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THE EVENING STAR With Sunday Motlm EAHMsi. W A S H fNOTON, D. C. SUNDAY December 9fi. ISM THEODORE W. NOYES. ... Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Business Office. ’.lth Bt. and Pennsylvania Av*. New Toik Office: lift Bast «Snd St Chicago Office: Lake Michigan Building. European Regent St.. London. Rate by Carrier Within the City. The *venlo«. Star ,4te ter month The Evening and Sunday Star (When 4 Sundays! ........ goe ger month The Evening and Sunday Star (when S Sundays) #6c per month The Sunday Star Sc per copy Collection made at the end of each mon'h. NAMonxT MOC* ***** * B ** m *‘* ** ,#l#pbon * Rate by Mall—Payable la Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Dally and Sunday 1 yy.. no 00: 1 mo.. Me Dally only lyr. *4.00; 1 mo.. SOc 6unday only ....lyr- 14.00: 1 me.. 4Cc All Other States and Canada. Dally and Sunday. 1 yr.. *13.00: In. 0.. tl 00 Dally only lyr.. 11(0 lmo.. 75c Sunday only lyr- IS00:1 no.. 40c Member of the Associated Frees. The Associated Press Is exclusively entitled to the use for lepubhratlon of all news cls patchss credited tp it or not otherwise cred ited in this paper and also .he local news published herein. All rights of publicstlon of special dispatches herein erg also reservea. District Building Purchase. Representative Simmons has intro duced hi* bill for the purchase of the Municipal Building, a measure dis cussed last Spring with the Secretary of the Treasury and which evidently fits in with the Federal Government's own building plans in the Avenue triangle. As far as the purchase of the build ing Is concerned, Mr. Simmons' plan Is fair to the District and to the United States. The cost of the Municipal Building, including the site, was approximately $2,500,000, shared equally between the District and the United States. Recent estimates of present-day fair value of the building place it at about $5,500,000. Under the Simmons bill, this value would be determined by a board of ap praisal composed of the architect of the Capitol, the supervising architect of the Treasury and the District assessor. As soon as the necessary legislation is en acted, the amount of the purchase price of the Municipal Building—say, i $5.500,000—wi1l be placed to the credit of the District in the Treasury, its use i being restricted, however, to meeting I the cost of the proposed new municipal ] center. t In the interval between the transfer I of ownership of the building to the i United States and the time that new t quarters are to be occupied by the municipal government, the present > building will continue to be occupied "rent free" by the city and the city : will continue to pay the maintenance i cost*. It is in consideration of the new municipal center project as a whole that one realizes that the United States stands to gain through its purchase of the Dis trict Building and that the taxpayers of the District are threatened with a disproportionately heavy share of the burden of financing this great under taking. According to the plans for purchase of sites and construction of buildings in the municipal center group the Dis trict will -spend about $11,510,000 be tween the fiscal years 1930 and 1934, inclusive. 4 Tftie amount should cover the cost of all the land and pay for ihe erection of the proposed courts building. After that the District will , undertake the erection of the adminis tration building, cost of which is esti mated at $10,000,000. This makes a total in round numbers of $21,500,000 now planned for ex penditure on the municipal center and the final cost will probably exceed that amount. The United States contribu tion, under the Simmons bill and under the present system of appropriations, will be, as now estimated, the $5,500,000 paid for the Municipal Building, plus a fraction of the lump sum annually contributed by the United States to the general revenues of the District. The District's equity in the present Municipal Building, however, is half of the present fair value, or $2,750,000. In purchasing the Municipal Building for $5,500,000, therefore, the United States would be merely transferring its two-and-three-quarter-mlllion-dol lar equity from the old building to the new project, effecting a like transfer of equity for the District and leaving a balance of $16,000,000 to be paid out of the general revenues of the District. To continue that fair policy advo cated by Mr. Simmons in his bill for the purchase of the Municipal Building, the United States should increase the contribution that it ordinarily would make to the general revenues as the District toward helping to defray the enormous expense to District taxpayers in building the gigantic and inspiring municipal center as planned. The scale upon which this new project is planned la commensurate with the size and design of the build ings to be built by the Federal Gov ernment to house its own offices and to beautify its own Capital. The munic ipal-center project is out of proportion and beyond the reasonable reach of the pocketbook of an American municipality of the size and resources of the Wash ington community. The municipal center is not designed merely to care for the needs of the municipality. It is designed to conform to the Federal Government’s own plans of beautifying the American Capital. This is right and proper. To assure Its success without burdening local tax payers with a load that should not rightfully rest upon their shoulders, the Federal Government should increase its contribution to the municipal center and not restrict it to the arbitrary and inadequate lump sum that now goes toward the provision of the essential needs of the Capital community. Selling in the stock market is attribu ted to a desire to report losses in Income tax statements. It is a practical ex pedient but a melancholy satisfaction. Three Close Shaves From Tragedy. New York ha* had several thrills dur ing this past week, quite exciting experi ences, with great possibilities for tragedy, but by a remarkable coinci dence of chance not costing a single life. There was first the collision Just off the lightships of two steamships, bearing altogether more than seven hundred persons, all of whom escaped without injury, though one of the ships was lost. Then a few hours later came an ex ntement In one of the subways under | the East River, when a short circuit caused the sudden stoppage of a crowded train with the emission of the fumes of burning insulation and fusing metal throwing the 1,500 passengers into a panic. This misadventure, though not productive of fatalities, caused the hos pital treatment of nearly twoscore, with as many more grevlously discommoded by either gas cr crushing. That hap pening was still being actively discussed when a third accident occurred. A North River ferry boat bearing over seven hun dred passengers was rammed in mid stream by a heavy car float. All the pas sengers were taken off the sorely stricken ferry and nobody was lost or Injured. It was rather remarkable that no casual ties occurred. About half of the people were newly arrived immigrants who had a short time before been released from Ellis Island. These three mishaps, two on the water and one under the water, involved altogether over 3,000 people, and save for the comparatively Inconsequential gass ing of about forty of them and a few scratches and bruises they are all as well today as before this strange sequence of misfortunes. It is to be doubted whether such a combination has ever before occurred in the modern history of New York, or whether it would be likely to occur again. Usually the metropolitan happenings that call for big headlines in the newspapers are tragedies. Some times the losses of life are reckoned by the dozen. This time, in circumstances that might have made any one of these three accidents a ghastly tragedy, *ll that results is the loss of some clothing and some cuticle and a few cases of sore throat. ” » A Reminder of Valley Forge. Barring a couple of ice storms Wash ington has enjoyed comparatively mild weather thus far this Winter. Doubt less. however, piercing cold—even lower temperatures than at present—and uncomfortable snow, sleet and slush will be on ha'JS in the not far-distant fu ture. At mien times there is much com plaint Wei automobile radiators that fail to function; over the necessity of wearing arctics; over inefficient heating plant* and tardy deliveries. The complainants are reminded —and, at to* same time, urged to cheer up— that last Thursday, December 19, marked the 152nd anniversary of the occupancy by George Washington and his faithful little army of the famed Winter-quar ters camping ground known then and today as Valley Forge, and now pre served for all time as a park wherein Americans can renew their patriotism. Os the 11,000 Continental soldiers who accompanied Gen. Washington to that spot, not far from the City of Brotherly Love, whence a good watch could be maintained on Gen. Howe, wintering there in perfect comfort, no fewer than 3,000 were unfit for duty when they arrived, due either to com plete lack of footgear or to other de plorable causes. As rapidly as possible they felled trees and constructed several hundred inadequate and wooden huts, chinked with clay and thatched with twigs. In these poor shelters, often for long periods flreless, and often with lit tle or nothing to eat, they spent the ex traordinarily severe Winter. Gen. Washington himself lived in a tent until Christmas eve, on which date he occupied a small house vacated by its owners for his use. His wife joined him in February and spent the re mainder of the Winter. Doubtless he deplored being housed better than his men. but he realized the necessity there of for his household and his aides. “Naked and starving" were the words he used in writing of his men in Feb ruary. As a result of their privations and of the outbreak of infectious dis eases, so many died or were invalided that the command at one time is thought to have Included few more than 5,000 effectives, and of these many left bloody footprints on the snow as they drilled. The Army stuck it out: accomplished its purpose of checking Howe; emerged in the Spring, through absorption of the teachings of Baron Steuben and others, a more efficient, although perhaps no better equipped force. On May 6, 1778. the troops were reviewed and, with many a cheer, news of the French al liance, turning point of the war, was celebrated. Next they Joyously repos sessed Philadelphia. The necessity for any such camp as Valley Forge has probably passed for ever as far as American troops or Ameri cans in general are concerned. The need for Americans to meet situations full of discomfort and privation will probably never pass, and the spirit of their forefathers is commended to them. Most men, confronted by the alternative of a bloody battle or five months to be spent as these courageous volunteers spent theirs, would unhesitatingly choose the former. It is a long time till the "first robin.” Information that the light days will now grow longer is at least assurance that neither theories nor prejudice can j Interfere with the normal and hopeful course of events. Ths Jeriey Devil. The police force of Woodbury Heights, N. J., assisted by an armed posse, Is combing the nearby countryside for a mysterious “shaggy black monster with a pig’s snout,” which has a strange moaning cry, kills swine and chases children—in short, for a demon. The town is in an uproar, says an account in the New York Times. It seems that a number of farmers have been losing their hogs and have found tracks of a four-footed, four-toed crea ture leading from the pens. And a few days ago two school children, in vestigating a moaning cry in a thicket, were chased by the mysterious creature described above. Many' In the town, says the correspondent, are convinced that a creature of the Prince of Dark ness has been let loose in their midst— that the famous black-winged, fire breathing "Jersey devil" of more than a decade ago has returned to haunt them. What actually has happened probably • could be explained simply enough. Per ■ haps a black bear is loose in the woods, r During the past few years roadside re • freshment stands have used bear cubs . to attract trade and wild animal deal ! ers have done considerable business In j this line. That one of these should 1 have escaped and even grown to matur t Ity in the woods without being observed . hitherto is by no means impossible. - The difficulty comes in explaining THE SUNDAY JSTAB. WASHINGTON, D. C., DECEMBER 22. 1929—PART TWO. | what popular imagination, ever in trigued by the mystical, adds to the facts. A bear, a hog or a maniac is transformed into a demon End the story grows in horror as it passes from mouth to mouth. Folks still have fears for which demons are appropriate sym bols, and the material from which <ie mons may be created is everywhere in the woods and in the darkness. The excitement In the New Jersey community will die a natural death In a few days. At the worst, it will have a limited spread to other com munities. The rest of the country, which has no particular and immediate need for a demon, will laugh at the story. But one is tempted to recall the words of Sir James George Fraser in his classical study of superstition and magic. The Golden Bough: We seem to move on a thin crust which may at any moment be rent by the subterranean forces slumbering be low. From time to time a hollow mur mur underground or a sudden spurt of flame Into the air tells of what is going on beneath our feet. The excitement over the Jersey devil seems Just such a "hollow murmur un derground,” warning us that reason is far from securely enthroned in the human mind. Inadequate Illumination. No one who has occasion to visit the Union Station can contend that it la a well lighted public structure. Contrast ed with the Pennsylvania Terminal or the Grand Central Station in New York, it suffers greatly by comparison in this respect with either, and doubtless does with similar great terminals elsewhere. The great central inside waiting room is lighted to a degree of insufficiency whereby those who, waiting for trains, purchase newspapers arc put to it to read them. Practically the only way in which news print can be readily perused is for the reader to stand some where along the wall; most of those seated on the benches, wherever placed, cannot possibly accomplish the feat without serious eyestrain. The outer concourse, which provides access to the numerous train gates, is 760 feet in length by 130 feet in width. Its dimensions are truly nobl*. Yet its vaulted celling is lighted by only about seventy electric bulbs. Their individual power may be great, but so high are most of them and so sparsely placed that they seem to give but pin pricks of light. It should be remembered that to many thousands of persons this outer con course and the waiting room beyond offer their first glimpse of their Na tional Capital, and few will deny that it is not an uplifting one. On the con crete floor of the former it is difficult to recognize a relative, let alone a friend, at a distance of fifty feet, which militates against both incoming pas sengers and the friends who are on hand to meet them. Not only Is the inner chamber insufficiently illuminated, but it is often kept at too high a tem perature. On an unseasonably warm night recently a wall thermometer therein, situated at a distance of many feet from the nearest operating radia tor, registered seventy-seven degrees. The Illumination behind the decora tive statues that stand high as an inside frieze is beautiful, impressive and prob ably adequate. There are certain par ticular utilities, places and objects which are well lighted. But the general degree of brilliancy in and around this vast and handsome building is frequently and justly criticized. That the officials in charge thereof may take steps to remedy this regrettable situation is a hope frequently expressed, but so far unfulfilled. Holiday cheer has to be suspended among news men and photographers called in the course of duty to study an airplane wreck. For them there is not even a “Welcome" on the door mat. Yet, In spite of petty obstruction the public always gets the news. The stock market is sure to swing to different figures in the course of time. Yet any system for beating the game is as reliable in Wall Street as in Monte Carlo. Business men are expected at the present time to broaden their studies so as to include applied economics as well as the science of Immediate profits. SHOOTING STARS. ST PHILANDER JOHNSON. Salesman Ae Lose. Friend Santa Claus, with seal immense, Helps to assuage our cares, And hold a helpful Influence In practical affairs. The Christmas saint our praise must win Upon each annual trip. Old Bant* is a leader in The art of salesmanship. Reliable Inspiration. “That was an excellent speech you made on the tariff.” “I am glad you liked it," said Senator Borghum. “While opinions may differ as to details, everybody must concede that every tariff is of inestimable value as an oratorical Inspiration.” Jud Tunklns says a man who has a whole lot to say is pretty apt to be one of the chaps with nothing to do. Roasting the Lamb. A turkey on a holiday Will make a pleasant dish. Says Wall Street, “In the good old way, RoMt lamb is all I wish." Partial Success. “Was the aviation flight a success?" “Only partially so," said the gate keeper. “The plane crashed. But we managed to keep the newsmen and photographers from getting a look at the wreckage." “Loud laughter,” said Hi Ho. the sago of Chinatown, “denotes little in the way of happiness. It to only the expression of a boisterous disposition." Vac If erst lon. In politics he made hto way. > Hto influence grew strong. Though he had nothing much to say, > He said it loud and long. I “I don' like dem Santa Claus whtok- I ers,” said Uncle Eben. “Pears like de old gemman was a friend to everybody [ on earth, eeptin’ de barbers." “PEACE AND GOOD WILL” | BY THE SIGHT BF.V. JAMES E. FREEMAN. D. D, It. D, Bishop of Washington Text: "Peace to men of good will.” St. Luke, ii.l4. At the outbreak of the World War a distinguished American bishop asked me the pertinent question. "What are you going to preach about on Christmas day? It will certainly not be the theme of the angels' message." I assured him that even in the face of a world catas trophe I would still adhere to the cen tral message of the greatest day in the Christian year. The great World War has passed and to now but a memory. The intervening 11 years have certainly registered some progress, notably this past year, in tne direction of peace to men of good will. Good will to one of the essentials of peace, whether in the family, the world of Industry or in the larger sphere of international relationships. It has taken nearly 20 centuries to compel men to recognize the intimacy of the ties that bind them together. Hitherto geo | graphical boundaries, racial peculiarities and other points of difference have seemed to render Impossible that kind of comradeship that issues in better understanding and a finer agreement. Even within our own borders we have witnessed at times the expression of that which tended to separate men and com munities into antagonistic groups. We are by no means without these elements in our corporate life today. There are those whose Insular ways and habits of thinking and living contribute to di visions and classifications that are un worthy and inimical to our largest interests. Now and again a situation arises that compels us to realize more fully our solidarity and our essential unity. Christmas day more than any other in the calendar stands for the high and holy things of peace. The coming of Him who was heralded as “the Prince of Peace" ushered in a new conception of human relationships. His whole ministry and teaching were designed to effect better conditions. While He ?;ave men a new vision of that which ies beyond the outmost horizon, He dealt specifically with life here and now. To Hto mind the terms "alien" and “foreign” were unknown. He saw life in its fullness, and He was unrestricted in Hto teaching and philosophy by geo graphical, racial or other boundaries and limitations. Born Into a Jewish household and accredited to a people distinguished for lta insularity. He brought a mrssage and presented an outlook upon life that wal inclusive and timeless In its designs and pur poses. Christmas day has come to mean one of merry-making and the expression of a fine generosity. It is a great holiday and its spirit differs from that of any other day in the year. Japan Shows Traditional Spirit Os Agreement With Great Powers BY WILLIAM HARD. The Japanese delegates to the Lon don Naval Conference have gone away from Washington and there is only strict accuracy—and no "propaganda”— in the outgivings of the State Depart ment to the general effect that the visit of the Japanese delegates here has for tified our Government in hoping for a successful issue of the conference at London next month. Our authorities are impressed with two things about the Japanese. In the first place, the Japanese seem to have a genuine desire not merely for the lim itation of naval armaments, but also for their actual positive reduction. This fits in admirably with the policy of the United States. The United States is making it clear, for Instance, that it is willing to go to almost any length in the downward revision of the total of cruiser tonnage if the other naval powers will accompany it in the downward move ment. It appears now that the Japanese in a considerable degree share this sen timent. In fact, without making any comparisons for any hostile or in vidious purpose, it would seem today that of the live governments which will assemble at London, the American Government and the Japanese govern ment will be the two that will be moat devoted to the reductionist point of view. ** * * In the second place, the Japanese have again made it fairly certain that their historic policy of going along with the great powers of the world and of avoiding being responsible for the break ing up of conferences is still in vogue and in effect among them. It is recol lected here that the general rule is that the Japanese present demands frankly and present arguments forcibly, but then show a spirit of accommodation and are ultimately willing to sign & com promise even when the compromise falls to give them entirely what they may think to be their rights. That lias been the general rule with them, as was shown clearly in the conference at Portsmouth, w hich concluded the Russo- Japanese war in 1905 without conced ing to Japan their reiterated demands in the matter of an Indemnity from Russia, and was again shown clearly in the naval arms conference at Wash ington in 1921, when the Japanese got far less than they desired in the matter of the recognition and perpetuation of their acquired rights in China. ** * * It seems to be fundamental to Japa nese foreign policy that Japan should not put Itself in the position of being re garded as a stubborn and fatal obstacle to international agreement. That doc trine, in the view of the most Intimate observers here, seems to be on its way to being carried to London by the Japanese naval delegates, whose dispo sitions were studied here by their of ficial hosts. It is thought at the same time that a part of the moderation displayed by the Japanese here toward the end of their visit was due to their enlarged realization of the basic fact that the United States Government is seriously prepared to spend hundreds of millions of dollars upon expansion of its fleet if it fails to gain naval security through international agreement at London. There is on this point no reason what soever to doubt the resolution and de termination of the administration now i in office in Washington. The present \ administration will get security for the j United States through the limitation or 1 reduction of the naval forces of the world or else it will proceed to get se curity by beginning to build a fleet which overwhelmingly will need to fear no rival. ** * * The United States. l>y reason of Its physical and financial resources, is abundantly able to outstrip all other countries in the achievement of security by an Immense outlay on naval arma ments. The United States Government Is therefore able to go to London offer ing In the one hand an agreement for reduction and offering in the other hand the prospect of an American fleet superior to anything that any other country can produce. The Japanese realized here that our President, though a Quaker, meant what he said when he recently declared that he did not believe In disarmament by example. He believed only, he intimated, in disarmament by general co-operative action. It is reasonable to suppose that his utterances had been thoroughly studied already by the Japanese at home. Here, however, they had every opportunity to understand more com pletely that he Is thoroughly in earnest in maintaining that the chief end in view for the United States is necessarily the simple one of security and that. If security cannot be got by common counsel and common sense In Interna tional engagements. It must then be got for the United States by the United States ltaelf. ** * * How Japan, of all the five countries to be represented next month in the con ! ference at London, is the one least dis posed to Incur extravagant expenditures for naval or other purposes. It Is with out the resources lor extravagance. It Even lives that have become hardened, like that of old Scrooge in Dickena’ i Christmas Carol, are rendered soft and > responsive, and increasingly men be i come more and more responsive to an i extended practice of charity. That this ■ spirit reflects that of the great Master i of men is quite evident. Unlike other • holidays in the calendar, it to not na • tional but universal in its observance. > It was during the critical days of the World War that contending armies re i fused to carry on the struggle on Chrtot ! mas day. While In a fine sense it Is a 1 family day and marks the closer knlt i ting of domestic ties, in a larger sense it stands for that universal family that comprehends all races, kindreds and • peoples. Good will to Its supreme de sign-good will that dicloses Itself in i all human relations, whether at home 1 or abroad. There should be no strife : between such. There may be differ ences in traditions, backgrounds, habits ; and methods of living, but these do not preclude that good will that issues in understanding and peace. Most of the world's ills, whether in the narrow cir cle of our immediate family and social life or in the broader sphere of our 1 world action, grow out of an unwilling ness to exercise good will or to recon cile differences through an effort to 1 see the other’s point of view. We can trace most of the tragedies of life to this cause. If this latest Christmas day could be distinguished by the forgetting of old differences, old rivalries and ani mosities; in fine, if we could clean the slate and begin all over again, we should solve many a domestic, social, industrial and international difficulty and begin upon a new basis that would guarantee to us happiness and peace. The follow ers of the Nazarene have never been ao urgently called to stand for Hto high claims as in this present age. With the memory of the great struggle still In mind we must put behind all our paper agreements, however valuable they may be. the spirit of good will. We must begin to set forward, and set forward persistently, those deep princl pies of life that He proclaimed and for which He gave Himself even unto death. There is no right-thinking man or ! woman today who has rightly con ceived the Christmas spirit but must give freshened demonstration of that ! spirit of good will that shall make the whole world live in the atmosphere of ( a continuing and unbroken Christmas- . tide. We give our greeting with all our heart: “A merry and blessed Chrtot mastlde. rich with the favor of a selfless ! generosity and distinguished by a new , expression of good will to men the ! world over.” j 1 ardently desires economy. It would look ' with dread upon an ambitious Ameri can naval building program, which 1 would in turn oblige the Japanese gov- ' ernment to do a lot of building In an- 1 swer to it. In other words, the Japa- 1 nese do not want and could not endure ' an untlmed financial competition with the United States. 1 It remains true, of course, that Japa nese will not yield to the British and American Idea about the abolition of j the submarine. British and American officials tend to maintain that the sub- 1 marine has been rendered almost use- 1 less for combat against armed naval fleets. On thla point our Government and theirs will continue to differ. They will also continue to differ somewhat cm the point of battleships. The Japa nese tend toward disparaging the per manent need for battleships. It Is thought here that they might some day be willing to give up battleships alto gether. We. on the other hand. It Is thought, will never consent to give up battleships as long as the British mer chant fleet of large ships is so much greater than ours. There are differences then between the American naval point of view and the Japanese naval point of view, but our officials are considerably more op timistic now than they were a week ago as to the possibility that the two points of view can be made to arrive at a mu tual adjustment in a treaty. (Copyrlcht. IMS > »i» i —» Highway Safety Program Records Progress in Year BY HARDEN COLFAX. Santa Claus and his hardy reindeer will And their long Journey a little more safe from the hazards of traffic Tuesday night than at any time since the highways have presented their mul tiple dangers, and next year it is hoped they will discover an even greater Im provement. Some nine committees and subcom mittees of the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety, wlilch func tions under the chairmanship of the Secretary of Commerce, met in Wash ington last week to survey the work accomplished and outline plans for a more Intensive effort to bring about order in the movement of urban and rural traffic and to increase the margin of safety. A meeting of the conference itself is to be called for some date in May or June. The first conference was held In 1924 and the second In 1926. Testifying to the widespread Interest In this subject.,the committee meetings here last week attracted more than a hundred business and professional men from 38 States in all sections of the country, who gave their time and paid ] their expenses. ** * * Efforts are to be made to Induce more States to adopt and put into prac tice the uniform code promulgated by the conference in 1926, the principles of which were reaffirmed by the commit teemen here last week. There are sev eral sections of this code and some parts have been adopted by 25 States. The unhappy record of 1928, when more than 27,000 lives were lost In street and highway accidents in the United States, and a hundred thousand J other persons were injured, will be ex ceeded by 1929, it Is Indicated by pre- I llminary reports. Some part of the increase may be attributed to more accurate reporting of accidents, but the curve actually is also upward. Traffic accidents now are costing the Nation more than a billion dollars a year, it is estimated by the Department of Commerce. Yet physical hazards have been reduced. ♦* * * Several steps have been determined upon by the committee on protection of railway grade crossings and high way intersections, which had four sub committees in session last week. Spokesmen for the outdoor advertising association volunteered at the meeting to have a survey conducted by that organization with the object of remov ing to a proper distance any advertis ing signs under its control which may obstnict the view of either a railroad grade crossing or a highway intersec tion. It was recommended that rail road section gangs and the road crews of state and county highway depart ments take advantage of the Winter months to remove brush and other obstructions which prevent a clear view of crossroads and grade crossings To eliminate the railroad grade cross ings In the United States by subways or viaducts would cost more than (35 000 - 000,000, and would require many years of continuous work. Elimination is on the program only with a relatively few points, otherwise Improvement of con ditions to reduce the hazard Is the aim The railroads spent more than $3l 000 - 000 laat year in grade crossing elimina tion and improvement, and the 1939 > record of similar expenditures will h» & comparable figure. i** * * 80 tor as grade crossing is concerned i , much depends upon warning devices Capital Sidelights BY WILL P. KENNEDY. Washington is the great national center from which Christmas and New Year greetings of good will and inter national amity are going forth into every State in the Union, the outlying dependencies and to the nations of the world far and wide. With all of the more important na tions of the world maintaining em i bassies and legations in the National Capita], the season’s greetings of peace on earth, <oaod will toward men, are going forth in every tongue and ac cording to the peculiar traditions and customs of the various nations. With the population of Washington garnered from every state in the Un ion, and with each of the Government officials having wide circles of political and personal friends by the thousands, even by the millions, Christmas greet ing cards are being sent throughout the forty-eight States. But it Is at the Capitol Building that the real broadcasting station for Christ mas greetings is established. For more than three weeks the post office of the National House of Representatives has been working day and night to keep abreast with the deluge of Christmas mail, Frank W. Collier, the postmaster, is unable to make any estimates of the number of Christmas cards that his office Is handling, but they run into many millions. An average of 15 sacks of mall every hour Is shipped through this one small post office, and by keep ing the force at work until 10 o’clock each night he has been able to keep cleaned up to the minute on getting the mall out and making deliveries of Incoming mail. The members of Con gress are the only people in Washing ton who are to have a mail delivery on Christmas day. With 435 members of the House and 96 members of the Sen ate, each one of whom has several office employes, it is easy to realize that the Christmas mall for Congress reaches staggering quantities. Probably the largest number of cards sent out by any single member of Con gress is 26,000. which are being mailed by Representative Robert Bacon of New York. Most members of Congress each year specialize on an illustration which shows some one of the most attractive views in the National Capital. This season Mr. Bacon’s card is an unusually good picture of the Washington Monu ment. As usual, the most elaborate of the Christmas cards from the Capitol, and the one on which most thought has been expended, is being sent out by Ed mund F. Erk, secretary to Representa tive Btephen Porter of Pennsylvania and clerk to the House committee on foreign affairs. These cards cost ap proximately $1 apiece and Mr. Erk is mailing more than 15,000 of them. This is about the average number that he mails annually. Each year Mr. Erk’s card, which is really a beautifully en graved booklet, emphasizes some impor tant feature of our national life. Two years ago it contained reproductions of the fundamental documents of our Gov ernment. Last year it emphasized home, as the corner stone of the Gov ernment. This year Mr. Erk realized that greater strides toward peace on earth, g*od will toward men. had been made during the past year than during the preceding 50 years in our national life, and that the United States Gov ernment has taken leadership toward international peace. He thought it would be a good idea to tell the people about this, and so he has gotten out a beautiful booklet that is both historical and educational as well as an example of beautiful photoengraving work. In this booklet he points out that more than 20 treaties have been signed with Latin American countries, some of which have been under consideration for scores of years. He calls attention also to the epochal flight of Col. Charles Lindbergh as international ambassador of good will and to the Hoover good will trip to South American countries. Con siderable space is devoted to reproduc tions of the Kellogg-Briand multilateral treaty. He calls attention also that the forthcoming conference in London, the Dawes plan and the debt-funding legis lation are all distinct efforts toward the promotion of international peace. Bppaker Longworth is sending out from his office 1,100 engraved cards bearing his personal signature and one of the most attractive views of the Capitol Building. In addition to this he is mailing at least as many more personal greeting cards to his intimate friends. Representative John B. Clarke of New York is sending out at least 10,000 cards which carry a silhouette of him self. Representative Harry A. Estep of Pittsburgh is sending out 5,000 Christ mas greeting cards. Representative Allen T. Treadway of Stockbrldge. Mass., dean of the Massa chusetts delegation in the House, has mailed approximately 2.000 cards. Last year Mr. Treadway's Christmas greet ing card carried a colonial New Eng land picture of the Elms, his home in Stockbrldge, Mass. This year his card bears a picture of the Capitol Building. The majority room in the House Of fice Building, through which most of the members get out the documents and circulars which they send in large num bers throughout their districts, is this year handling more than 150,000 Christ mas greeting cards, according to N. W. Pickering, who Is in charge of this work. Mr. Pickering’s own greeting card, which is being sent to every living former member of Congress and to hundreds of his friends in official life throughout the 48 States, carries an actual photograph of the Lincoln Memorial. Another interesting Christmas greet ing. which is also artistically beautiful, is being sent out by the hundreds bv Robert H. Alcorn, chairman of the joint conference on civil service retire ment, representaing the various organi zations of Government employes. It reads as follows: 1929. My Christmas Wisff 1W You. May the bells on Christmas Morning bring you happiness And cheer, %nd the Star of Bethlehem be your guide through A hanny, gladsome year. Peace On Earth and Good Will to men. This is my wish to you. my friend. True and Sincere Greetings. and education of users of the high ways to observe caution. Nearly 40 per cent of the fatalities at railroad grade crossings last year were due to motor ists driving their cars into the side of trains; in one case, a man drove into the thirty-seventh car of a passing freight train. Wig-wag or flashing signals are fa vored by the conference, it was devel oped last week, with proper distance. Warning signs in the middle of wide highways supplemented by a sign on each side were favored. Improved statistical reports also were urged by committeemen so that causes of accidents may be analyzed in order to evolve preventive measures. There is a woeful lack of sound statistical data on accidents at highway inter sections; Information from steam rail roadp is complete, but from electric lines it is meager. ** * * One of the matters stressed by the committees last week was proper in spection of vehicles by their owners or operators. Too few motor cars are inspected at regular Intervals to dis cover developing defects, it is believed. A large proportion of accidents are due to mechanical collapses which could have been avoided by an Inspection. The confusing differences in regula tions as to signaling, turning, speed, etc., continue a major problem, and for this reason new emphasis is to be put on the , uniform traffic code as well as other features of that set of principles. The conference, which has offices with the Chamber of Commerce of the United Btates, was asked last week to distribute copies of the code and model municipal ordinance, a special committee being named to I strengthen certain classes. tCopjrrlcbt. 1939.) | POLAR TEMPERATURES BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN. The triumphant flight of Lieut. Comdr. Richard Byrd over the South Pgje has set the world talking anew about the polar regions and has brought forth the usual misconceptions concern ing the climatic conditions encountered at the top and bottom of the earth. Most of the population of the world lives on the Northern Hemisphere, and so it is no more than second nature that the word "north” should seem to be almost synonymous with "cold.” It requires an Instant's thought to realize that by every meteorological rule it is theoretically Just as cold at the South Pole as at the North Pole, both being equidistant from the Equator. As a mat ter of fact It Is considerably colder at the South Pole, as the Antarctic con tinent is elevated. Comdr. Byrd's latest reports of his flight over the South Pole show that the mountains are 10.000 to 12.000 feet high. Even In the Temper ate Zones, mountains of that elevation are often snow-clad in the Summer time. Obviously, then, it is much colder at the South Pole. There are mountains In the North, too. On Greenland the ranges rise to a measured height of 8,000 feet, but at considerable distance south of the North Pole. The Pole Itself Is situated in the midst of a sea which, obviously, is at sea level, and normally warmer than the elevated Greenland's icy mountains to the southward. But, aside from this difference of temperature at the North and South Poles, the necessary effort must be made to keep in mind the wide variation of temperature in Summer and Winter within the polar regions, if one is to keep intelligently abreast of the prog ress of polar explorations. The very names Arctic Circle and Antarctic Cir cle have a frigid ring about them which suggests glaciers, icebergs, illimitable snow and all that goes with the frozen regions. The idea of Summer within these Icebound circles Is at first difficult to assimilate. Warm Day* In the Arctic. Many meteorological observations have been made by representatives of different countries. On our own terri tory careful records have been kept and officially reported which show how wide a variation of temperature exists in the Far North. Point Barrow is situated at the north ernmost point of Alaska, well within the Arctic Circle. Official figures show a low record Winter temperature of 55 degrees below zero and a Summer tem perature of 75 degrees. Point Barrow Is on the coast, where it is warmer In Winter. Further inland is Shungnak, where 61 degrees below zero has been registered In the Winter and 90 degrees in the Summer. Candle, In the same general region, shows a mark of 60 below zero for the Winter and 85 for the Summer. When the thermometer gets up around 85 to 90 degrees in Washington, New Orleans, New York, Chicago or any other American city people stop each other and ask. "Is it hot enough for you?”—a purely rhetori cal question and one which has led to blows from people too hot and bothered to control their tempers. The reason for this extreme heat within the Arctic Circle is not difficult to understand. In the Summer season the sun swerves north and circles about the upper portion of the earth, casting its rays down steadily for weeks on end. Far enough north there Is a season dur ing which the sun never sets. Further south there may be an hour, two hours, three hours of night. In the Temperate Zone far to the southward the sun goes down at 8 o’clock or so and the Chicago Crime Laboratory Has Big Case as Task BY OLIVER SHERWOOD. CHICAGO, December 21.—For its first task the Chicago Crime Labora tory, affiliated with Northwestern Uni versity, has put itself on the trail of the most desperate and murderous gang of criminals now operating In the country. The laboratory, Just starting to func tion, Is seeking to establish whether machine guns foufld In the St. Joseph. Mich., home of the notorious Fred Bufke are the same guns that perfo rated the bodies of the seven Moran gangsters, slain in Chicago's Valentine day massacre. Preliminary examina tions Indicate that they are. Now the laboratory’s department of ballistics will decide definitely. Chicago has had its suspicions about responsibility for that affair ever since It happened, but up to the present it has no evidence of consequence. Only recently Jack McGum. chief ma chine gunner for the Capone gang dur ing Its time of power, was freed from charges growing out of that wholesale killing. The town still Is interested, and would not be surprised to learn that Burke and his gang of desperadoes extraordinary had committed the crime. ** * * This killer came back into the lime light this week when he was alleged to have killed in cold blood a police man in St. Joseph, Mich., who sought to question him about a minor traffic accident. As a result of this killing police found $319,000 in stolen bonds in Burke's home In addition to a reg ular arsenal of weapons. It then came to light that this man was directing an outfit that made the Jesse James gang of post-Civil War days look almost like pikers. Detroit wants him for killing two men in a machine-gun encounter dur ing 1927. That city also claims that Burke and his confederates were re sponsible for four kldnaplngs that net ted them $200,000 In ransom. There is a $200,000 mall robbery in Toledo charged up to him, in addition to a $60,000 bank robbery In Cadillac, Mich., and a $93,000 bank robbery in Peru, Ind. Much of the recovered loot was taken from the bank at Jeffer son, Wls., during a recent hold-up. The Valentine day massacre In Chi cago would have climaxed the activ ities of this group, which numbers among its members some of the most desperate of the former Egan's rats of St. Louis, and some of Chicago's toughest. Rewards totaling over $70,000 for ' Burke, dead or alive, are spurring de- I tectlves to an Intense hunt for him. I Once he is cornered, a batUe without j quarter is expected. ** * * The record of this man and liis gang is so notorious that the Chicago crime laboratory is particularly interested in tracing the history of the guns they have used in their depredations. The Valentine day massacre was featured by the use of machine guns, pistols and sawed-off shotguns. MaJ. Calvin Goddard, who is working on the problem, says that the labora tory Just being set into motion will be one of the finest in America, and will be comparable to the crime laboratories in Germany. “I will be in charge of and person ally supervise the ballistics,” Maj. God dard said. "There will be a general chemist who will also be assistant direc tor of the laboratory. He will handle the examination of blood spots, inks In the matter of forgery, poison, etc. There also will be an assistant chemist, an expert photographer and the regular laboratories’ clerical force. "There will be an outside staff of ex perts who can be called in on occasion 1 to handle such matters as handwriting, pathology, toxicology, mlcrophotog raphy and anatomy. We will be able to handle and help identify such vary ing traces as tlreprlnts, fingerprints, footprints, in fact, the least trace left 1 by the criminal.” , 1 This work will dovetail with that be ing carried on at the University of Chi- 1 cago by Chief August Vollmer, former 1 head of the police department at Berk- 1 i eley. Calif., and famed for his scientific 1 police qfork. 1 (Copyright. MU ' 1 dew-drenched night follows. There are hours of relief from the sun. Th 4 earth has opportunity to cool before tba blaze of dawn returns. But within th* Arctic Circle the beating down of the sun Is Incessant, with no interval for cooling. Thus the heat becomes cumulative. At 72 degrees of latitude the sun shines continuously from May 9 to August 4 —BB days—according to ob servations of the United States Weather Bureau. Conversely, in the Winter season the sun departs utterly and there Is continuous night from November 18 to January 25—69 days—according to observations which have been reported from actual experience. Absence of Flora and Fauna. The reports from Comdr. Byrd Indi cate that at the South Pole there Is no life, either animal or vegetable. At some considerable distance northward from the South Pole life Is found, the most noteworthy being displayed by the unique penguins. x ßut the actual South Pole Is guarded by ranges of towering mountains, eternally frigid, where no life can subsist. The topographical as pects are strongly reminiscent of the imaginary cold mountains of the moon. Indeed, all that Comdr. Byrd and his associates have described reads more like a tale of Jules Verne or Edgar Rice Burroughs than the report of a scientific exploring expedition on this earth. The northern polar regions, however, are endowed in a more friendly man ner. Flowers of gorgeous hues and in finite variety grow luxuriantly well up toward the North Pole itself. Food crops cannot be raised, as the season is too short for vegetation to flower and fruit, too. But there is time for blossoms to appear in great abundance. Animal life also is abundant to a point far north. Definite data have not yet been re ceived from the Byrd expedition re garding temperature readings, and, in deed, meteorologists would not regard such readings as Byrd may have taken on his flight over the South Pole as very conclusive. They insist on a rec ord of readings covering a period of years before venturing an opinion or setting down an official mean tempera ture. However, members of the Byrd expedition have intimated that It is cold there. Southern Altitudes Colder. On the basis of observations at points some distance away from the Poles, theoretical mean temperatures have been worked out by scientists for the Poles themselves. Germans do that sort of thing. There Is a peculiarity about the Antarctic mountains, arising, it Is believed, from wind action, whereby the high elevation does not Intensify cold to as great a degree as elevation in the Temperate Zones. Thus the mini mum mean Arctic temperature for the North Pole in January is given as 41 degrees below zero, while the minimum mean at the Bouth Pole Is 33 degrees below for June. However, the Antarc tic Summer is colder, the elevation pre venting the temperature from coming down. The Midsummer mean at the North Pole Is 1 deg Tee below zero, while at the Bouth Pole it Is 6 degrees below. The lowest temperature ever officially recorded In the neighborhood of the South Pole is 66.8 degrees below zero, noted by the Discovery In 1903, Lieut. Barne, commanding. Any glance at polar temperatures and their variations shows that the Arctic regions are much more habitable from every point of view. The very place names in the Antarctic reflect its for bidding aspect, as, for example, Mount Erebus and Mount Terror. Fifty Years Ago In The Star Half a century ago the Louisiana State lottery, which had flourished for Louisiana * smod many years as a Louisiana powerful financial instltu- TnH.TO tion. was under fire in a Lottery, campaign that lasted a long time before the great organized gamble was driven out of the United States. The chief weapon of the Government, which was conducting this warfare against the lottery, was the law forbidding the use of the mails for unlawful enterprise. After much maneuvering a direct move was made against the lottery in 1879 in the holding of letters addressed to it. Thereupon the lottery management countered with a suit to compel the Postmaster General to deliver this mall. The case was heard before the District Supreme Court. In The Star of De cember 15, 1879, Is a report of the proceedings, in part as follows: "Today In the Supreme Court of the District, sitting In general term, Chief Justice Cartter and Judges James and Hagner, the case of M. A. Dauphin, secretary and agent of the Louisiana State Lottery, against Key, Postmaster General, was heard. Senator Carpen ter. Judge T. W. Bartley, Hon. M. I. Southard. W. C. Moulton and E. B. Hay, for the petitioner, and Hon. A. A. Freeman, solicitor of the Post Office Department, and Maj. Ray for the re spondent. This is a bill for an In junction to enjoin the enforcement of an order of the Post Office Department prohibiting the delivery of letters ad dressed to the petitioner, on the ground that the party is engaged in an un lawful calling.” There was a complicated argument regarding the legal status of the case, and finally representatives of the two sides presented their respective cases, Senator Carpenter of Wisconsin mak ing the chief argument. The report in The Star of the day following. De cember 16, 1879, thus summarizes: "The case before the court was one in which evidently the President could not act. The lotteries may be wicked and those engaged in them sinners; but they were not always so looked upon. The very building—City Hall- In which the court sat, was erected through the aid of lotteries and he had been told that other buildings in this city had been erected in the same way. This lottery in Louisiana was not a scheme; it was organized and j operated under a contract with the ' State and the latter Is paid $40,000 1 for permitting It to continue In ttpera i tion. The law granting the charter was voted for by both Republicans and Democrats in the State Legislature and there could not be any political sig nificance charged with Its creation. He argued at some length upon the juris diction of the court and maintained that an unconstitutional act was Invalid. If the Postmaster General becomes satis fied that a man is engaged in an ud i&wful business, as matters now stoq», he could make an order that would deprive him of the right guaranteed to every citizen. Without charge, with out trial, without Jury, without notice the Postmaster General could do this and the first thing the man knew of the entire transaction was that he was de prived of one of his right*.” In his argument for the Postmaster General, Solicitor Freeman questioned the good taste of reference to the fact that the City Hall had been erected from the proceeds of the lottery. He referred to the Legislatures of New York and Pennsylvania, which had declared lotteries tc be nuisances and penalties were provided, the lotteries being con sidered a species of gambling, and such a character had been put on them by the civilized world. In late years they had secured existence only by paying tribute to some charitable organization. The court took the papers and held the case under advisement for several days, finally dismissing it to permit the counsel for the lottery to file an amend ed bill. After several years of litigation the lottery was finally denied the use of the malls and was compelled to remove from the United States to Honduras, eventually passing out of existence.