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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, December 22, 1929, Image 39

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HOOVER’S BORDER PATROL
PLANS TO END SMUGGLING
Proposed Change May Bring Into Being
Organization as Picturesque as
Marine Corps.
CONGRESS has before It a bill
embodying the recommenda
tions of President Hoover that
the various Federal services
engaged in the prevention of
smuggling over our frontiers be reor
ganized into a single border patrol un
! der the Coast Guard. Few elements in
the reorganization program of the ad
ministration have a wider interest than
this, for the proposed change will bring
into being an organization that may
prove as picturesque as the Marine
Corps.
Smuggling today takes many forms —
customs contraband, liquor, aliens,
criminals and plants and animals for
bidden entry. The new force, operat
ing under the Coast Guard, will have
plenty to do. and if experience can be
taken as a guide, the life of the patrol
man will have an abundance of thrills
and adventure, as well as a touch of
danger.
The United States already has a bor
der patrol, part of the Immigration
Service, but its work is confined largely
to the prevention of the smuggling of
aliens along the coast and Mexican and
Canadian frontiers. In 1925 Congress
appropriated $1,000,000 to establish an
immigration border patrol. This fol
lowed logically the enactment of the
quota immigration act.
Thousands Enter Illegally.
This restriction brought about a sit
uation in which the “bootlegging" of
aliens constituted a major problem for
the law-enforcing agencies. Thousands
of aliens were smuggled into the United
States, and the movement attained such
proportions at one time that it threat
ened to defeat the very purposes of the
immigration restriction act. The need
for a border patrol was urgent, and
Congress was not slow in recognizing
that need.
The Department of Labor made a
survey and its officials came to the
conclusion that a force of at least 500
men would be needed as a nucleus.
There was at the time no civil service
register of eligibles for the position of
patrol Inspector, so another problem
was presented, namely, how to recruit
this force.
The Civil Service Commission agreed
that until an examination could be
held the men for the new force could
be drawn from the railway postal clerks
and immigration inspector registers.
Yet difficulties soon arose, for it was
• found, through the large turnover, that
the men on the registers were not qual
ified for the arduous duties of the bor
der patrol.
War Veterans in Service.
Finally the Secretary of Labor suc
ceeded in forming a patrol inspector
register, and eligibles were selected for
a place on this only after a careful ex
amination to determine their fitness.
Many of the men selected were veterans
of the World War or with other military
experience.
The land border, some 8,000 miles in
extent, has been divided into districts,
and an immigration officer of wide ex
perience is in charge of each district.
Under the law immigrant inspectors
alone are authorized to pass upon the
admissibility of aliens, and by having
in each district an immigration inspec
tor as officer in charge quicker disposi
tion of the cases of alleged smugglers
has been possible. Each case can be
handled on the spot.
Though the primary duty of the force
is to prevent the unlawful entry of
aliens, the nature of the work brings
the patrol into contaet with lawless ele
ments along the border, and the offi
cers are called upon from time to time
to enforce other laws.
Inspectors Often in Danger.
The occupation of the patrol inspec
tors has been anythling but peaceful,
for they are up against a lawless ele
ment that has as little compunction in
taking human life as the gunmen of
the big cities. It is not an uncommon
thing for a patrol inspector to be shot
from ambush, and some of the patrol
men have been killed in line of duty.
• The force has never been really ade
quate to the job that faces it, but apart
from this it has suffered from another
handicap. It has lacked, particularly
in the early days, sufficient motor equip
ment and horses to give the force
needed mobility. There have been pa
k trol districts where 10 men have had
to cover a stretch of 300 miles, with
several highways crossing the interna
tional boundary.
In the beginning forces operated only
on the land boundaries of the United
Btates. It soon became evident, how
ever, that to control the situation offi
cers must be stationed in Florida and
in other places along the Gulf and
ocean coasts. Cuba was long a happy
hunting ground of aliens who hoped to
gain a surreptitious entry into the
United States, and most of those who
made the jump from Cuba tried to land
either in Florida or at the Gulf ports.
Patrol Praised in Report.
In his third annual report Harry E.
Hull, commissioner of immigration
Paid high tribute to the work of the
border patrol during the first three
years of its existence.
"The border patrol is a young man’s
organization. It appeals strongly to the
lover of the big outdoors—the primeval
forests, the sun-parched deserts, the
mountains and the plains. The busi
ness upon which it is engaged calls for
manhood, stamina, versatility and re
sourcefulness in the highest degree,”
Mr. Hull said. “Honor first is its watch
word. Privation and danger serve but
as a challenge which none refuses. Un
failing curtesy to all and helpfulness
to the helpless in distress are empha
» sized above every other requisite
“These young men are proud of their
i°,“?~ prou s of their organization—
with a code of ethics unsurpassed by
any similar organization of this or any
other day. In the three short years
. o f existence it has created a price
less store of traditions."
The year just ended has been marked
by great activity on the part of the
border patrol. Miles patrolled aggre
gated 6,801,012, this being covered by
motor, horse, train, boat or foot. The
number of conveyances examined, in
cluding trains and busses, was 791,278,
and in addition more than 380,000
pedestrians were interrogated. Smug
gled aliens captured totaled 29,568 and
477 aliens were turned back. The av
erage strength of the patrol force last
year was 532.
Liquor Smugglers Watched.
, The Customs and Prohibition Bu
reaus both keep a watch along the Ca
nadian and Mexican borders, the one
primarily for infractions of the tariff
law, and the other for attempts to
smuggle contraband liquor into the
United States. Agents of these two
bureaus may be found at the principal
points of entry, with men stationed
here and there between these two
points.
Both agencies report to Secretary
Mellon. Smugglers have carried on
their operations since the founding of
the Republic, and the existence of smug
gling was one reason why the Coast
Guard was established. Contraband
liquor is a comparatively new problem,
, as is the smuggling of aliens into the
country.
All enforcement officers, no matter
what branch of the Federal Govern
ment they belong to, co-operate with
their fellows in other branches, and
♦ often an immigration officer in search
of aliens trying to cross the line will
lay his hands upon a big stock of
liquor. Customs officers are also in
i terested in narcotics, and the border
presents no more difficult problem than
that of frustrating the efforts of the
smuggler of drugs.
The Department of Agriculture if an
*
other agency that maintains a vigilant
watch on our frontiers. Its agents are
on the look-out for plant pests and
diseases and diseased animals. The
Bureau of Plant Quarantine handles
the first phase of the activity and the
Bureau of Animal Husbandry the
second.
The Bureau of Plant Quarantine has
Inspectors stationed at the principal
ports of entry and along the Mexican
border. Its Inspectors examine ships
and passengers’ baggage, if they con
tain plants or plant products under
restriction.
The establishment of foreign air
transportation lines during the last
year has measurably increased the
amount of baggage inspection neces
sary. During the year more than 2,000
airplanes arrived from foreign coun
tries at landing fields at Brownsville,
Miami, San Diego and San Juan, Porto
Rico. Contraband plants and plant
products were intercepted 134 times.
The inspectors also assisted in the
examination of the baggage of passen
gers on the Graf Zeppelin, which ar
rived here in October, 1928. Though
no contraband plants or plant products
were found in the cargo or in the bag
gage, bouquets of flowers used for
decorative purposes in the passengers’
quarters were found to be infected. All
told, seven species of insects were
found and two plant diseases.
Guard Ten Ports of Entry.
The bureau's inspectors are stationed
at ten ports of entry along the Mexican
border. These points all have rail con
nection with Mexico and during the
year a total of 36,941 cars were inspect
ed in Mexican railway yards. About
half of these were fumigated before
they were permitted to enter the Unit**,
States. More than 2,000 were found to
be contaminated.
In addition to inspecting and fumi
gating railway cars, the Inspectors of
the bureau examine baggage and ex
press packages coming from Mexico.
Last year about 61,000 pieces of bag
gage and 4,000 parcel post packages
were examined. Many prohibited plants
and plant products were intercepted,
some of which were found Jo be in
fected with the Mexican fruit work,
pink bollworm or other pests.
Ship inspection supplements the work
on the border. The bureau maintains
inspectors at all of the important ports
of entry. Where necessary, cargoes arc
fumigated. The volume of material
thus treated during the year is large.
For example, cotton fumigated totaled
328,000 bales.
Crops Also Inspected.
Plants imported under special per
mits must likewise be examined. But
the work does not stop here. By rea
son of the impossibility of recognizing
plant disease in certain stages and of
detecting the presence of all insects,
plants imported under special peimit
are inspected again in the field during
two or more growing seasons.
This is done to discover if any pests
escaped attention in the initial exami
nation. Last year more than 40,000,000
plants, distributed in 774 towns in 40
States, were examined in this way. The
bureau's work of inspection covers Porto
Rico as well as Hawaii.
Agents of the bureau Intercepted
more than 500 plant pests last year.
These Included the West Indian fruit
fly, the pink bollworm, the sorrek cut
worm and the bull eelworm. A total
of 19,934 interceptions of prohibited
plants and plant products were made
during the year. The Bureau of Animal
Husbandry carries on its work along
much the same lines. Our animals
always face the danger of disease from
foreign sources.
Animals Closely Examined.
A close Inspection was made of all
animals imported during the year. The
bureau has likewise, as part of its du
ties, examined all live stock intended
for export. This has been done in
order that they may meet the require
ments of foreign countries.
Other Federal agencies are interested
in the watch along our frontiers. The
Public Health Service, for example,
must keep disease out of the country,
and in performing this mission it has
devised a comprehensive and scientific
plan of protection. Its quarantine offi
cers are found at all ports.
The Public Health Service also has
an intelligence service second in effi
ciency to that of no other health or
ganization in the world. Surg. Oen.
Cummlng always has on hand accurate
data on health conditions in all parts
of the world.
In the case of one South American
country some time ago reports from
its government showed no epidemic.
The Public Health Service received
word that a serious epidenmlc was actu
ally then in progress in that country,
though the officials were saying nothing
about it.
Mr. Cummlng warned his inspectors’
who detected the disease among the
passengers and crew of a ship that had
reached the United States from a port
in the infected country. The ship was
fumigated, the passengers and crew
quarantined and the prompt action
probably saved several American cities
from an outbreak of the disease.
The Public Health Service has re
cently extended its operations overseas.
It now examines abroad the applicants
for admission into the United States
under the immigration acts.
Coast Guard Long Active.
The long experience of the Coast
Guard admirably fits that organization
to take over the border patrol, in line
with the recommendations contained
in President Hoover’s mesage to Con
gress. Admiral BUlard and his men
already have on their hands the en
forcement of the customs laws by sea
and especially the prevention of the
smuggling of liquor by sea.
A coast line of 10,000 miles must be
guarded and Admiral Billard readily
admits that the Coast Guard has not
yet succeeded in preventing all liquor
smuggling. With greater forces under
his command he believes that it will
be possible to stop smuggling altogether.
“It is perfectly evident,” he says,
“that the smuggler has no intention of
voluntarily abandoning his unlawful
pursuit. In other words, there is noth
ing to be done but to put him out of
business. This can be done, and the
Coast Guard will do it if the necessary
means to accomplish that end are
placed at its disposal.”
The Coast Guard has today about
400 officers and more than 10,000 en
listed men, besides warrant and other
non-commissioned officers. Its floating
equipment Includes 21 cruising cutters
of the first class and 15 of the second
class, 24 destroyers, aside from several
hundred smaller craft.
Great Lakes Well Guarded.
Officers and men are so trained that
they probably could take over tomorrow
the sea duties of the new patrol. The
Coast Guard has a strong detachment
in the Great Lakes region and this
would fit in well as a link in the patrol
along the Canadian border from Maine
to Washington.
The guard has a small air force,
which could be expanded to take care
of the needs of a future aerial patrol
along the border.
It now operates a coastal communi
cation system consisting of a telephone
system of approximately 2,650 miles,
including about 400 miles of submarine
cables. These lines would afford the
foundation for a comunication system
for a border patrol covering both land
and sea frontiers. h.
THE SUNDAY STAR. WASHINGTON, D. C„ DECEMBER 22. 1929—PART TWO.
t
t jT
One Never Knows in China
Question of Safety, Not Extraterritoriality, Chief Issue Among Foreigners at Present Time
i
The “Water Gate” through the Tartar
City wall, Peiping, under whirh re
lieving troops entered to raise the
Boxer siege in 1900.
BY GIDEON A, LYON.
AS REPORTS from China regard
ing the state of the National
government, seated at Nanking,
indicate that its authority has
lately been seriously weakened,
although the latest, turn of events
strengthens It somewhat, apprehension
is felt that disorders may occur in the
treaty ports and other centers of popu
lation where la) ge numbers of Ameri
cans and other non-Chinese are resid
ing. This apprehension is somewhat
increased by the fact that the Nanking
government has during recent months
been declaring that unless the powers
that have extraterritorial rights on
Chinese soil agree to the abolition of
those rights by treaty by the first of
January, they will be summarily abol
ished by Chinese action on or soon
after that date.
This threat of the Nanking govern
ment is not regarded as a particularly
serious menace, however, for it has not
been believed that China would, in view
of its dangerously divided condition, go
so far as to challenge the governments
that are now holding these rights of ex
traterritoriality—a term which for the
sake of brevity is now generally ex
pressed in China as “extrality”—by
their arbitrary abolition. Indeed, there
is in fact a decided difference of opin
ion among the Chinese themselves re
garding this matter of extraterritorial
ity. Many of the more influential and
especially of the affluent, particularly
those residing and having business In
the "treaty ports,” are at heart advo
cates of the continuation of these rights
for the sake of the greater security they
enjoy under the international court.
Question of Preserving Order.
But it is not immediately a question
of extraterritoriality that concerns the
American and other foreign interests in
the cities of Shanghai, Canton, Hong
kong, Tientsin, Hankow, Peiping and
other centers of population. It Is
whether it will be possible In the event
of the collapse of the Nanking govern
ment, through the defeat or the defec
tion of its troops In the several fields
of military action, to preserve order In
those places.
Quite recently foreigners have been
I The Story the Week Has Told
BY HENRY W. BUNN.
The following is a brief summary
of the most Important news of the
world for the seven days ended Decem
ber 21: * _
GREAT BRITAIN. —On December
20 the Prince of Wales, on behalf of
King George, received the credentials
of M. Sokolnikov, the new Russian Am
bassador to Great Britain. Immediately
thereafter pledges on the subject of
propaganda were exchanged between
M. Sokolnikov and Mr. Henderson, the
British foreign minister.
On December 19 the British govern
ment escaped defeat by the narrow
margin of eight In the vote In the
Commons on the second reading of Its
coal-mining industry bill. According
to my Information, the main features of
the bill are as follows: Reduction of the
working day in the mines from eight
to seven and one-half hours; establish
ment of a national wages board for the
industry; establishment of a compul
sory marketing system for the entire
Industry; gradual acquisition of mining
royalties by the state, and a levy on
all coal toward promotion of coal ex
port. The bill is only the first Install
ment of the government’s program of
legislation for the coal Industry.
Gen. Sir Charles Monro Is dead. He
will be remembered for one great
achievement. Succeeding Gen. Sir lan
Hamilton ih command at Gallipoli in
October, 1915, he found matters as de
scribed in the following passage of his
official report; “The position of the
allied forces presented a military situa
tion unique in history. The forces held
a line possessing every possible military
defect. Complete evacuation was the
only wise course, as an advance could
not be regarded as a reasonable mili
tary operation.”
He acted accordingly and effected
the evacuation and transfer to Salonlkl
with very extraordinary skill.
Borestone Field, near the village of
Bannockburn (two miles from Sterling,
Scotland), is to be made a national
park. In the battle of Bannockburn,
on June 24, 1314, some forty thousand
Scotch under Robert Bruce defeated
about sixty thousand English under
Edward 11, with a loss to the latter of
about eleven thousand—perhaps the
most glorious episode in Scottish his
tory. "Bannock” means "white, shin
ing stream.” The bore stone is the
stone in which Bruce planted his
standard. It is preserved.
** * *
FRANCE. —Emile Loubet, who was
President of France, 1899-1906, Is dead
at 90. Prior to becoming President he
had been premier under President
Carnot and president of the Senate.
During his presidency the Franco-
Britlsh entente was effected and the
Dreyfus affair was ended. He cordially
supported Delcasse’s efforts for the en
tente, and he suggested the machinery
for settlement of the vexed Dreyfus af
fair. He was the son of a peasant pro
prietor. He left an honored name.
Capt. Dleudonne Coste and Paul
Code* of France have established a new
record, flying in Costs’s Briguet bi
plane Interrogation Point, 5,015 miles
without a stop and without refueling,
beating by about two hundred miles
the record established by the Italians
Ferrarln and Del Prete; The flight was
over a triangular course embracing
Marseille, Avignon and Narbonne;
time, about 52% hours, conditions of
the last 18 hours bsing unfavorable.
** * *
ITALY. —On December 16 the Pope
created six new cardinals, three of
them Italians, one an Irishman, one a
Frenchman and one a Portuguese.
These appointments bring the total
membership of the Sacred College up
to 63, Including 30 Italians.
On December 20 the Pope' created a
surprise bf entering territory of the
-K —■■ ■ .. .
1 C
I '
Upper: Characteristic street scene in the native section of Shanghai.
Lower: American Marines keeping in form with gun exercises, Peiping.
moved from the more dangerously ex
posed points in the valley of the Yang
tze River to Shanghai. The other
day several score of Americans and
other nationals were taken from Nan
king, which, in the event of the fall of
the government of Chiang Kai-shek,
would be quite likely to be an arena of
trouble. There has been a considerable
gathering of refugees into Shanghai,
which Is perhaps the best prepared of
the coast cities for the quelling of dis
orders, or at least for the safeguarding
of foreigners within a delimited zone
of foreign influence.
Visitors to Shanghai last Summer
were Impressed with the retention of
measures against disaster that were pro
vided a year or so ago when conflicts
developed between factions of the Chi
nese and the lives of all foreigners were
in danger. There were strongholds, or
pill boxes, as they were styled during
the Great War, at commanding points
on the outskirts of the Foreign Settle
ment and the French Concession—these
two areas being distinct and under sep
arate jurisdictions. There were barbed
wire entanglements, some of them in
the very heart of the city, near the rail
road station, where some sharp fighting
occurred on the former occasion. There
were, on the outskirts, movable street
Kingdom of Italy (the first time a
Pope had done so since 1870), crossing
a part of Rome in order to visit the
Basilica of St. John Lateran, where 50
years before to the day he had been
ordained priest. It is said that his
holiness showed some excitement as he
passed storied sites or reliques of old
familiar to him, such as the Temple
of Vesta, the Circus Maximus, the
Colosseum.
** * *
CHINA.—On December 18 Chang
Kai-Shek, as head of the Nationalist
government, Issued a statement to the
effect that the government considered
the crisis caused by the recent rebellions
and mutinies to be over.
The commission of 17 American ex
perts, headed by Prof. Edward W.
Kemmerer of Princeton, under contract
with the Nanking government to make
a year’s study of economic (especially
fiscal and financial) conditions in
China, report and recommend, has
completed its work. Six members of
the commission have contracted with
the Nanking government to remain in
China as .advisers, especially with a
view to applying the recommendations
of the commission.
It is rumored that the Nanking gov
ernment proposes to confiscate the
properties held by the direct descend
ants of Confucius; Including the Con
fuclan forest in Shantung, the Con
fuclan library and sundry agricultural
and other holdings (about 16,000 acres).
Kung Teh-Cheng, head of the family
(directly descended through 76 ancestors
from the great sage), protests. One
cannot help sympathizing with the
protest.
* * 4c *
JAPAN. —Japanese industry has some
peculiarly Interesting aspects. Having
practically no iron and only coal of In
ferior quality, by Importing great
quantities of iron ore and good coking
coal Japan is building up an iron and
steel Industry which should within a
few years fully supply her own require
ments in respect of pig Iron and steel
and may in time make her a com
petitor In the world’markets in respect
of those commodities. And the same
as to cotton and woolen textiles, flour
and sundry other manufactured goods,
the raw materials of which must mostly
be imported. Whereas formerly Japanese
imports consisted almost entirely of
manufactured goods, they now consist
mostly of raw materials, semi-manufac
tured goods coming second, and manu
factured goods trailing with only 14
per cent. We hear much of Japanese
economic difficulties, but note that,
despite the post-war slump of 1920, the
earthquake of 1923, the financial panic
of 1927, and the anti-Japanese boycotts
in China, production in all the chief
industries in Japan has greatly in
creased since the war, and further In
crease is indicated.
The silk Industry furnishes a curious
contrast to the above. It Is the only
flrst-rate industry In Japan based on
1 raw material produced in Japan. It
in Japanese export, but, curiously
' enough, the export is mostly of raw
1 silk, manufacture of silk textiles lag
■ Bing. It may not be doubted, however,
that such manufacture will in time
• achieve a great development. Silk ex
port has increased by about 450 per
> cent since 1914, and the number of
, employes in the industry Increased six
fold in that period.
Hydro-electric development has made
treat strides in recent years, and
; greater still shall make, Japan being
. greatly favored by nature in this re
-1 t ar a: the handicap imposed by lack of
; Bcxxl coa -l and by meagerness of oil re
sources being thus partially, offset.
w Japan . lß now fairly convinced that
sne must rely on development of lndus
i trlallzatlon for the solution of her des
s pent* population problem. Between
*-
barriers of wire, veritable chevaux de
frise, placed on the sides of the roads
ready to be rolled into place on occa
sion. There were also stout steel gates
at strategic points at the settlement and
concession limits. Indeed, work was
under way in July upon the erection of
additional gates.
Shanghai may be regarded as a type
of the Chinese city in which the ex
traterritoriality problem presents Itself
and In which there is danger of conflict
between the mob and the authorities
and between the organized Chinese
ffirces and the foreign soldiery. It is,
however, not fully typical of many such
places Inasmuch as it is a seaport and
ihe ships of foreign navies can reach
its roadstead and the danger of com
plete surprise and beslegement is negli
gible. There are, moreover, always suf
ficient foreign troops actually at hand
there to keep order save on an occasion
of absolute surprise and a native up
rising in a great mass.
Situation at Shanghai.
There has been a “foreign settle
ment” in Shanghai, an area over which
the Chinese government had no control,
since 1843, when, in accordance with
the terms of the Treaty of Naming,
signed the year preceding, the principle
1873 and 1925 the population increased
from 33,000,000 to 60,000,000 and the
present annual rate of Increase is about
1,000,000. Korea and Manchuria have
absorbed only about 700,000 Japanese
immigrants, the superabundance of
cheap Korean and Chinese labor pre
senting an absolute bar to extensive
Japanese emigration to those countries.
The Japanese merchant marine Is
now the third largest in the World.
** * *
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.—It
will be remembered how. on December 4.
over 400 men of big business assembled
in conference at Washington with the
object of co-operating toward realiza
tion of President Hoover’s program
aimed at stabilization of the country’s
eoonomy. Each of the 32 important
trade groups presented a report cover
ing conditions in Its field; the 32 groups
embracing 250 organizations each of
which had a delegate at the conference.
The conference authorized appointment
of two committees, one an executive
committee of 20 men of the first rank
in the Nation’s economy, the other a
larger advisory committee. Both com
mittees have been appointed by Julius
H. Barnes, chairman of the Chamber
of Commerce of the United States, the
advisory committee numbering 140.
Some are expecting these committees to
acquire a permanent character looking
to co-ordination of the economic activi
ties of the Nation In close liaison with
the Department of Commerce, the ex
ecutive committee confining itself to
shaping and direction of major policies.
“Nothing,” says Mr. Barnes, "of an
emergency character exists in the pres
ent business situation to require undue
haste.”
Some of us were pleased and others
not so much so by the following char
acteristic statement in the President's
message to Congress:
“In a broad sense Federal activity
in respect of constructive social service,
covering education, home building, pro
tection to women and children, employ
ment, public health, recreation and al
lied matters has been confined to re
search and dissemination of Informa
tion and experience, and at most to
temporary subsidies to the States In
order to secure uniform advancement
in practice and methods. Any other
attitude by the Federal Government
would undermine one of the most
precious possessions of the American
people; that is, local and individual re
sponsibility.”
Nevertheless, the President went on
to reveal an astonishing degree of Fed
eral activity within the limits set.
On December 14, the Senate, 63 to
14. passed the bill providing for tax
reductions. On the 16th the President
signed it. It applies only to 1929 taxes.
On December 16, the Senate, 53 to
21, ratified the Mellon-Berenger agree
ment for funding the debt for the
French to our Government, already
ratified by the French Parliament and
by our House, and on the 18th, by
appending his signature thereto, the
Presidents ended an unhappy episode.
A merger is announced of steel inter
ests in the Middle West, by which a
$350,000,000 corporation is created, to
be known as the Republic Steel Cor
poration. It is built around the Re
public Iron & Steel Co. and Includes
the Central Alloy Steel Corporation,
Donner Steel, Inc.; the Bourne-Fuller
Co. and tjie subsidiaries of this group:
it is third In Importance of the steel
enterprises of the country, and it is
hinted that certain accessions are ex
pected to be put in second place, i. e.,
ahead of the Bethlehem Steel Corpora
tion and next to the United States
Steel Corporation.
Our Department of Commerce re
cently published national statistics of
marriage and divorce for the year 1928.
The number of marriages In 1928, per
p
A dirert souvenir of the Boxer siege,
bullet-marked wall of British Lega
tion, Peiping.
of such a zone of refuge and safety was
established. It was not until 1845, how
ever, that the boundaries were laid
down, delimiting an area of about 150
acres, extending from the shore of the
Whangpoo to the west. Those limits
have since been greatly extended. At
first the settlement was occupied chiefly
by British merchants and officials and
their forces. Later other nations de
manded and secured similar rights. In
1882 the French government, which had
not formally ratified the original land
regulations of the settlement, demanded
a separate concession, governed by a
distinct council. That was the begin
ning of the Concession of today.
From the beginning there has been a
considerable Chinese residence within
the settlement and concession, though
at first the inclusion of natives as resi
dents was permitted only as a matter
of necessity. According to a census
taken in 1928 the population of the
settlement then comprised 810,279 Chi
nese, 13,804 Japanese, 5,879 British,
1.942 Americans and 8,322 of other na
tionalities. No figures are available to
indicate the population or classes in the
French Concession.
Get Better Protection.
Today Chinese are most eager to re
side in the settlement or the concession,
for there they have a far higher degree
of protection than in the native city
, areas. An international police force
keeps order as well as is possible, far
better than under a wholly Chinese ad
ministration. The mainstay of the
French police are Annamese troops and
French marines. In the settlement the
black-bearded Sikhs of the British
forces are most conspicuous and most
highly efficient.
Both the Sikhs and the Annamese are
distinctly hostile to the Chinese and
rule by terroristic methods. The former
are exceptionally mild mannered and
gracious when unruffled, but fierce and
efficiently belligerent when aroused.
The sight of the turbaned head of a
Sikh policeman towering above the
"sky-line” of a multitude in a Shanghai
street is always a reassurance to the
foreigner. If a rickshaw coolie starts
an argument with a foreign passenger
over the rate of fare a Sikh—by the
(Continued on Sixth Page.)
I
1 1.000 of population, was 9.35. as against
! 10.12 for 1927; the number of divorces
: in 1928, per 1,000 of population, was
i 1.63, as against 1.62 for 1927.
** * *
THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.—Note
that 34 states, or almost two-thirds
of all the states belonging to the
League of Nations, and Including all
the great powers except Japan, have
accepted or will have accepted if or
when their signatures are ratified the
optional clause of the World Court
statutes involving compulsory Juris
diction of the Court for all justiciable
disputes.
Nine states have acceded, or their
governments have announced the in
; tention of immediately moving for ac
cession, to the League of Nations’
"treaty for conciliation, compulsory
jurisdiction of the World Court and
all—in arbitration, known as the gen
eral act,” framed and adopted by the
1928 Assembly. Those states are Bel
gium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Fin
land, France, Greece, the Irish Free
State, Norway and Sweden.
** * *
NOTES. —Viscount Cecil heads a
committee which is raising a fund to be
used for permanent preservation of the
Fram, which, by reason of its Arctic
, and Antarctic achievements, ranks
among ships as Amundsen and Byrd
among explorers. It was the Fram that
in 1911 carried Amundsen to the Bay
of Whales, whence he proceeded by
dog sled to the South Pole. Amundsen
left the Pram’s pennant flying at the
Pole. The sum required is $20,000; too
much for gallant but poor Norway to
provide.
News Is always welcome of Arabia
proper, most romantic of lands, and of
its sovereign, Inn Saud, Sultan of Nejd
and King of the Hedjaz, most romantic
of potentates. He is said to be having
success against that inveterate rebel,
Felsal el Dawish, but can’t finish him
off because he finds asylum and base
of supply in the territories of the
sheik of Koweit, who is under British
protection. Ibn Saud protests to the
British government.
—"' ■ •
Committee in Deadlock
Over Best Italian Book
It may have been because the lions
and the tigers in the Rome Zoo were
in bad humor that day, or it may be
that no really good novels were written
in Italy in 1928. Anyway, an Italian
“Pulitzer prize committee” finds it
necessary to have another meeting to
•fleet “the most original, audacious,
significant and revealing novel voicing
the new spirit and the new art” fog
the honor of the ”2000” magazine prize.
This review is published by a group of
literary Innovators mostly in their
twenties. The Jury, pursuant to in
structions, held its session in the Rome
Zo ° to front of the cages of the lions
and tigers. The five novels under con
sideration were submitted to the ani
mals, but such a chorus of howls
emanated from the cages that the Jury
was compelled to disband without a
verdict being reached. Inasmuch as
one of the five novels under consider
ation was written by one of the three
proprietors of the magazine, and in
vl ew of the fact that the two partners
of the author are on the Jary, there
“••trong suspicion that the animals
will finally select the novel of the editor.
In that way the prize money would be
ke Pt to the family and considerable
publicity accrue to the publication, for
toe roars of the rejected authors will
Joto those of the savage judges. But
what s the use of literary prizes if not
to stir up talk and dissension?
u •
VETERANS NOW SHARE
IN INSURANCE PROFITS
More Than $28,000,000 Paid by Bureau
in Dividends—About 650,000
Policies in Force.
A 6 the time that has elapaed since
the armistice moves forward to
its twelfth year, the United
States still conducts one of the
biggest Insurance businesses in
the world. Not only la it one of the
largest, but one of the most successful
as well, for the Government has dis
tributed through the Veterans’ Bureau
more than $28,000,000 as dividends to
the ex-service men and women who
have converted their war-time insurance
policies and who now share in the
profits of the enterprise.
Under the farseelng directorship of
Gen. Hines, the Veterans’ Bureau has
given World War veterans as cheap in
surance as they could get anywhere,
and as a result of the successful steward
ship holders of policies may look con
fidently to the future for larger divi
dends.
On October 31 the number of policies
outstanding was 649,417.' The potential
value of these policies was $3,056,137,863.
All told, the Government has received
in premiums a little over $427,174,009.
At the present time the Veterans’ Bu
reau is paying on 163,696 claims, in
cluding those arising from deaths in
the war. Os the claims handled, about
26,000 provided for lump payments.
The others were payable over a period
of years, under the options granted to
those who took out the insurance.
Beginning of Project.
In 1917 and 1918. the United States
called about 5,000j)00 of its citizens to
military service. The call was one that
carried unusual risks. Commercial com
panies would not meet the extra hazard
of war without a large increase in pre
miums. For practical .purposes, the
soldiers and sailors were unlnsurable,
the premiums being beyond the means
of the enlisted men.
So the Federal Government decided
to provide insurance for the service
men. Insurance was issued in amounts
up to SIO,OOO at a few dollars a year
per thousand. The insurance was not
mandatory, but officers did everything
in their power to Induce the men un
der their command to take advantage
of the protection.
The premiums were deducted from
the pay of the officers and men. Regi
ments vied with regiments in the total
insurance taken out and division with
division. Every division had its insur
ance ofllcer, and armed with complete
information about the Government in
surance policies, these officers “sold”
their divisions, just as the agents of a
private Insurance company “sells” his
clients.
U. S. Shares Burden.
Few soldiers and sailors refused to
avail themselves of the protection thus
given so cheaply. The Government
paid all the costs of administration, all
the overhead; and the term Insurance
granted during the war to the Army
and the Navy cost the Government
more than $1,300,000,000 in excess of
the amount it received in premiums.
Then came the armistice, and the
soldiers and sailors returned to civil
life. The Government, however, de
cided to continue its Insurance business
for the benefit of the ex-service men,
and the Veterans’ Bureau worked out
a scientific plan for the conversion of
the war-time Insurance. There was
one difference, however, between its op
erations in peace and its operations ixs
war.
In peace the insurance business was
to be organized in such away that it
would pay for itself, with the exception
that the Government paid the admin
istrative costs. Otherwise, the business
was put on a commercial basis. Pre
miums were to be sufficient to take care
of the expected mortality and reserves
were to be built up to cover claims for
death and disability.
Act Was Amended.
Congress amended the World War
veterans’ act in 1928, extending indefi
nitely the period in which applications
could be filed for Government policies
by those entitled to them. The privi
lege had expired on July 2, 1927, except
for new entrants into the service—that
is, men in the Regular Army and Navy
and cadets at West Point and Annapo
Science Seeks Secret of Super-Race
In Intensive Study of Religious Codes
Science must look to religion for the
secret of a super-race. Human devel
opment depends, in the final analysis,
on a "glorified form of mental hygiene”
amounting in effect to religious disci
pline.
These are the opinions of Dr. John
Munroe of Long Island University, who
has expressed the belief that human
Intelligence is as much affected by en
vironment as by heredity, and who
views religion as one of the most im
portant and necessary environmental
elements.
"Food, sunlight, good homes and fa
vorable economic conditions, plus the
spiritual quality supplied by religion,
make or remold human life,” Dr. Mun
roe has declared in recent addresses.
"Science must realize that religion is
the core of human existence. Religion,
on the other hand, must not separate
the spii-tual from the real, but must
apply spirituality to every-day affairs.
In other words, human development is
within human control."
In making the assertion that the race
can be Improved by manipulation of en
vironmental elements, including religi
ous training. Dr. Munroe explained his
interpretation of the terms heredity
and environment.
"The whole quarrel between heredity
and environment,” he said, "is due to
the variety of interpretations of the
two words. A distinction should be
made between germ plasm inheritance,
which is thousands of years old. and
modifications or conditioning of the
germ plasm in the body of the host.
"Germ plasm really means everlasting
life, while environment includes all out
side Influences on the germ plasm. All
physical inheritance is too often re
garded as germ plasm inheritance. Very
little attempt has been made to point
out the changes that may take place
before birth, and still not be due to the
germ plasm.
"Life is tremendously old in terms of
germ plasm inheritance. No one knows
Just how long it has taken the whale to
I transfer four legs to flippers, or the fish
in Mammoth Cave to lose the powers of
vision. Human nkfure changes still
more slowly. Man is mongrel, general,
variable. There are no pure racial
types. In fact there is no sequence of
racial selection anywhere in the world
today old enough to Justify an aristoc
racy of brains. Germ plasm inherit
ance, in the racial scheme, seems to be
merely a common denominator.
"There are no breaks or sharp lines
of distinction in the stretam of life.
Matter, energy and life are one and the
same thing. Form and behavior cannot
be separated. One does not precede the
other in the development process.
Heredity and environment are inter
related and intermingled. It is not a
case of one being essential to the other,
but of both being the same thing.
"The existence of life or matter is
due to chemical and physical relation
ships. In the lower forms the hydrogen
atom has only one possible relationship
or one tentacle; oxygen has two, higher
metals 350 or more, the albumen of an
egg 3,000 and the family of proto
plasms in animal life thousands each.
It is clear that any modification of the
chemical structure would thus And its
expression in a thousand and one dif
ferent ways. If chemical pre-natal en
vironment is active, as it is, and if the
development process reproduces, as It
lis. In the few months just before the
expiration of the original time limit,
more than 250,000 ex-service men had
filed applications.
Under the law as amended by Con
gress in 1928, the Insurance rights of
the ex-service man are clearly de
fined. He can choose among seven
form* dr policies against death or per
manent total disability. He may take
out a policy for SI,OOO or SIO,OOO, or
for any multiple of SSOO between those
two sums. But to get insurance now,
the ex-service man must supply satis
factory evidence of good health.
He cannot take put a policy larger
than SIO,OOO. If he already has a pol
icy from the Government of $4,000 he
can apply for enough additional in
surance to bring the total to the
SIO,OOO maximum. The final require
ment is that he must have served in
the military or naval forces of the
United States between April 16, 1917,
and July 2, 1921.
Procedure Is Stated.
A standard form is provided by the
Veterans’ Bureau for applications.
Nevertheless any statement in writing
is held sufficient to identify the appli
cant, the amount and the plan of the
insurance, if submitted with a report
of a physical examination and a re
mittance to cover the first month’s
premium. Any regional office of the
Veterans’ Bureau, or any of its hos
pitals, will give the necessary physical
examination without charge.
The Veterans’ Bureau has just put
into effect a decentralization of its ac
tivities. The decentralization has been
completed for policyholders east of the
Mississippi, covering approximately two
thirds of the insurance accounts, and
will be complete west of the Mississippi
by the first of the year. Hereafter a
man may pay his premiums to the
nearest district office, and in the case
of death his beneficiary may file a
claim in that office.
Director Hines believes that this plan
will not only make the administration
of the insurance business easier, but
will prove a boon to the more than
600,000 policyholders. Decentralization
of its activities will enable the bureau
to conduct its Insurance business with
a standard of service comparable to
that of the leading insurance companies
and will bring about a closer contact
with policyholders.
Better Use of Fonda.
Decentralization has a further ad
vantage. Premiums will be collected
through the regional offices, Instead of
the central office of the bureau. And
in this way the funds collected will be
made much more rapidly available for
investment. The interest return on the
Government’s life insurance fund will
be correspondingly Increased.
The policies offered are similar to
those offered by commercial companies.
The forms are 20-payment life, ordi
nary life, 30-payment life, 20-year en
dowment, 30-year endowment, endow
ment at 62 and five-year convertible
term insurance. Without any appro
priations that could be used for this
purpose the ->overnment has never been
able to conduct a selling campaign as
a commercial company would carry It
on.
It has, however, undertaken to give
full information about Government in
surance in a simple form. It publishes
a booklet, "Information Regarding Gov
ernment Life Insurance,” setting forth
all the necessary Information in the
different kinds of insurance and the
premium rates for all ages.
The Government is“ behind every
policy issued, so the insurance is held
to be the safest in the world. The
premiums are the lowest called for by
any insurance of the same kind, one
reason be]§g that the Government has
taken over the entire coat of adminis
tering the system. , .
The premiums charged by private
companies for Insurance of the corre
sponding type cover an amount to
include not only the estimated sums
needed to meet death claims and ma
tured policies, but also an extra amount
to cover the expense of conducting the
business.
( does, through the ages, the - chemical
condition of the body of the host or
parent is one of the most Important
factors in physical inheritance.”
Dr. Munroe illustrated this point by
citing the cretin types produced by in
correct chemical relationship in the
thyroid gland, the one faulty relation
ship expressing itself in a dwarfed stat
ure, a tendency to Idiocy, a strident
voice, low resistance to disease and high
nervous tension. One defect in the
body of the host thus reaches into
many chemical processes and produces
a variety of results. Similar illustra
tions were drawn by Dr. Munroe from
the Mongolian and moron types and
the border-line cases common to any
school system.
"While it is true,” Dr. Munroe said,
that the fundamental conditioning
processes mky be back in the early
stages of development, it also begins to
appear that the finer qualities, the in
dividual traits that distinguish a bor
der-line case from a highly intelligent
human being, the differences of taste,
Judgment and conformity to social laws
may be due to something occurring
later, such as the amount of sunlight,
foods and the prevalence of toxins due
to poor hygienic habits acquired after
birth. It is probably true that the
forms of inattention characteristic of
border-line cases are produced by low
mental energy resulting from low met
abolism caused by exceedingly vicious
malnutrition, and that scattered atten
tion eventually becomes so habitual
that it is almost Impossible to correct,
even after the conditions of malnutri
tion have been removed.
"Fixed prejudices also become so
thoroughly habitual as to resist all at
tempts to break them down. These two
qualities, inattention and prejudice, are
quite common among freshmen, yet any
one in school work knows that when
me malelements surrounding the fresh
men are broken down the response is
astounding Often it is nothing more
* he ?P lr,t i ,al element that is neces
sary to transform a student from a
lower to a higher type.
, “Y* should be cautious about jump
hig at conclusions. We should remem-
PV* tremendous influence of physi
cal inheritance. But it now seems ex
b^broushi t u* t deve lopment can
be brought within human control. This
search ol ?* llß the sis ot the new re
search, the new philosophy and the new
Canadian Wheal Grades
Better Than Last Year
Milling, baking and protein tests made
of this year’s crop of the Canadian
wheat pool indicate that the principal
grades of the 1939 wheat harvest are of
excellent quality. The tests Include a
comparative study by grades of the in
spection standards, the averages of in
spections at the various inspection
Klnts, the average of the terminal un
id samples and the analyses of some
1,300 samples representative of all the
crop districts in Western Canada The
average protein content of the cron,
based upon analyses made to date, is
approximately 1.3 per cent Greater th« n
last year.
■* ' '■■■* **
3

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