My constituents trust me,” said Sen
ator Sorghum.
"For intrepid leadership?”
“No. For knowing how to avoid trou
ble that cannot be successfully handled.”
Jud Tunkins says many a leader of
public thought is thankful because he
can switch away from the political is
sue and talk about foot ball.
Perfectly Nsloral.
The Autumn leaves are falling—
And what is that to you?
They heed the Autumn’s calling,
Just as they ought to do.
Front and Back.
“Does your wife drivo from the back
seat?”
"Not invariably," answered Mr. Chug
gins. “She also begins to drive from
the front seat at the breakfast table.”
“He who nas nothing to sell," said HI
Ho, the sage of Chinatown, “has nothing
to live for.”
Banquet Precedence.
A banquet holds a lofty place
For one who Is to fame well known,
i’ll spite of the Toast Master's grace,
The Guest of Honor holds his own.
"A lost chicken,” Mid Uncle Kben.
"Is another example of do danger dat
results rum nakto’ foolish Ajendshipt
by night.”
THIS AND THAT
*
BY CHAri.ES E. TRACEWELL.
Is there any one who doesn't like to
lock In shop windows?
Evidently not, or there wouldn't be
so many windows.
Thos? interested in the pageant of
life, which spreads its panorama around
the world, find their satisfaction, too,
In the shop windows.
Glittering displays behind clear glass
are a pan of the surprising and in
comprehensible thing which makes this
world what It is.
Life, the unknown like electricity,
does surprising things which it knows
with and of itself, and not the least of
these are the merchants’ shop windows.
♦* * *
We are so used to looking in these
windows—one of th? things which are
still free—that we have forgotten just
what they are.
They are not entirely displays of
merchandise which some person hopes
may lure us into his shop.
They represent, first and foremost,
productions of the minds and hands
and hearts of mankind.
In the most frivolous of those dis
plays lies the close breathing of the
human heart.
Something needful or gainful or en
tertaining or beautiful lies there behind
glass, and the passerby is free to look
and go on, or look and enter. Whether
he buys is his own business.
** * *
Needful, gainful, entertaining, beauti
ful—there one about exhausts the list
of human necessities. If one includes
the interesting and the spiritual, he
almost covers the human spectrum.
There may be a few more, but we can
not think of thorn at the present
moment.
Products of human beings fall natu
rally into these major divisions. Os the
unfortunate trend of humanity which
makes it produce, to some degree, their
opposites, nothing need be said here,
for none of them are found in shop
windows.
Things of evil and darkness seldom,
if ever, appear in our shop windows;
This, it would seem, is one of their
most important qualities. Like all win
dows, they are fair and open, revealing
themselves for what they are: they pre
sent their best side to the world, and
always aim to be their best.
♦* * *
The modern shop window might well
be held up as a model to little Johnny
in the important matter of washing
hands and face.
Today shop windows fairly shine, un
der the ministrations of firms which
make a specialty of handling the pail
and mop.
Imagine (if you can) a modern
mother addressing her son thus: "See,
dear little Johnny, how bright the beau
tiful window keeps itself! Its little ears,
if it may be said to have ears—and
I really think there is no harm in such
a picture of speech—fairly glisten from
soap and water.
"So, my son John, your big ears will
shine if you will Just kindly hold still
In the morning bath and stop kicking
around so. you little rascal!”
Shop windows similarly preach les
sons of order. The basis of modem
window decoration is a place for every
thing and everything in its place.
The cluttered-up, untidy window is
disappearing from the street scene.
Simplicity, the keynote of modem deco
ration, has stepped in under the guid
ance of window dressers, and has ob-
Many Vital Issues Must Be Cleared Up
If Great Naval Conference Succeeds
• BY PAUL SCOTT MOWRER.
PARIS.—It would apparently be a
mistake to believe that the Anglo-
American naval compromise has in
sured the final success of the five-power
conference to be held at London next
January.
This compromise greatly diminishes
the chances of failure, but many serious
difficulties remain. The experts and
statesmen of the nations concerned are
now studying these difficulties with a
view to removing as many as possible
in advance by preliminary secret nego
tiations. Exchanges of views separately
among all concerned are about to begin.
The principal questions, which must re
ceive satisfactory answers either now
or later, may be listed as follows:
Shall the conclusions of the confer
ence, if successfully achieved, be bind
ing and final, as the United States and
Great Britain and perhaps Japan wish,
or shall they be contingent on a gen
eral disarmament agreement, including
land and air forces, under the auspices
of the League of Nations, as France
and Italy wish?
Shall naval limitation be made on the
basis of global tonnage, as Prance and
Italy still desire, or by categories, as
the United States, Great Britain and
possibly Japan prefer, or shall there
be a reversion to the so-called French
compromise of Geneva limiting by cate
gories, but permitting, under certain re
strictions, the transfer of tonnage from
one category to another, as France and
Italy desire and the United 6tates
seems willing to consider?
Freedom of the Seas.
Shall the freedom of the seas be dis
cussed? It is well known that the
British government, prior to Premier
Macdonald's visit to Washington, con
sidered this the keystone of the whole
problem, as did also Senator Borah, but
at Washington President Hoover and
Macdonald apparently agreed to open
separate secret and technical negotia
tions on the subject at their future con
venience. It is, therefore, now not
Great Britain and the United States
who want to discuss the freedom of
the seas at London, but France, which
threatens to broach the topic. If, for
example, Great Britain and the United
States persist in their proposal to abol
ish submarines, or at least to abolish
big cruising submarines, the French will
perhaps agree on condition that all the
seas be declared strictly neutral and
fighting forbidden outside territorial
waters.
Question of Capital Ships.
Shall capital ships be discussed?
Shall the replacement program of the
capital ships laid down in the Wash
ington treaty be extended for reasons of
economy? Shall the size of capital ships
be gradually scaled down to. say, 27,000
ton* Instead of 35,000 as now, op the
theory that the smaller ships would be
cheaper and just as good? Shall the
Washington ratios for capital ships be
strictly maintained or will Japan,
Prance and Italy insist henceforth on
percentages? Shall capital ships
be abolished altogether as Prance, in
answer to the Anglo-American sugges
tion about abolishing submarines, seems
to suggest?
What about cruisers? Shall they be
considered in two categories, those hav
ing 8-inch and those having 6-inch
guns, as the Anglo-American compro
mise purposes? Assuming Great Brit
ain willing to content herself with 15
large cruisers, shall the United States
have 18, as Great Britain proposes, or
21. as the United States seems to desire?
Will Japan, Prance and Italy be con
tented with 12, 8 and 8 respectively,
which they now have built or are build
ing, and will Oreat Britain be satisfied
with only 15. if France and Italy have
8 apiece? Similarly, what shall be the
ratios in smaller type cruisers?
What about destroyers, which, in
reality, constitute another still smaller
type of cruisers? What shall be their
maximum? What shall the destroyer
ratio of each country be?
Other Types of Ships.
What provision shall be made regard
ing the development of still other types
of powerful surface fighting ships dur
ing the term of the new treaty? Prog
ress In naval shipbuilding is rapid. Big
cruisers of today are to be more power
ful than the capital ships at the be
ginning of the century. Germany has
Just produced a sensational new type
of 10,000-ton cruiser, armed with 11-
Uterated too much of anything. In-
I telligence guides.
** * *
Every pedestrian has his favorite
j types of windows. With one it w ill be
a elothlng store. Clothes are a stand
ard necessity which never lose their
charm and appeal. Some, of course,
put more stack in them than others.
To some men and women the window
displaying wearing apparel is the most
interesting on the street.
Others revel in peering into book
store windows, reading the titles and
authors of the works, noting the framed
pictures, the bock-ends, lamps, etch
ings.
Furniture constitutes another great
appeal to human beings. Here life
comes to the fore with a rush. Life
since the earliest days has been mixed
up with chairs, tables, beds. These
constitute the fundamentals. The
amazing variations which we sec every
where today are the result of tlm- and
civilization grinding humanity in its
curious destiny.
Pood, the primary necessity, is not
so evident in shop windows as one
might think it would be. judging from
its pre-eminent place In the human
economy. It la true that we have
scores of food stores with Interesting
window displays, but there is perhaps
not as much window shopping done
here as in other lines.' The food-seeker
often goes straight to his objective
without stopping to look.
a* * *
Magazine stores, tobacco stores, ra
dio stores, drug stores, confectionery
stores, electrical stores, supply stores,
novelty stores, automobile displays,
laundry branch offices—the list could
be extended for feet on paper and miles
in fact.
If one can overlook the danger to
life and limb Involved in a walk along
busy thoroughfares, he not only will
get some good and perhaps very much
needed constitutional exercise, but also
he will refresh his mind and eyes with
the shop window pictures of the multi
tudinous needs of human beings.
It was Diogenes Laertes, we believe,
who said, after he had looked over the
few shops In the Athens of long ago.
"How many things there are which I
do not wantl" His philosophical Ye
mark is to be carried in mind today
when one sees something he would like
to have but has not the money to pur
chase. Its quaint wisdom may prove a
solace.
Diogenes would either change his
tune or be further convinced of its
truth if he could take a walk around a
modern American city. There is some
thing for every one, something for every
need, something to entertain, to inspire,
to use, to be helpful.
Diogenes, no more than any of us,
would be forced to buy everything he
sees. Why, no one human being could
possibly need or buy all that a modern
drug store carries. But he needs one
thing one time, something else another,
and his thousands of brother and sis
ter human beings need everything else
among them all.
So the pageant of the shop windows
goes up and down every street. We
would like to see every window fresh
and new every morning. We feel that
the shopkeepers owe us something, for
we are the audience, the great passing
audience. They call us "prospects," but
we know we are audience at one of life's
most interesting shows.
Inch guns, which by its speed can es
cape from capital ships and by its
armament beat any 8-inch-gun cruiser.
Germany Is building three more of
these. Will any other power desire to
construct similar types? How can this
desire be conciliated with the new
treaty and what hypothetical ratios
should be established.
Submarine Issue.
What about the burning issue of sub
marines? Great Britain considers them
disloyal weapons and wants to prohibit
them. France and Italy contend they
are the poor man's weapon against the
rich man and only disloyal when dis
loyally used. Japan tends to agree on
this point with France and Italy. The
United States seems to be supporting
the British contention, but without
much conviction. If submarines are
not abolished, shall they be diverted
into two categories, as Great Britain
wishes, those of the larger type to be
capable of long sea voyage, and those
of smaller capacity merely for coast de
fense? Bhall both categories be limited,
or only the larger? In what ratios?
Shall the conference consider hydro
planes and naval air squadrons? There
are believed by experts to be at least as
destructive or capital ships as sub
marines. American testa revealed the
possibility of accurate bombing from a
relatively safe height—lo,ooo feet.
Planes can also fire torpedoes consider
able distances by swooping and can
pursue fleets Into bases. But if naval
air forces are considered, how can these
be practically distinguished from other
air forces?
In connection with ratios, Italy in
sists on complete parity with France
in all classes of ships, just as the
United States insists on complete parity
with Great Britain. The Anglo-Amer
ican parity has been practically reached,
but the Franco-Itallan compromise still
remains to be found, for France thus
far vigorously resists the Italian claim.
It Is from this point of view that the
Franco-Itallan separate negotiations,
which are now about to begin, are par
ticularly interesting. If France and
Italy cannot agree, the whole confer
ence la Jeopardized. Moreover, if
Prance and Italy agree on too high a
tonnage figure. Great Britain may be
.obliged to request a revision of the
Anglo-American compromise tonnage
figures.
Finally, if the conference fails owing
to the Franco-Itallan problems, can
some sort of three-power agreement of
Japan. United States and Great Britain
be submitted?
It will be readily seen from the fore
going list that those confronting the
task of preparing the conference and
negotiating the new treaty of London
are facing numbers of very serious ob
stacles.
(Coavricht. 10M.)
Richmond Welcomes
Tobacco Factory
From the Richmond New* Leader.
Richmond assuredly will welcome the
new factory of the American Tobacco
Co. that is to raise the combined dally
output of the Richmond plants above
that of any city in the United States.
The climate of Richmond, the familiar
ity of its workers with the processes of
manufacturing cigarettes and the prox
imity of the tobacco belt make Rich
mond the natural capital of an Industry
that Is growing with bewildering rapid
ity. Richmond enjoys the distinction,
appreciates the contribution the tobac
co Industry Is making to her advance
ment and will facilitate through her
administration and tax law the success
ful operation of every cigarette factory
located here, now or hereafter.
But once more it must be said that
Richmond has other industrial Ideals
than that of merely becoming the cen
ter of the cigarette business. Richmond
wants the work the tobacco factories
give young women, but Richmond wants
still more the industries that will pay
wages on which men can decently sup
port their families. The basis of the
city’s well-being is not the cigarette fac
tory. but the industry that employs
skilled labor at high wages. No city has
ever yet grown great on wages that
leave little after the landlord and the
grocer are paid. The battle, now as
alwy», is for the factory that sustains
THE LIBRARY TABLE
By tha Booklover
Hugh Walpole knows Russia well. In
cluding war-ttmc Russia. He also knows
Russians. This knowledge is the basis
of two of his most subtle novels, "The
Dark Forest” and "The Secret City,"
' and appears incidentally in many
others. With this in mind, one can
hardly read his latest novel, "Hans
Frost,” without seeing in its theme the
last weeks of Tolstoi's life. Tolstoi, very
old. embittered by his inability to bring
his material life into harmony with his
theories and- ideals, secretly left hts
home at Yasnaya Follana and wan
dered off, with no definite aim, simply
to end his life in freedom from all
human interference. Illness overtook
him. and he died in a lonely monastery.
Hugh Walpole's Hans Frost, a veteran
English novelist, whose seventieth
birthday has Just been celebrated
by his colleagues, awakens to the
fact, through a train of circumstances,
that he is not a free man; that
1 he has been flattered and coddled until
inertia not inseparable from old age
has settled upon him. This realiza
tion throws him into disharmony with
everything in his comfortable, well or
dered life. It seems a case of acute
artistic temperamentallsm, but Mr. Wal
pole means it to signify more than that.
Apparently possessing all that is desir
able in life—wealth, literary success and
fame, honor among his associates, a
beautiful, distinguished wife who has
provided for him the milieu suited to
establish him as a tradition —he 1s yet
miserable because he feels himself en
slaved by all these things. So. with the
undercurrent of desire to break away
from his enviable, too perfect surround
ings, when accident offers opportunity,
he drifts off without definite intention
j and never returns. We leave him liv
ing in two whitewashed rooms in a tiny
cottage high on a hillside in a small
"Glebeshire” fishing village. "Directly
In front of him was a roughly cobbled
square. On this beats were drawn up.
and beyond it bright yellow sand ran
out to a misty, glittering sea. Clus
tering around it were the heaped cot
tages. white and gray, two of them with
green shutters, one with blue; little
flights of steps ran irregularly to the
higher tier of little houses. In front of
some of them as they climbed up the hill
were small gardens with chrysanthe
mums and fat, deep-green bushes. It
was all like a painted scene.” Here
Hans Frost “knew that he had never
before been in contact with such peace.
* • * He didn't know it, but in the
bid at which he was now looking he
would one day die.”
* * 5s *
The sudden love of Hans Frost for
his wife's niece, 19-year-old Nathalie
Swan, protective, paternal, but certainly
not free from egotism, is probably plau
sible enough, but seems to cloud the
spiritual theme of the search of Hans
for perfect freedom from human ties
and material slavery before his death.
In following Nathalie in her flight, for
her protection, he happens upon the re
treat of his last days. He feels that in
the girl he has found at the end of his
life a human relation of complete un
derstanding. "Once or twice in a man's
life, if he is lucky, he loves some one,
man or woman, with complete trust,
with a great sentiment of honourable
dealing, understanding, noble generos
ity, and is loved in return in truest
fashion. After their talk last evening
he knew that they felt, and now would
always feel, such a love for one another.
Nothing could touch or harm it.” Yet
he admits to himself with perfect hon
esty that.he does not wish even Nathalie
to share his solitude. He tells Ruth,
his wife, who has come down to the
remote west corner of England to find
him and bring him back to London
comfort and safety and trammels, that
he is never coming back, and that he
wishes no one to share his exile. In
her natural lack of comprehension of
his behavior she accuses him of being
in love with Nathalie. He denies it
calmly: "She's my niece, you know.
I’m not as modem as all that. • • *
Besides, I'm too old.” He patiently ex
plains further to her puzzled mind:
"There is no one in my life, no one at
all. I’m tired cf people, tired of human
l beings. Nathalie is a darling, but I'd
be tired of her, too, if I saw very much
of her."
** * *
The Hohenzollems were autocrats in
Germany for six centuries. Their his
tory has been written by Herbert Eulen
berg in "The Hohenzollems.” The first
important appearance of the Hohenzol
lerns in history was as margraves of
Brandenburg, and the first member of
the house to consolidate dynastic power
was the Elector Frederick William I,
the Great Elector. Herr Eulenberg as
serts that it was his connivance, or at
least his passivity, which permitted
Louis XIV of France to become pos
sessed of Strasbourg and much of Al
sace-Lorraine. He was thus gm enemy
of his country, though its hero in his
tory. Os Frederick the Great. Herr Eulen
berg says: "There is something startling,
almost shocking for the modern Ger
man in Frederick's aversion so
active hatred of—all things German.
The recent attempts to make this man
of all men, this scomer of Germany,
who himself spoke, wrote and thought
nothing but French, the prototype and
champion of a new German folk move
ment betrays the total lack of historic
sense among us.” William I. founder
of the empire, is the Hohenzollern con
sidered by most non-students of history
as the founder of the dynasty. He had
little tolerance for the German revolu
tionists of 1848. because they threatened
the empire, yet he was not on the whole
illiberal. He was the son of Queen
Louise of Prussia and the grandfather
of Kaiser Wilhelm of the World War.
For this last of the Hohenzollems to
rule, at least up to the present time,
Herr Eulenberg has little but denuncia
tion. William 11, he says, destroyed the
results of centuries of German thrift,
energy and Intelligence. The warlike
actions and speeches of the Kaiser he
considers, much as does Emil Ludwig,
as a protective mechanism to conceal
his real lack of courage. "On the eter
nally ignominious night of his deser
tion William II demonstrated before all
men that the resounding phrases with
which he had deluged his country for
five and twenty years were so much
flummery, hirr.self no more than an
actor. He was, Indeed, one of the most
brilliant frauds ever wrapped in royal
ermine.”
A record of the part of the World
War seen by a German private is given
in “All Quiet on the Western Front,”
by Erich Maria Remarque, translated
from the German by A. W. Wheen. It
is the story of an average boy of about
20 who. without knowing or caring
much about the issues of the war, was
sent to the German front to fight.
None of the horrors of the trenches is
passed over, but even worse than those
horrors was the psychological effect
upon the young men who were made
old and cynical almost before they had
been young and happy. In the fore
word the author calls his book a tale of
a "generation of men who, even though
they may have escaped its shells, were
destroyed by the war.” This tragedy
has gone on increasing In intensity dur
ing the decade since the war. The book
is in the form of the journal of Paul
Baumer, whose death is recorded at the
end.
** * *
Emil Ludwig, chronicler of so many
famous lives, has written a book of
travel which shows the disposition of
the serious man abroad. "On Mediter
ranean Shores” is not a mere record of
sightseeing. The sight of the glisten
ing blue inland sea and its varied and
charming shores stimulates not only the
iaginatlon of Herr Ludwig but also his
historical sense and his philosophic
mind. The history and art of Egypt
and of Greece are implied In all that
he sees, and reflections over human
pettiness in relation to the passing ofj
nations and races are the accompani
ment of his travels.
** * *
Arnold Zweig, author of "The Case
of Sergeant Grlscha,” Is said to be work
ing on a war novel, to be called "Educa
tion Before Verdun,” to be ready for
Subllcatlon In the Spring. The style of
weig is bluntly naturalistic and his
taste Is for stroat, staple characters.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN.
This is a special department, devoted
solely to the handling of queries. This
paper puts at your disposal the serv
ices of an extensive organization in
Washington to serve you in any ca
pacity that relates to information. This
service is free. Failure to make use
of it deprives you of benefits to which
you are entitled. Your obligation is
only 2 cents in coin or stamps, in--
closed with your inquiry, for direct
reply. Address The Evening Star In
formation Bureau. Frederic J. Haskin,
director, Washington, D. C.
Q. Does the United States export
more than it imports?—F. E.
A. The exports exceed the imports.
In the fiscal year 1922 the exports
reached a total value of $5,374,000,000,
while imports were valued at $4,292,-
000,000.
Q. When did Woodrow Wilson use
the expression that the world must be
made safe for democracy?—F. I*
A. In his address to Congress, April
2, 1917, President Wilson used the
words. "The world must be made safe
for democracy.”
Q. Why isn't rustless iron or stain
less steel used in building construc
tion?—J. F.
A. It has been introduced and mod
em builders are employing it for many
purposes.
Q. What portion of a cigarette is
discarded and wasted?—S. H.
A. Most cigarette smokers throw*
away cigarettes when they are about
I\\ inches long.
Q. Did the Qraf Zeppelin girdle the
earth?—B. A. N.
A. Speaking literally, it did not. It
would be necessary to follow' a great
circle dividing the earth into halves in
order to go around the world. All the
flights have followed lesser circles be
tween the Equator and the North Pole.
Q. What town has a liars’ contest
annually?—S. B. W.
A. In connection with its home
coming festivities, the town of Servla,
Ind., holds an annual "liars’ contest,”
at which time prizes are offered for the
most competent liar.
Q. How far was it from New York
to Hawaii by water before the Panama
Canal was opened?—A. 8.
A. From New York to Hawaii, the
old all-water route was 12,800 miles;
nowadays the trip through the canal
makes the journey only 7,000 miles.
Q. What is gentiane?—S. S.
A. It is a liquor made from gentian
flowers. It is a product of Switzer
land.
Q. Is the original of Poe’s “Eulalie”
still in existence?—S. D. W.
A. The original manuscript of A
gar Allan Poe’s "Eulalie” is in the
library of Yale University and with
other rare editions of this poet was ex
hibited recently in observance of the
anniversary of his death.
Q. Are you not mistaken in saying
that American railroads were all stand
ard gauge when first built?—J. N. H.
A. We quoted a statement to that
effect. Upon further research-we find
that some of the early roads were not
standard. Controversy arose over tne
question of gauges and in the early
1880 s most of the lines which had been
laid down to odd gauges were changed
to standard.
U. S. Chance of Establishing
Freedom of Seas Discussed
Is there a possibility that the United
States may win a century-old battle for
general recognition of “freedom of the
seas”? The question is widely debated
as discussion of the negotiations with
Great Britain on the subject of naval
armament goes on. Opinions differ as
to the possibility of enforcing such free
dom, one editor referring to any possi
ble agreement as another “scrap of pa
per.” Some enthusiasm is shown as to
the prospect that the principle may
gain a victory.
“That freedom of the seas will ever be
an unregulated or unrestrained freedom
in war is not expected,” contends the
St. Louis Globe-Democrat. “Optimistic
predictions that the old problem is
about to be solved may be based on
specific plans already under W'ay look
ing to regulations on which all may
agree. On the other hand, they may
be based on dispositions of a different
sort, so promising in insuring peace and
preventing misunderstandings that the
old problem will be solved by rendering
the principle of the freedom of the seas
only negligible in importance. If dur
ing a war some nations Insist that a
certain set of ocean traffic regulations
must be observed, while other nations
insist that only a set differing in many
respects is entitled to be observed, great
friction and unpleasantness are bound
to result.”
A similar point is raised by the Wor
cester Telegram, with the statement:
“Every nation which is a member of
the League of Nations must help to
carry on a war against an aggressor
nation. Therefore, in such a case there
will be no neutrals except among na
tions outside the League, and even
those nations will not be neutrals in
the old sense. Modern warfare will de
mand the strict regulation of their com
merce. They will either submit to it.
thus taking the side of the League, or
take the side of the declared aggressor
to the extent of fighting for their free
dom of commerce or withdraw entirely
from the sea. The last course would
not fit the dignity or the position of
the United States, which would there
fore be left the alternative of virtually
fighting on one side or the other over
the matter of commerce on the seas.”
“England and America have never
agreed well on the problem." recalls the
Lansing State Journal. "When Eng
land has laid a blockade she has in
s'st-d that it ought to be respecf?B. but
as often the United States has replied
that it was none of England's business
with whom the United States traded.
That was true in the opening days of
the World War. It perhaps will be re
membered that there is a provision in
the covenant of the League of Nations
whereunder the League may bring a
blockade against a nation the League
may deem needs disciplining. But the
worry of the League continues to be
■What will the United States do if we
proclaim a blockade?’ The question is
something of a poser, for it has long
been our traditional policy that we!
would do in the matter what pleases us.
The question now is. Is the United j
States to enter into some kind of an I
agreement whereunder it will act with j
other nations in case a blockade is be
lieved necessary?”
“The final and complete ‘freedom of
the seas’ will be something to witness.”!
advises the Fort Worth Record-Tele-1
gram, with the belief that “about the
only thing necessary for establishment
is to practice it.” The Hartford Cou
rant, however, states that “the war
taught many things, and among them
it taught Great Britain that in the
event of another war this American
doctrine of freedom of the aeas might
be her salvation. The feeling of confi
dence on both sides of the Atlantic,”
continues the Courant, “that no war
can arise between Britain and the
United States has caused the British
people to change their traditional atti
tude toward a right that America has
always Insisted on—the right to trade
uninterruptedly with other nations,
whether in pecce or in war, consistent
with her own neutrality. Dependent
as she is on the world at large for her ;
sustenance. Great Britain begins to see
the necessity of keeping the sea free
and open between herself and the great
est of all commercial nations—the
United States.”
“The triumph of an idea” is hailed by
the Birmingham News, taking note of
the feet that "cooscloua of what mag .
Q. How much does a baby elephant
weigh?—O. J. B.
A. It weighs from 180 to 200 pounds
at birth.
Q. Did a son of Alexander Hamil
ton’s fight a duel? —C. H. P.
A. Philip Hamilton feught a duel at
Weehawken. N. J., in the place where
the Burr-Hamilton duel occurred three
years later. Young Hamilton wks shot
and mortally wounded, dying 20 hours
later.
Q. Who was the model of Victory,
the figure which leads Gen. Sherman in
the equestrain statue by Saint-Oaudens?
g g
A. A Southern girl is said to have
posed for this figure.
Q. How many milk bottles does one
quart of milk fequlre?—R. E. D.
A. A Washington dairy says four;
one with the milk in; one empty, being
returned; a third in the dairy for the*
next day’s milk; a fourth held in re-*
serve to replace any broken, Ibst, etc. }
Q. What are Thomas A. Ediscn’s fa-j
vorite songs?—E. S.
A. "Sweetest Story Ever Told.l
"Kathleen Mavourneen.” "I’ll Take YoU
Home Again, Kathleen.” "When I’m
Gone. You’ll Soon Forget” and “That
We Two Were Maying” are said to be
some of his favorites. Os the operas,
he is particularly fond of Verdi and
Wagner.
q. Are there more telephones or
more automobiles in the United States?
A. There are more automobiles than
telephones. Automobiles and trucks
totaled abcut 24,400,000 in 1928 and
telephones about 18,500,000. A tele
phone serves more people than an auto
bile can. so it cannot be said that more
people use automobiles than telephones.
Q. How shculd the salutation of a
letter to the President of the United
States be worded? —B. L.
A. If it is a formal letter the saluta
tion would be "Mr. President.” If it la
an informal letter it may begin "My
Dear Mr. President.”
Q. Among what type of people am
crimes of violence usually committed?—
H. V. Z. , _
A. A survey of prisons reveals the
fact that the illiterate classes consti
tuted the main body of those being pun
ished for crimes of violence, while the
educated classes were more fully rep
resented by those serving time for
crimes against property.
Q. How much does it cost New York
City to keep its streets clear of snow
and ice in the Winter time? —K. 8.
A. In the Winter of 1928-29 it was
necessary to employ 18,000 men and
the expense amounted to $860,231.61.
Q. If the moon is now getting far
ther from the earth, when will it re
turn?—E. O. G.
A. The Naval Observatory says it ia
stated by Jeffreys, who has made an
elaborate mathematical Investigation of
the subject, that the moon will begin
to return to the earth before it reache*
twice its present distance and will con
tinue to approach until it comes so
near that it will be tom to pieces by
the attraction of the earth. The frag
ments will then form a ring around the
earth like that of Batum. Russell,
without disputing this conclusion, adds
that the sun may have ceased to shins
before this exceedingly slow recession
and return of the moon are completed.
come to pass. America is now resolved '
to celebrate this significant victory by
vouchsafing its fruitful results to all
nations, weak as well as strong, littlfe
as well as big. In this effort to make
'the United States doctrine of freedom
of the seas’ universally and uniformly
accepted, America is now joined by
Britain, the nation which heretofore
has insisted upon dissenting from the
American viewpoint.”
“Perhaps Great Britain and the
United States, being the strongest two
naval powers m the world,” says the
Portsmouth (Ohio) Daily Times, “in
working out the disarmament problem
; may also establish a definite policy to
■ be pursued in war or peace as to the w
1 freedom of the seas. It is not unlikely,
i however, that such a policy might, like
j the Belgian neutrality treaty, to which
! Germany was a party, turn Into only
: ‘a scrap of paper’ under the compllca
tions of war-time necessities.” *
Considering further the practical as
pects of the matter, the Lincoln State
Journal expresses the view that “under
the Kellogg pact this country would not
: desire to carry on ocean trade with a
nation that had violated the treaty”;
i that every signatory power “should
stand agreed on the matter of com
merce with warring nations.” The
Asheville Times asks in connection with
] this phase, “But will the United States
! enter into such an obligation, even to
; the extent of agreeing not to Interpose
should a majority of the nations declare
a blockade against a violator of the
j Kellogg-Briand pact?”
Calling the question one whose settle- *
1 ment “is altogether desirable,” the San
■ Antcnio Express comments: “Hereto
fore Great Britain has insisted on the
1 right in war time to stop neutral mer
chantmen on the ocean and take from
' them what may be listed as contraband.
The list was lengthened greatly during
the World War.”
Left-Turn Hazard Cited
In Uniformity Argument
Prom the Enclneerinc News Record.
Since the left turn at street intersec
tions must, by its very nature, interfere 4
somewhat with the even flow of traffic,
it is not surprising that efforts to mini
mise this Interference have resulted In
a variety of regulations on the subject
in different cities. All of these have
their advantages and disadvantages,
and none offers the perfect solution.
More than a year ago the National
Conference on Street and Highway
Safety, after careful study, adopted as
standard the turn from the left traffic
lane on the green light, a system which
had already attained widespread ac
ceptance and which has, since that
time, become almost universal. Un
fortunately, however, there are still a
few cities, notably Philadelphia and
Washington, which refuse to accept the
will of the majority, thus creating an
entirely unnecessary traffic hazard to
the detriment of their own citizens.
Violation due to ignorance of the spe
cial regulations in these places is bad
■enough, but is unlikely to result in se
rious accident because it occurs so fiw*
quently that the native driver is pre
pared for it.
Far more dangerous are the unusual *
maneuvers attempted, from force of
habit, by the native driver when he
himself becomes a tourist: violations of
the established law which find other
drivers totally unprepared and which
are bound to result in confusion, if not
in serious accident. Traffic authorities
are striving to reduce traffic accidents—
can they consistently Ignore this ob
vious danger? Plausible as may be the
argument that “conditions here a|b
different,” it cannot outweigh the ob
vious necessity for uniformity in traffie
control.
He Saw His Chance.
Prom the Florence (Ale.) Herald.
Brooklyn grocer’s clerk supported two♦,
wives on s2o a week. Being a grocer's
clerk probably simplified the feat.
Seen as Only Solution.
From the Dee Molaee Tribune-Capital.
Eventually the only war we will bs

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