Newspaper Page Text
SHARP EDUCATION REFORMS FORESEEN Dr. Clark of Columbia Tells Socialists of Fallacies and Low Pay. There must be a radical reorganisa tion of American education so that persons will be paid according to their brains. Dr. Harold F. Clark of Colum bia University told the American Sociological Society today. American educators, he said, have gone on implicitly crediting a statistical falsehood that education pays, regard less of kind, and that the college trained man generally has a better in come than others. While statistics may spdw this, he insisted, the fact that the average college man has wealthier parents and that much of his income superiority comes from Inherited securi ties or "pull” is constantly overlooked. In some cases, he said, higher education may result actually In a lower income. It could be shown statistically, Dr. Clark pointed out, that nearly all boys who attend expensive private schools or Summer camps have larger Income* in after life than boys who do not, be cause boys who must make their own way in the world seldom go to such places. Training to Be Necessary. It will be necessary eventually, he said, to train only such men as are actually needed in various lines of work, based upon exact statistics of needs. In this way there will be no more overcrowding of fields, and equal abil ity will command the same pay in every line, because there will be equal de mand for it. With this, he predicted, will come complete free public education, even in the higher professional grades for the protection of the public, because if any line of work commands from the pub lic an especially high price it is to the public interest to level it down by put ting more men in the field. The schools today, he said, are badly overcrowding certain occupations and neglecting others, partly because they have no information on actual needs. The new type of education, he said, "may abolish unemployment and pov erty." fallacy Painted Oat. That alternating sharp waves of de pression and inflation are inherent in the structure of industry is a fallacy, said Dr. Carl Snyder of the Federal Re serve Bank of New York, speaking be fore the same group. Throughout Amer ican history, he said, statistical curves show a steady, almost uninterrupted, in dustrial growth, with occasional alight variations above and below the line. This has been the ease, he pointed out, even in periods of great business depres sion. This proves, he said, that the cause of these depressions can be traced entirely te credit fluctuations, which In the future can be controlled by a more enlightened system of banking. College trained women have practi cally as large families as their leas edu cated sisters, said Wlllystine Goodsell of Columbia University, as the result of a statistical study. The comparison of two approximately equal groupe shows, she said, that while the sise of the families of college women is very slightly less, the birth rate actually la larger, based upon yean of married life. The flugures show, she said,. a marked tendency to a controlled birth rate in both groups and that college training has very little to do with It. Financing of medical care is becom ing an increasingly difficult problem in family economy, said Niles Carpen ter of the University of Buffalo, de manding a more effective economic organisation of medical care. The poorer thd family, he eald, the more illness, while the family physician Is disappearing and sleknesa demands more and more expenditures for the specialist and the hospital. The Sociological Society this morning elected officers for the coming year. The following were chosen: Prof. Howard Odum. University of North Carolina, president; X. H. Sutherland, University of Minnesota, first vice presi dent; Prof. Dwight Sanderson, second vice president; Prof. X. W. Burgess, University of Chicago, re-elected secre tary-treasurer. Two members, Mrs. W. F. Dummer and F. Stewart Chapin, were elected to the executive committee. Capital Oreaping Plan. A future Washington made up of a grouping of community "cells” is now contemplated, Charles W. Elliott of the National Capital Park and Planning Commission told the sociologists yester day. Each cell will consist of a nucleus of from 15 to 20 acres, with athletic fields, playgrounds, swimming pools and com munity buildings serving a radius of about three-fourths of a mile, with aux iliary nuclei of from two to five acres probably about the elementary schools. The central social nucleus, he said, is nearest represented by the New Eng land common, In the center of each village. Each "cell” on the map will have somewhat the appearance of a spider. The commission is now determining the natural location of these nuclei, around which the cells will normally group themselves. There will be ap proximately 25 of them within the pres ent city limits. It will be impossible to follow the territorial groupings of citi zens' associations and present commu nity centers, whose territories have been marked off without much regard for sociological laws. Boundaries of Cells. The commission, he said, now is try ing to determine the natural boundaries of the cells, which, as in the case of biological cells, will be Irregular In shape. The city "community,” he point ed out. is normally delimited by certain physical features, such as railroad yards, cemeteries, groups of institutional build ings and main arteries with street car lines. Under the original checkerboard plan of Washington every street was of equal importance, but this theory must be cast aside in favor of the cel lular development, with certain streets set aside as traffic arteries and others for quiet residential development. In the past, he said, it has been as sumed that the main artery, with its street cars and stores, is itself the com munity center, but observation of the social behavior of the people shows that exactly the opposite is true. The nor mal “cell” lines never cross such a street. One of the cell centers such as is pro posed for the whole city, he said. Is approximately represented in Ecklngton with the grouping of the new McKinley High School, a junior high and an ele mentary school and sufficient land for the other community activities. Enough land has been purchased for another in the Takoma-Manor Park area. Once the cell structure is established, the growth of the city will consist simply of adding cells. Associations on Increase. The citizens' associations of Washing ton are increasing in number, and mem bership much faster, thah the popula tion of the city, Dr. D. W. Willard, pro fessor of sociology at George Washing ton University, pointed out. The in crease in numbers, he said, has been by a “budding process," which sometimes has not taken into consideration normal community areas. The proper territorial unit of the citizen association, he said, “is a nice problem for social research. There may be some optimum area in which one can develop most successfully.” The growth In excess of the growth of population, ~ he said, is especially significant be cause of the simultaneous Increase of apartment house dwellers, who nor mally take very little Interest in neigh borhood problems. Tbe Council of fopfcl +miHjm ■% JUROR TESTIFYING IN SHELBY TRIAL jPP \ 41 S ' / |l| Ji Above: Samuel P. Agnew, former grsnd juror, testifying at the trial. He surprised the board this morning when he decided to give his evidence after previous refusals. Below, left to right: B. M. Davidson and Joseph H. Batt, also members of the grand jury, who refused to testify. —Star Staff Photo. facing greatly Increased burdens since the establishment of the Community Chest and a scientific system in social welfare work here, Willard C. Smith told the sociologists. It now has numerous research projects underway, Including studies of the local institu tional Intake of children, Juvenile delinquency, the individuality of the child, districting of the city for collec tion of social statistics, survey of Sum mer camps, and maternal and Infant mortality. Its work, he said, already has resulted in the establishment of a mental clinic, and provisions for the aid of released prisoners. The Junior High BChool has been selected as the normal local for the community center in Washington, Miss Sibyl Baker, head of the community center department of the public schools, said. It has been found impossible to follow the citizen association areas or those population districts accepted by the census, she sajd. The experience of Washington shows that the community center idea is not dead, declared Dr. Arthur Evans Wood of the University of Michigan, al though It apparently Is fading out in other parts of the country. He at tributed this to the fact that Washing ton has a stabilized resident population. Lack of the ballot may be a signifi cant factor in the social life of Wash ington, said J. H. Montgomery of the Co-operative Education Association of Virginia. The citizens' associations and the community centers, he said, may be forms the people have adopted for expressing themselves under pressure. Where people have the ballot, even if they do pot use it, they lack incentive for such community organization. The cellular unit plan contemplated for Washington also is proposed for the further development of Virginia coun ties, said B. L Hummel of the Vir ginia Agricultural and Mechanical Col lege. One of the great problems, he said, is to avoid the duplication of function by various organizations, such as has developed in Washington. "The Nation as a whole,” he said, "is overrun with overhead organiza tions which have no basis in the lives of the people.” COCHRAN PROPOSES TO MODIFY DRY LAW Missouri Representative Wants Amendment Permitting Manu facture of Wines and Beer. : By the Associated Press. Modification of the prohibition law to permit the manufacture of light wines and beer as a farm relief step was pro | posed today by Representative Cochran, ' Democrat, Missouri. , In the latest statement centering about prohibition, the Missourian said he would advocate "a dignified effort”, by the wet bloc of Congress to show the ; "necessity” for modification. "Modification of the Volstead law so , as to permit thfe manufacture of beer and light wines, not Intoxicating in ; fact.” ne said, "would mean nearlv a billion dollars in taxes to the Govern ' ment, money now going into the pockets of the bootlegger. 1 “The farmers would again have a market for their cereals and there would be no surplus.” he continued. “The fanners’ bankrupt condition dates back to the time prohibition was forced ! upon the people of the country.” Cochran again urged the bonding of all prohibition officers, as proposed in bills he has introduced, for the purpose of satisfying Judgments obtained by ; persons injured by "the unlawful or ' careless use of firearms or suffering damages by reason of unlawful raids upon their private property.” I LIQUOR ROW* FAILS TO DISTURB HOOVER (Continued From First Page.) for modification of the Volstead act, ’ but he skirted lightly the row now go ’ ing on, and there was general silence , on the emphatic statement yesterday . by Rear Admiral Billard, commandant . of the Coast Guard, that the Coast , Guard "means business” in its war on i liquor smuggling. 1 Billard made this assertion after he had heard that three rum runners had ) been killed and another wounded after ) an encounter with a Coast Ouard boat r off Newport, R. I. i • Three Die in Wreck. COLUMBUS, Ohio, December 30 (JP). t —Ous Stefanus, Andrew Karlos and • Photios Kynlazias, all of Columbus, were • instantly killed today when their auto mobile was struck by a Pennsylvania b railroad train near here, ... THE* EVENING STAR, WASHINGTON, D. C„ MONDAY, DECEMBER 30, 1929. si. I i 1 JUROR SURPRISES BOARD, TESTIFYING AT POLICE HEARING (Continued From First Page.) to testify. The witness replied in the affirmative. Prosecutor Lynch then proceeded to question Agnew about Inspector Shel by's appearance before the July grand Jury and the witness confirmed sub stantially the testimony of two other members of the grand jury that the police officer had suggested that for mer Policeman Allen and Mrs. Heavrin should be indicted for perjury. Later, Lynch asked the witness if Alien had testified that he had seen a man come out of the rear window of the Park Lane Apartment *on the morning of the day that-the garroted body of Mrs. McPherson was found and he said that Allen had. Examination Brief. The direct examination of Agnew by the prosecution was unusually brief and he was turned over to the defense. Henry I. Quinn, counsel for Inspector Shelby, took up the examination by questioning Agnew regarding Allen’s testimony before the grand jury. He then asked the witness about certain conflicting statements Mrs. Hearrln had made in her two appearances before the grand jury. Agnew found it difficult to give posi tive answers to all of the questions, ex plaining that certain details were not clear in his mind. He did reveal, how ever, that when Inspector Bhelby made the statement that Allen and Mrs. Heavrin should be indicted, he was be ing questioned by the grand Jury at a time when it was trying to establish the truth or falsity of Allen’s claim that he saw a man come out of a rear win dow of the Park Lane. He said his belief was that Shelby and Kelly were trying to give the grand Jury the impression that a man could not be seen leaving the window of the McPher son apartment from the point described by Allen. Lynch asked the witness If he had voted for the report condemning the conduct of the police officials, and was promptly met with objections from Quinn, O’Shea and Harry Whalen, the latter representing Agnew. After some discussion the board decided to let the witness answer the question if he want ed to do so. Agnew declined. Voted for Suicide Verdict. The assistant corporation counsel then asked him if he had voted for a suicide verdict. "I don't mind answer ing that question,” Agnew replied. "I did.” As the witness started to leave he an nounced that he wanted to make a statement. "I want this board to understand,” he said, "that my previous refusal to testify was based on my understanding, gained in the South, that a grand Juror could not be compelled to violate his oath not to reveal the proceedings in the grand Jury room.” Chairman Atkins advised him that the Supreme Court had ruled contrariwise. When Davidson was called he refused flatly to testify or be sworn. Atkins informed him he would report his re fusal to the Police Court for "such further action as the court sees fit to take.” As counsel and members of the board were trying to fix a time to proceed with the case in Police Court, Attorney O'Shea announced that he and Quinn were willing to waive their cross-exam ination of Merritt O. Chance, who re fused to testify further several days ago after he had finished his direct testimony, and commence their de fense if the prosecution would end Its case without putting any more wit nesses on the stand. O’Shea pointed out that any testimony Chance, Batt or Davidson might give would be en tirely accumulative. Favored Proposal. Prosecutor Lynch indicated that he personally was in favor of accepting the proposal, but said he would have to take the matter up with his office first. Quinn then offered to put defense character witnesses on the stand this afternoon if Lynch would aecept the offer and end his case. Asked how many character witnesses would be called, he said, "about 30 for each defendant.” At this point Chairman Atkins an nounced an adjournment until 2 o'clock this aftemon provided "Mr. Lynch ob tains the approval of his office to end his case and so notifies defense counsel by 11:45 o’clock.” Tunei on Mew Paris Ties. "Tuneful” neckties are the latest craze for young men of Paris. One bar of the wearer’s favorite tune is embroidered across the front, on those for cocktail parties the decorations are poker dice. Motorists’ ties bear the nameplate el their oar, _ DRY TALK IS SEEN BASED ON POUTICS 1930 Elections, Involving Many in Congress, Held Background of Agitation. BY MARK SULLIVAN. Hie agitation about prohibition, like everything else in or near Congress from now on, must be read in the light of one fact about the year that begins next Wednesday. Nineteen-thirty is a political year. It is a major political year in tffe sense that 34 Senate seats and the 435 seats in the House will be filled in the general election next No vember. This la the same as saying that 34 Senators and 435 Representa tives come up for re-election, except ing a very tiny number who will not attempt to return. The public thinks of these elections as coming in November, which, in fact, they do. The public, therefore, fails to realize how much the politics of the situation counts in actions that are being taken today, nine months in ad vance of the election. To the individual Senators and Representatives the fac tors that will return them or defeat them are imminent today. For one thing, the return or defeat of many of them, especially in the Bouth, is really determined, not in the November election, but in the party pri maries that come much earlier. Some of the primaries come as early as April. Even earlier than that, it is right now that potential rivals at home are mak ing up their minds whether the incum bent is strong or weak with his constit uents. For that matter, it is right now that constituents are making up their mass minds whether they like or do not like the course of their Senators and Representatives. Strongest Appeal. With this fact in mind, the outburst of discussion about prohibition can be understood. In many States and con gressional districts, the strongest ap peal a Senator or Congressman can make is to be conspicuously dry, even spectacularly dry. To a slighter extent, and in a smaller number of districts, the same thing applies to wets. It is the drys, however, who have pre cipitated the present excitement. With some dry Senators and Repre sentatives from the South, there is a special situation and a special need of being conspicuously dry. Nearly all these dry Democratic Senators, in the presidential election last year, remained regular and voted for Smith in spite of his wetness. By that act, some of such Senators and Representatives incurred some disapproval or suspicion among the more extreme drys in their con stituencies. A means by which such a Senator or Representative could offset such dis approval now would be to bring about in Congress some opportunity to make a particularly dry speech, or to vote for a particularly drastic dry law. Fact Proves Itself. To say that this general motive ex ists is merely to state a fact that proves itself. To say the motive exists as to any one individual would be, of course, guesswork. It happens to be a fact that the Southern Democratic Senators who initiated the present agi tation are all candidates for re-elec tion in primaries now approaching. It should be added as equally a fact that they are conscientious, thorough going prohibitionists. Their present at titudes are completely consistent with their convictions and their course dur ing many years. . The interesting question concerns not any one Individual or small group, but rather the drys in Congress as a whole. The question is whether this motive on the part of the drys exists to such an extent as will lead to an attempt at some exceptionally drastic dry action during the next few months. Support for the political theory here suggested is to be found in the attitude of the non-political dry leaders. By "non-political dry leaders" is meant those who are not In Congress, the leaders of the Anti-Saloon League and similar organizations. These leaders have not participated in the recent agi tation. As a group, they are satisfied , with the present course of prohibition, they have confidence in President i Hoover’s commission, and they are con . tent to await its report. Extremely Drastic. Within Congress, however, some, , though not all, of the prohibition leaders are clearly disposed to bring prohibition to the front. Some of the suggestions made are extremely drastic. One is the measure which would make the buyer of liquor equally guilty with the seller and make every patron of a bootlegger subject to punishment. That is the most extreme dry measure ever i proposed. During a period of 70 years rt, State prohibition laws have been force in all or part of nearly every State in the Union. Never before, how ever, has it been proposed that the buyer of liquor sold under illegal condi tions should be made subject to crimi nal prosecution. Another form that extreme dry ac tion might take would be an immense Increase in the appropriation for pro hibition enforcement. If any drastic dry action is pushed forward with ! energy, it would probably pass Con gress. To vote for it would be made to seem a test of orthodox faithful ness to the dry cause. The number of Representatives and Senators who would feel obliged to vote dry on a test roll call is probably three-fourths of , each chamber. (Ooprrisht, ins.) ; WHITE HOUSE DANCE ENDS ALLAN HOOVER HOLIDAY PROGRAM (•Continued From First Page.T the younger set has reigned supreme in the big white-pillared mansion. Even with John Coolldge home on vacations, the Coolidges made no attempt to en tertain young people after the death of their younger son, Calvin. John Cool idge, moreover, did not care as much for social gaiety as does Allan Hoover. He preferred outdoor pastimes. During the Taft administration there were many gay parties for the daughter, Helen. The Roosevelt children, too, often entertained their young friends at the White House. The Wilson girls occa sionally gave parties, though the war cast a shadow over the social program the last few years they were there. , The party tonight will practically be \ Allan’s “debut" in Washington. Though > pronounced by his associates to be "a regular fellow" and a "jolly, likeable \ kid,” Allan has been here but little since | his parents entered the White House. . Last Summer he spent much of the time r at the President’s Rapidan camp in i Virginia, but only the members of amall i groups Invited to the mountain resort had a chance to make his acquaintance. . Society was at a standstill and most of : the younger set were out of town. Allan Resembles Mother. I Friends of the family say that Allan resembles his mother in his liking for people, in hospitality and in his love of adventure. He gets a good deal of amusement out of the seriousness with t which the general public regards the i President and his family. When a story i was printed about the President losing s a pet dog, a dozen or more persons Im r mediately sent dogs to the White House, i Allan jokingly referred to It M the "dog shower,* - __ SOFT WORD NO USE. DILLARD DECLARES “Coast Guard Means Busi ness, 1 ” His Answer on Latest Rum Killings. B j the Associated Press. A blunt statement that the Coast Guard "means business" and cannot stop liquor smuggling with "soft words and amiable gestures" was added today to the turbulent controversy on prohi bition enforcement which has enlivened the holidays for official Washington. This assertion was made by Rear Ad miral Frederick C. Billard, the Coast Guard commandant, upon being in formed that three men had met death at the hands of his service while at tempting to run liquor into Narragan sett Bay. "The Coast Guard," Billard said last night, "has the job of stopping liquor smuggling at sea. It is not a job that can be handled with soft words and amiable gestures. The Coast Guard is used to carrying out any duty given to it to do with vigor and determination. "Means Business," He Says. ‘ "It means business about this matter and acts strictly within the law. If a liquor smuggler elects to defy the com mand of a Coast Guard craft to stop, he runs a serious risk of getting hurt through a course of action that the law has specifically authorized for a hun dred years.” In some quarters Billard's statement was interpreted as an answer to the de mands of the last week for more rigid enforcement, in line with the Justice Department's renewal of an order that no prohibition cases are to be nolle proesed without the department’s con sent. Reverberations were expected from the most recent statement of Senator Borah, Republican, Idaho, a scathing arraignment of enforcement personnel. Meanwhile those identified with the controversy looked forward to the pub lication of a report by the Hoover Law Enforcement Commission making rec ommendations for bettering enforce ment conditions. The episode off Naragansett Bay took place early yesterday morning. In a heavy fog the Coast Guard patrol boat, commanded by Boatswain A. C. Cor nell, came upon the speedboat C-5677 of Newport and, a command to stop passing unheeded, opened fire. The boat was overtaken soon afterward, and in addition to the three that were killed a wounded man was discovered on board, together with 500 cases of alleged liquor. Admiral Billard in his statement did not comment on the capture of the British ship Flor del Mar off Montauk Point. The capture of this ship brought to three the number of British vessels that have been taken by the Coast Guard within recent months. The Betty and Billy and the Billy R., alleged British ships, were seized off the South Atlantic Coast and the Brit ish government ealled for a report upon their capture. No further action was taken, however. Two Canadian Ships Seised. In addition, two Canadian vessels, the Shawnee and the I’m Alone, were fired upon by the Coast Guard and brought an exchange of notes between this country and Canada. After an examination of the Shawnee case the United States sent a note to Canada expressing its regrets over the incident. In the I’m Alone case the ship was sunk, and a board of arbitration was set up to settle the differences between the two countries. News of the killing of the three yes terday followed closely the shooting ol •!•*»• -•».* Downey, Jr., of ' Buffalo," N. Y., by Coast Guardsman on Lake Erie on Christmas day. The Downey killing now is being in vestigated by the United States attorney at Buffalo, and Seymour Lowman, As sistant Secretary of the Treasury, has given assurance that that department would help to bring out the facts. Lowman defended the action of the Coast Guard in the Buffalo killing, say ing that they fired after the craft upon which Downey was a passenger had dis regarded signals to stop. FIVE MEN ARE SLAIN, r: FOUR SHOT IN DRY RAIDS OF WEEK END (Continued From First Page.) seeking an unidentified man who yes terday evening shot and killed two offi cers who were leading three men from a still which they had captured. The victims were Deputy Sheriff Ber nard Puryear and Police Officer M. E. Tuck of Clarksville. Both received gunshot wounds In the face and died in a hospital at Oxford, where they were taken, during the night. The two slain officers, with J. T. Chaney and C. O. Mullen, two other officers, had raided the still where four men were at work. One of the men es caped by running, but the three others were arrested and had been led a mile and a half from the still when fire was opened twice behind some bushes and the officers fell. Chaney and Mullen returned the fire in the direction whence the two shots came and then hastened the officers to the hospital and the three prisoner to jail. The still was a small one. RAIDERS SHOOT EACH OTHER. Two Injured When Officers Exchange Shots Through Mistake. COLUMBUS, Kans., December 39 UP). —Two liquor raiders were in a hospital today suffering from bullet wounds re ceived in a gun fight between two squads of Kansas officers who mistook each other for bootleggers. The two raiding parties exchanged shots at an abandoned coal mine 5 miles north of here, where they had gone to raid a still last night. The operators of the still were not captured. Constable John Crawford was shot in the right lung. He was accompanied on the raid by another constable. The other raiding party was made up of a Federal prohibition agent and two deputy sheriffs. Deputy Sheriff Ora Folk was shot in the arm and a bullet grased his scalp. U. S. ATTORNEY MARKS TIME. Will Await Further Reports Before Taking Action in Deaths. PROVIDENCE, R. 1.. December 30 (A*).—United States Attorney Henry M. Boss, Jr., declared here today that with the facts at hand he saw no reason for presenting to a Federal grand Jury the slaying of three rum runners and the wounding of a fourth by the crew of the C. G. 390, which fired on the Black Duck early yesterday morning in Lower Narragansett Bay. The Federal prosecutor conferred with Assistant Attorney General Sigmund W. Fischer, Jr., this morning, and both agreed to mark time until further re ports were made. POLICE STATION ROBBED. Two Pistols and Bohd Money Taken by Decatur, Ala., Thieves. DECATUR, Ala.. December 30 (/P).—~ Robbers of Decatur, not content with store looting, have gone the limit, Last night they robbed the police station. Policemen disclosed the robbery today, but didn’t have much to say about the particulars. Two pistols and money posted ■» bond* by several defendants were taken. , . WHERE FLYERS ARE BEING SOUGHT ■a* . .'l”* N o pi. T H AJ, t * • - - - ISO* ITQ» ICO* IftO* Where search is being conducted for Lieut. Carl Ben Eielson and Earl Bor land, Alaska airmen, lost between Teller and North Cape since November 9. >' —Associated Press Photo. FOREIGN COURT BAN BY CHINESE HELD “JUST A GESTURE’’ (Continued From First Page.) partment officials, on the -subject of relinquishment of the extraterritorial rights to continue. Department officials are not greatly disturbed by the prospects of the , decree’s becoming effective on January X and the activities of American courts in China, operating under the extrater ritorial rights, will continue. When the Chinese system of Juris prudence has reached a stage of prog ress compatible with modem concepts of law, then the abolishment of these courts will be begun, but until that time the United States is prepared to take stringent measures for their maintenance. In adopting this attitude the Wash ington Government is following its es tablished policy on extraterritorial rights in China, the fundamental prin ciples of which were outlined to the Nanking government in a note dis patched by Secretary Stimson on Au gust 10 last. 11,900 Americans Involved. In this he said even gradual relin . quishment could not take place until i the Chinese legal code has progressed . to a point satisfactory to the United States. To these extraterritorial courts 11,- 000 American citizens in China look for legal protection and the settlement of virtually all of their legal disputes of both a civil and criminal nature. In general, tha procedure is such that American defendants are tried in the American courts and Chinese defend ants in the native courts. The result is that American citlaens In China, to all intents and purposes, are governed by the laws of their own country. This system was established in a treaty signed in 1844 and expanded in another negotiated in 1880. Minor : cases are heard by courts over which ' an American consular officer presides ' and major cases by the United States Court at Shanghai, which also acts as an apellate body fdr the consular courts. • The court at Shanghai was established ' there by Congress. 1,380,999 Foreigners Affected. , 7 2 1 . e actual number of foreigners now , in China who would be affected by an , abolition of extraterritorial rights has , been estimated here at roughly 1,350,- . 000. A large part of this number is made up of Japanese who have crossed , the Korean-Manchurlan border into , China. The Japanese government is l considered by officials always to be able to put forward the claim that these peo ple. estimated as high as 1,000.000, have the status of Japanese citlaens with extraterritorial privileges. MOVE SEEN AS GESTURE. Britain Believes Court Abolition Will I Bo Slow Process. LONDON. December 30 (A*).— British official circles consider the Chinese ac tion in announcing the abolition of . extraterritoriality, beginning next year, as more of a gesture to keep to line i with Chinese opinion than anything else. The view was expressed that actual abolition will have to be carried out 1 « was indicated in the British note i to China last August, which will be a slow and gradual process. Upon inquiry at Downing Street the Associated Press was informed that to ■ spite of the mandate recently issued to ■ Nanking declaring the abolition of ex . traterritoriality, the Chinese government i has not yet denounced the extraterrl ■ torial clauses of its treaty with the Brit t Jah government, nor has its made any [ further communications to the British , government on this subject. It was stated that the British gov -1 ernment had made clear to Its August i note that Great Britain accepted the . principle of abolition and that a grad ual process of removal of the extrater ritorial privileges of British subjects to China should be considered as beginning from January 1, 1930. The British for , elgn office, it was stated, was unwilling to believe that the Chinese government was not prepared to enter into negotia tions with this end to view. ACTION CAUSES MISGIVING. Courts in Treaty Ports Expected to Be Continued. SHANGHAI, December 30 (JP).—For eign quarters here were discussing with considerable misgiving last night the actual significance of the Nationalist government’s extraterritoriality decrees moving to abolish such privileges to China after January 1. The concensus here was that the de cree will result in abolition of extrater ritoriality to all parts of China except those treaty ports which actually can be protected by foreign battleships. This latter group includes ports on the China coast and along the Yangtze River, where port facilities are sufficient > to allow entry of ocean-going vessels. Several treaty porta where water is too shallow to :«:commodate deep-draft ves sels are expected to experience a dis inct passing of extraterritorial privi leges. This would include Hankow, Chekiang Province, as well as the en tire interior of the country, which ad mittedly Is not subject to protection by foreign patrols. Drastic Action Held Improbable. Official circles believe extraterritorial ity as provided by treaties will be main tained only where a foreign force can be brought to bear. Under this inter pretation, foreign-controlled areas, such as the internationally important Shang hai international settlement, where American interests are considerable, will not be involved, as this area can be protected by American ships. Students of Chinese affairs do not believe the Nationalist government con templated drastic measures in connec tion with the extraterritoriality pro gram as regards easily protected foreign concessions and settlements. This group pointed out that the Nationalist stat# council to a decree abolishing extrater ritoriality ordered executive and Judicial yuans to prepare plana for execution of this mandate "as soon as possible." In these quoted words wort seen in dications that the Nationalist govern ment Is only seeking to open negotia* tiona with the powers concerned at the earliest possible date, and not threaten ing drastic measures. This interpreta tion was also considered to conform sat isfactorily with the American viewpoint as expressed In the Btate Department's note to China. Parley May Be Suggested. As a result of these anticipated po sitions on the part of the powers con cerned, the next development in the situation is expected to be a Nationalist government communication to the pow ers proposing to open negotiations for abolition of extraterritoriality. This proposal Is expected to meet with a friendly reception and result In the desired parleys, from which is expected to emerge a permanent plan for gradual abolition of privilege, rather than precipitate abrogation, as was widely feared when the first Nationalist decree on the subject appeared. The Nationalist government foreign office yesterday Indicated it was plan ning to issue a statement "concerning the subject” next Friday, January 3. This, it Is expected, possibly will be the text of the Nationalist government’s communication to the respective pow ers proposing immediate opening of the desired negotiations. However, possible strained relations between China’s Nationalist govern ment and those foreign powers enjoy ing extraterritorial privileges was seen as a distant possibility should the Na tionalist government resort to a uni lateral abrogation of those provisions In the duly recognised treaties. Although Shanghai representatives of the foreign powers concerned were reticent to specifically state what ac tion their respective governments would likely take In the event the Nationalist government undertakes such a move, these foreign officials unanimously ex pressed the belief that the powers would not hesitate to protect theif rights and privileges of their nationals in China as established by the treaties. Unofficial Washington dispatches In dicated the American State Department would take this position. Other for eign offices concerned have not indi cated their attitudes on this occasion, but it Is generally believed they view the situation similarly to Washington. ISLAND HIT BY STORM. PORT LOUIS, Island of Mauritius, December 30 C4 5 ).—A terrific thunder storm struck the island of Mauritius to day, and one of the heaviest rainfalls ever seen here Inundated Port Louis and seriously damaged plantations. The Star’s New RADIO DIRECTORY is ready for YOU! □ THE STAR has just compiled from the latest Federal Radio Commission records a list of all , of the radio stations in America, v' »■... Canada and Cuba. - • • - ?.Sf ' tits<r - B r * ■ To you who have just purchased Radios this is a timely announce ment. Get one of THE STAR RADIO DIRECTORIES and log your stations. Q Get your copy from any of THE STAR Agencies in your neigh borhood or at the business I counter of v 1 Wit fHaf The Greet Newspaper of the Nation’s Capital POPULATION GAIN SHOWN BY SURVEY 14,299,000 Increase in Last Ten Years Is Reported by Research Bureau. By the Associated Press. NEW YORK. December 30.—The pop ulation of continental United States in creased 14.399,000 in the 10 years ended July 1. 1928. to 119.306.000. the National Bureau of Economic Research announc ed yesterday. These figures were released In advance from a copyrighted statement issued by the bureau and are embodied In a 500- page report. ‘‘The National Income and its Purchasing Powers,” to be published In the next few days. Constant Increase Reported. About 61 per cent of the population— -72,726,000 persons—were supported bv the remaining 46.580.000, or 39 per cent, the bureau found. This proportion, the report said, is not affected appreciably by the number of persons whose in comes are derived from rentals, divi dends and Interest on Investments, son the percentage of such persons is small. Figures for the last 20 years, begin ning in 1909, showed a constant In crease In the country’s population fromi year to year, although during the World War the rate fell off considerably. This was ascribed by the bureau principally to the temporary halt in Immigration caused by war conditions. Reduced Death Rate Seen. The report also noted an apparent increase in the percentage of the pop ulation over 15 years of age. which It considered due to a reduced death rate among children. Also it stated that a slight decrease In the proportion of per sons 15 years of age or older who arg gainfully employed “is doubtless due to the fact that • • • a larger propor tion attend school now.” POPULATIONCOUNT OF 122,000,000 SEEN BY CENSUS OFFICIAL! (Continued From First Page.) ulatlon In the 1920 census, will per petuate themselves with regard to pop ulation, or whether their population must be continually added to by ac cretions from the country, la one on which the bureau expects to obtain some definite information in the 1930 count, Mr. Truesdell said. Discussing the new questions to be asked in the census, Mr. Truesdell said a true cross section of the economic status of each person In the country will be available questions added to the schedule. In formation touching on home ownership and home value, earned income, owner ship of radio sets and other data which never has been sought, will be asked. William M. Steuart, director of the census, said such satisfactory progress has been made in choosing superiors for the nearly 600 census district that already 560 odd supervlsers have been named. He said it will be the duty of each census supervisor to make an an nouncement as to the population In his district, ai>d the announcement will not come from headquarters In Wash ington. Tells of Reserve System. The Federal Reserve system Is nearing the time when It must look to Its own reserve, Benjamin M. Anderson, Jr„ of the Chase National Bank of New York, told a meeting of the American Eco nomic Association. “It Is unfortunate,” he said, "that we have had a cheap money policy for the past seven years. The Ideal situa tion Is a rediscount rate above the market, but in recent months the mar ket rose so fast the rediscount rate could not keep pace with the market rise. A rediscount rate above the mar ket would have been very helpful In holding down customers’ loans. This meeting was given over to a discussion of the problems of the Fed eral Reserve Board.