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THE EVENING STAR With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. THURSDAY June 12, 1930 THEODORE W. NOYES Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Company Business Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office 110 East 42nd St. Chlcapo Office: Lake Michtxan Building. European Office 14 Regent St., London. England. Rate hy Carrier Within the City. The Evening Star 45c per month The Evening and Sunday Star ■when 4 Sundays) 00c per month The Evening and Sunday Star (when 5 Sundays) 65e per month The Sunday Star 5c per copy Collection made at the end of each month. Orders nay he sent In by mail or telephone NAtional 5000. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. gaily and Sunday 1 yr., Iio.oo; 1 mo.. 85c ailv only 1 vr , *6 00: Imo . 50c Sunday only 1 vi . *4.00, 1 mo.. 40c All Other States and Canada. Daily and Sunday . 1 yr., $1TOO; 1 mo,. SI.OO Dally only 1 yr.. *8.00: 1 mo,. 75c Sunday only 1 yr., 55.00: 1 mo., 50c Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republlcaiton of *.ll news eis patcnes credited to It or not otherwise cred ited tn this paper and also the local news published herein All rights of nuhlicafion of special dispatches herein are also teserved. Use of Business High. The ‘‘principle of the thing” and not thi merits of the suggestion itself is what riles the Board of Education in connection with the future use of the Business High School. The spirit of the board's protest is understood and wins B’-mpathetic response in Washington. It is significant, no matter what comes of it. When Congress was considering the 1930 estimates last year thefHouse com mittee told the school officials that they could have the money to begin work on the proposed Roosevelt High School, at Thirteenth and Upshur streets, which eventually will replace Business, pro vided they continued use of the vacated Business school building as a colored elementary school. The appropriation bill itself carried a legislative provision to that effect, although it did not specify the use of the building for a colored school, and the board protested against It at the time. Business High School is about as un fit for an elementary school as any building cou’.d be. It is built to the side walk on an island bordered by that through traffic stream, Rhode Island avenue; Ninth street, which carries a busy car line; Eighth street and R street. It has no playground and no recreation space. The lack of such facilities, as well as the dangerous flow bf traffic on all sides, adds to the disadvantages. When a bill was introduced a few days ago broadening the permissible uses of the building to Include that of a junior high school, a senior high school or a combination of the two, the Com missioners innocently reported that the Board of Education was in favor of such liberalization. That struck fire at the Board of Education. It was stated most emphatically that the beard had never expressed anything but opposition in the matter and the board wanted it under stood distinctly that such policies as the us? of buildings should be left to the board, and that Congress had no busi ness Interfering. Mr. Gilligan was ap pointed to represent the board at hear ings on the bill and to protest its pas sage on that ground, but, failing there, to s:ek congressional sanction to use of the building as an Americanization school, provided that the board de cided to use it as such. As matters now stand the Beard of Education is opposed to Congress telling! it what to do with old buildings, but if •Congress feels compelled to issue such directions, the board desires permission to choose between using the structure as an elementary school, as a junior high school, a senior high school, a combina tion school or an Americanization school. Congress might have taken a short cut In the first place and enacted a law stating that the building must be con tinued as a school, but could not be used as a race track, a car barn or a stating rink. Swimming is a popular accomplish . ment. The Coast Guard may be able to meet the extra demands for super vising rum-runners as life-saving be comes less arduous. Chicago gangsters kill a reporter. Old-time journalism led to duels, but the fighting was opened up with due notice and carried the assumption of being fair and square. As a horticultural expert, Gifford Pinchot might define Senator Grundy ms possibly a political annual, but not a hardy perennial. Big Cities. Census reports are coming from time to time to give cheer and concern to city boomers. A day or so ago the final count for Detroit was announced, 1,564,397, giving it fourth place in rank of cities as against fifth place for Los Angeles. The motion picture center has been pressing forward rapidly in recent years and its growth is probably at the greatest rate of any municipality. But it has not been capable of catching the motor car center, though the latter has slowed up somewhat in its rate of Increase. Yesterday Chicago’s total was pro claimed, 3.373.672, a gain of 672,648 in the decade, the increase being at the rate of 84 7 per cent. This news was announced at a luncheon meeting of the Association of Commerce, where it caused a great outburst of enthusiasm. It was flashed to all parts of the city, where school children and business men were gathered to learn the final total. Whistles were blown, flags were hoisted to mastheads, school children sang songs of jubilation and sidewalk groups gave ringing cheers at the glad tidings. Meanwhile the police were scouring the city for gunmen and gangsters in the latest ‘‘clean-up,” occasioned by the murder of a reporter, and the popula tion was being depleted by a hurried exodus of underworldlings to safer pre cincts. Nine of them, it may be men tioned in passing, were arrested in New York and in Trenton, N. J., on theii way to swell for a time the dwindling population of Manhattan. New York will probably send them back to Chi cago despite the anxiety felt in the big Eastern center on the score of its shrinking population. New York City—that Is, Greater New York —is not diminishing, but Manhat tan borough is undoubtedly slipping Yesterday the final count in the bor ough census was completed showing a drop of 18 per cent there since th< last Federal enumeration, actual depletion being 427,515 persons since 1920. But Greater New York itself Is expected to top the list of American cities with something like 6,600,000, as } against 5,620,048 ten years ago, a gain . of about 980,000. r T ■ The Zoning Changes. Significant of the growing pressure created by shifting tides in city develop ment were th» twenty-one applications placed before the Zoning Commission and decided after lengthy hearings last i week for changes from residential to , commercial use. Os the twenty-one np , plications the commission granted eight r and turned down thirteen. Generally t speaking, the commission thus holds to a previously stated policy of refusing to make these changes on the ground that area now zon r d as first or second com : 1 mercial is already more than necessary : to care for the demand. There w'ere, however, two notable exceptions. J These were illustrative of the sources : of pressure brought to bear on the com mission. One case represented the plea i of property owners whose residences ; have lost former value as homes be | caus? of traffic and other new develop . ments. The other represented the plea of property owners, developers of com mercial prop'rty, whose Investment, to be successful, demands more area for ' expansion. The commission decided ’ both cases in favor of the property 1 owners, though modifying its decision ; to appease to some extent the opposition ' : of others who felt that they would be ' i adversely affected by the changes. The first case involved an about ’! face by the commission that is difficult | to understand, the causes of which are left to conjecture, inasmuch as the commission does not explain its views. Twice previously the commission has 1 turned down applications for rezoning ' from residential to first commercial 1 the triangle bounded by Connecticut avenue, the park and Calvert street. The application assumed extraordinary prominence because Senator Smoot, who once owned a house In this tri -1 angle, was one of the proponents of the change and last year personally ap peared to urge it, without avail. This year, however the commission granted the change. It also changed, as the petition urged, the zoning of another triangle diagonally across the street, bordered by Calvert street, Connecticut avenue and Twenty-fourth street, but refused to change, as the property own ers requested, the zoning of a row of houses on the east side of Connecticut avenue from Calvert street to Woodley road. Owners of the property involved in the two triangles got what they want ed, although owners of nearby prop erty protested. The result is that the Zoning Commission has approved a group of stores at the Connecticut ave nue bridgehead, and also on one side of the approach to the Calvert Street Bridge, which structure eventually will be remodeled and made beautiful. Fur ther, the Zoning Commission has per mitted stores to back up on Rock Creek Park, which is not desirable. In the other triangle commercial development will be permitted, although across the street on the other side of Connecticut avenue only residences will be per mitted. In the case of the “Smoot triangle”— if the Senator does not object to the identification —the new buildings will have to conform tq plans approved by the Fine Arts Commission, as this area now comes under the provisions of the Shipstead law. A part of the other triangle, across the street and facing the park, will likewise be brought under the provisions of this law, but the re mainder will not. For the first time, under the new Shipstead law, the Zoning Commission thus “passes the buck” to the Fine Arts Commission. The latter body will doubt less exercise great care to see that the stores to border Rock Creek Park and mark the entrance to two fine bridges of the future are housed attractively. They can be, and their prominence at this point demands that they must. It is also to be trusted that the Zoning Commission, in overriding the recom mendation of the advisory committee of citizens who opposed the zoning change, was impelled to make the change by a real necessity for this commercial de velopment. The other important case decided re lated to the change from residential to ' second commercial of land lying between ! the Gallaudet College campus, the Pat terson Park tract, and the new Union Terminal Market development around Fifth street and Florida avenue. The market developers sought to have the zoning changed because they needed more room. The change was opposed by citizens, who feared the bad effect of a market on the approaches to the park, and by the officials of the college, : who contended that such development ) should hot be adjacent to the campus. ! j The Zoning Commission's decision took ,! the form of a compromise. No changes : j will be allowed until streets through the > l area have been dedicated, and part of : the area sought as second commercial 1 i was retained as residential or first com r mercial. Sixth street, to be opened, will ■ . thus form a buffer between the market! I and the park, with land on the east side j r of Sixth street zoned residential between f the campus and the market. The street! will be ninety feet, Including sidewalks, j - In this connection the sidewalk might [ i: well be confined to the east side of the j i street, the western side of the street be- j s ing left without curbing or walk to fa- j f cilitate loading and unloading of mar- | t ket vehicles. This would cut down the J . interference to pedestrian traffic on , Sixth street, one of the points mentioned l \ in opposition to the change. i' Soviet Russia has undertaken to solve ? many old problems all at once. Older ] s governments find one problem at a time as much as they can handle. e The Big Fight, e Tonight In Yankee Stadium at New - York American and German fists will' 1 fly, while two husky sons, respectively, l -of the Republic and the Reich battle for } - ; the heavyweight championship of the i v world. The contest will be notable in j r one unparalleled particular—never be g | fore has a German been a contender for k j the coveted crown which Gene Tunney - , put away a year or two ago. Jack Shar g key, talkative Boston sailor, yclept by s another name in real life, for he is of I Lithuanian origin, will face Max n j Schmeling, first of the Teuton tribe to - ; win laurels in the prize ring. j : Naturally, American sympathies will •- j be with the gob, though Sharkey has g alienated a good many compatriots who te would otherwise be his partisans, be ll cause of his loquacity and braggadocio. THE EVENING STAR. WASHINGTON. D. C., THURSDAY. JUNE 12. 1930. especially on the eve of a fight, and also because he has nlver rated as real heavyweight "class.” In his contest with Dempsey, after the Manassa Mauler had lost the title to Tunney, Sharkey re vealed anything but championship quality. Schmeling vaulted to high rank in what Grantland Rice calls the cauli flower Industry by whipping decisively two American pugilists who were them selves aspirants for heavyweight su premacy. The German lacks the ring experience of Sharkey, but he has youth in h s favor and the priceless incentive of all the glory and fortune that go with the world championship if he can propel Sharkey to the mat and keep him there while the referee counts ten. The betting odds favor the American, but the challenger swings a deadly and an ambitious right, and it may well be that the land which builds the fastest ocean liners and the best airships will before th s day is ended hav» some thing else to be proud of in the form of the Black Uhlan of Hamburg. Welcome, Senor Prestes! Herbert Hoover seems to have set a happy precedent when he toured South America in the capacity of President elect in 1928-29. During the past year no fewer than three Presidents-elect of Latin American republics have visited the United States. This week Wash ington is honored by the presence of Dr. Julio Prestes de Albuquerque, who is about to assume the presidency of Brazil. The two giant commonwealths of the Americas have much in common. Bra zil’s economic prosperity, through the exportation of her great coffee crop, is dependent to a vast degree on its sale in the United States. The Brazilians on their part are heavy and valued customers of this country. Above and beyond the mutual value of our eco nomic relations, we see eye to eye with each other in the realm of all those things which make for Pan-American unity and friendship. Dr. Prestes will take the helm at Rio de Janeiro as the chosen leader of the Conservative party, to hold office until 1934. A brilliant lawyer, an ex perienced legislator, an enlightened statesman, his administration is certain to be marked by a continuance of those close ties which have always united the Republic of the Amazons with the Colossus of the North. Washington has not forgotten the gloriously enthusi astic reception which Brazil’s incom parably beautiful capital extended to President Hoover a year and a half ago. There will be no lack of effort upon the part of the Federal Government and Washingtonians to greet President elect Prestes in the same fervent spirit, though it is not easy for the people of any- country to equal the tempera mental fervor which Brazilians exhibit when they set out to honor the stranger within their gate. The primaries provide a means of giv ing early notice to statesmen that they are to enjoy the privilege of retiring from public service in order to enjoy greater emoluments in private employ ment. Astonishing advance is shown for Los Angeles by the census. The movies have given this handsome city the ben efit of the best press-agent talent in the world. • New York has sent no messages to North Carolina. A1 Smith is content with a silence, implying that he is too much of m gentleman to say "I told you so.” Women in politics do not hesitate to tell an old-time political boss what they think of him. The feminine privilege of the last word is eternal. — 1 8 SHOOTING STARS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Sartorial Effect. A uniform I dearly love, Like others of mankind. I hold at first and all above .The costume so refined. The base ball player bids me stand In admiration mute. As he appears with manners grand In his athletic suit. The tennis player lightly springs Into the public gaze. : The golfer also brightly brings A picture to amaze. The swimmer shows a classic curve. The aviator bold Has armor which suggests the nerve Displayed by knights of old. « I have a nature primitive. To athletes I declare Sometimes the greatest thrill they give Is in the clothes they wear. Bubtle Move. ■ “You think your opponents have made a subtle move to embarrass your cam ! paign speakers.” “Yes,” answered Senator Sorghum, j “The latest report is that they have 1 started on an anti-noise association.” i - 1 Jud Tunkins says whenever a stranger 1 grabs your hand and insists on shaking ‘ it, you don’t need any formal lntroduc j tlon to let you know he’s a candidate ■ for office. Metallic Illusions. The clouds have silver linings. Imagination's tricks May leave us to repinings, The same do some gold bricks. Lofty Assumptions. “What are you going to do with your boy Josh?” "I’m going to make an aviator of him,” answered Farmer Corntossel. "Can he qualify?” “I think so. He has been so busy I thinkin’ he’s far and away above the , rest of us, I’m goln’ to see to it he gets ! a chance to make good.” “He who permits himself to be dis courteous,” said Hi Ho, the sage of Chinatown, “admits at the outset that he has a bad argument.” Renewed Juvenility. ! The dial phone has pleasant ways. The dalliance I regret to stop. It brings me back to boyhood days When it seemed fun to spin a top. “You can’t believe more dan half of what you hears,” said Uncle Eben; “an’ it’s jes’ yoh hard luck if you happen to pick out da wrong half.” 1/ : I THIS AND THAT | i * BY CHARLES E. TRAC EWELL. i I In one of those felicitous sentences of the kind which no man ever wrote • better Charles Dickens said in his "Pickwick Papers": “There was a bower at the further end, with honeysuckle, jessamine and: creeping plants—one of those sweet re ' treats which humane men erect for the , accommodation of spiders." One might almost think that Nature had designed the entire out of doors for ’ the insects from the way they proceed to take possession of it. Gardens are full of flies, gnats, ants, spiders, plant lice, rosebugs, mosquitoes. The woods are filled with them. Some species are in the very streets. Once we saw a large bug cross F street at the busiest time of day, and although, it took him longer to do it he \ managed the passage as well as most of us do. ** * * So far this Spring—or whatever one! calls it—the biggest garden pest is thej gnat. We are not sure “gnat” is the proper title. It Is a good little word, however, and ■ every one understands it. i The reference is to those small pests . which buzz in front of the home gar dener's eyes every time he decides to cut the grass, water the lawn, or do some other necessary outdoor chorf. In ordinary seasons these creatures come early and go early, especially dur ing warm weather, but this Spring—if it may be called such —they came very [ early and are staying very late. Even the cold days of several weeks ago—the same which gave so many people colds when they sought to econ : omize by sternly refusing to build up the furnace fire again—saw no diminu tion in the number of activities of these 1 miniature insect pests, i Just whftt the fascination of the hu , man eye is for these tiny creatures we have never been able to determine. ! All we know, along with the rest of I humanity, is that a gnat would much rather fly into a human eve than into any other place in the world. Pprhaps it is the glitter, or the color. 1 or some other matter. Just what it is i need make little difference, for the fact remains the same in any case. The gnat pines for admittance to the human eyeball. With a whole wide world to choose from, he comes directly to an eye and proceeds to insert himself between the lids as dexterously as possible. His wings take the place, of hands, of course. With them he hopes to gain admittance before the victim can shut him out. He might select a hole in a tree, but he prefers a near-hole in a human face. . One must wink fast to outwit him. j** * * As for the spiders of which Dickens speaks, we must confess an unholy in terest in them. Although we shrink from the ap proach of their numerous legs, we are fascinated by their clever adaptability! in a monstrous, roaring world. How did the spider learn to swing those long strands into the air and build himself a bridge from nowhere to nowhere else, a bridge of sighs, in deed, for unwary flies and other small things? Spider specialists can answer that question no more than the veriest gar den amateur. They will tell you that .each variety works according to its own individual pattern, some using 28 strands for a web, others 30, and so on, Highlights on the Wide World Excerpts From Newspapers of Other Lands. i : EL TELEGRAFO, Guayaquil.—The tests In which Death flaps his wings, in which shine splendor, valor and temerity, are the char acteristic glory of the Latin countries. In many of the South American I countries they still celebrate the spec- I tacles in the bullrings, an institution derived from the time of the Spanish Conqulstadores. These carnivals of sunlight and blood have remained with these nations as an inheritance from their fiery ancestors, from whom they have received a nature passionate and vehement, now tempered in some de gree with the fatalism and melancholy of the aborignes. These mingled emotions have re sulted in the abolition of bullfighting in some Spanish-American countries, and in its clouding in some others. Peru and Venezuela are some of the few countries retaining the battle of the Arena in all its historic tradi tion. In Mexico a prejudice is arising against it. In Cuba they no longer have the bullring, but they have an other diversion equally full of color and excitement —the sport of cockfighting. Cockfighting is a brilliant and inspir iting pageant, replete with life, color and emotion. Some say that it is as cruel and barbarous as bullfighting, but it has less of savagery, in our opinion, than a contest where a man is pitted against a beast, as in the Plaza, or man is pitted against man, as in the "squared circle.” The pugilistic en counter, that so-called “virile” sport, is in reality the most horrible of all. „** * * Mails Receive Special Attention in Siberia. North China Standard, Peiping.—Dis covery by the Shanghai post office that mails from Europe via Siberia are tam pered with en route, three instances having come to notice, is not calculated to put confidence into the fast route between Asia and the Occident. In the last incident, alert officials found the registered mail had received “spe cial attention” en route. Notification has already been sent to the postmaster general at London, but what the Chinese post office hopes to accomplish in that quarter is not clear, except, perhaps, that the evidence can be tightened against the Russian route. Weight of opinion is that the trouble lies within Russia. Postal authorities everywhere should exercise a thorough check on bags which pass through Russia, with a view to securing absolute certainty as to responsibility for in fractions of international procedure. The public in China wants to feel ; secure in its postal relations with Rus sia. That fast route is the one every body wants to use, if he can do so with absolute confidence. So anything that can be accomplished by the Moscow Commissar of Postal Affairs will be ap preciated at both ends of the Trans- Siberian Railway. ** * * Denounces Us of Initials in Newspaper*. Manchester Guardian.—The London correspondent of the Journal des De bates is much excited about the growing use, particularly in newspapers, of initials in place of words. He de nounces the practice as “alphabetical t orgies.” What seems to him its climax is the employment in an English news paper of “B. I. S.” to indicate the “Bank ol International Settlement.” The r English, he declares, are much the , worst offenders in these maddening ' abbreviations, which they began long 5 ago by turning “cabriolet" into “cab" and "omnibus” into “bus.” What, he asks derisively, are we to think of a . nation with whom “P. C.” may mean , either “Privy Councillor” or “police [ constable," and with whom only the t use of capitals distinguishes “P. M.” for “Prime Minister” from "p. m.” for “post meridian”? But the French critic has to admit that his countrymen are fast following the example set by us and that many people in France fail to identify “S. D. N.” for “Soclete des Nations” (League of Nations). And in some cases we are using short, simple words where the French are employing similar multiple f initials. Our "wireless" against their . “T. 8. F.” is an example. And then again there is the “A. B. C,” of Madrid, 3 which, as the designation of an impor tant illustrated journal, has long been and that the creature which specializes in one number never infringes on the patents of another. There is one thing which may be said for the garden spiders. If you let | them alone, they will let you alone. They do not belong to the varieties which go sprawling suddenly across a floor as if intent on crawling up your trouser leg. An ordinarily well behaved outdoor spider, no matter how ferocious his ap pearance, may be depended upon to stick closely to his web.. ** * * There is one variety, about as big as a silver quarter, which becomes furious when a human being touches him in his i web. Then he will dart his yellow self ; backward and forward in rage, as if I seeking, as no doubt he is. to intimidate j the inquisitive fingers which pry into ! his affairs. Next to the spider, the mysterious ant ! is the most interesting garden insect. I Some may even give him the prefer i ence. The ant has got himself a repu tation second to none for being a busy body. He- is forever at it. When the biblical writers wanted to shame some lazy young fellow they told him to go to the ant, thou sluggard, and be wise. Modern research she vs that the ant by no means desert"’ his reputation, since his instincts are not the result of his own innate reasoning. The credit must go to the mysterious Power be hind him. Most gardeners regard the ant as one of their most undesirable visitors. It helps place the plant lice, or aphids, upon his flowers and upon their roots, and does no good at all to lawns. Be sides, it is a constant menace to the i house if lured thereto through care lessly left foodstuffs. Ants are very fond of bread and butter, and will come for miles to get at a piece left by | Junior on the back porch. * * 4) * Flies of recent years have become outdoor insects, as the good propaganda against them has borne results. Today many a fly looks wistfully, through screen doors at a table tempt ingly set for man’s repast. His great - grandfather, one million generations removed, was free to fly at will over similar collations. Poets in those days wrote odes to the fly, and invited him to sip, too, at the same cup with them. The fly of today is banished by the simple expedient of 16-mesh wire, cop per or otherwise. Occasionally one gets in, to meet his doom at the swish of a swatter. Among the strictly garden insects, so called, are the hosts of “bugs" which chew, suck and otherwise devour the leaves, roots and petals of flowers and vegetables. Scientific men have created a host of insecticides and poisons with which to combat them where found. ** * * i The mosquitoes (as witness the pend ing appropriation of $60,000 to combat ! them in the District of Columbia) is still very much alive. About the only good thing one can say for this pest is that he gives warn ing of his approach, at least sometimes. That buzz of his (or hers, we believe, strictly speaking) is unlike any other noise in tfre world. The automobile horn is merely an Imitation of the mosquito s warning cry of “Here I come! Watch out!’-’ i an alphabetical mystery and enigma to all mankind. “A. N. Z. A. C.” “I. W. W.” “S. O. S.” and “T. N. T.” are by no means as in comprehensible. “R. F. C.” of course means "Royal Flying Corps,” but we cannot blame the Frenchman if he finds i “M. S. C- P.”—used a few days ago in a morning paper—a little vague. Being interpreted, this is “Mean Spherical Candle Power.” ** * * German Language Falls Off in U. S. Schools. Cologne Gazette. —The optimists in this country that are rejoicing over the resumption of a place in the sun by the German language in America are in spiring rejoicing that rests upon veVy frail foundations. From a report re cently issued relative to the study of modern and ancient languages by the junior and senior high schools of New York City, it appears that very few pupils are studying German in high school compared with times prior to the World War. Indeed, of the languages studied German occupies a very poor fourth place, even the dead language, Latin, being vei*y greatly preferred. French is the favorite exotic tongue, and the professors making the report state that the rank and file of the stu dents take to that speech like the aver age American woman does to a Paris gown. The appeal seems equally Irresistible. Before the war German stood first in preference when one wished to study a foreign language. Now in New York 79,972 high school pupils are studying French. 35,295 are studying Spanish (important because of the United States’ growing commerce with South America!. 33,131 are studying Latin, but only 10,707 are studying German. If one considers carefully the relative figures given above, German is not likely soon to regain the popularity in America it had before the war, and although people in Amerloa read German novels with increasing avidity, it is always in English trans lations. ** * * France Would Bar Mourning Veil. Le Matin, Paris. —The heavy crepe mburning veil, worn in France for gen erations, is in danger. It is no longer proper to wear the insignia of grief any more than it is proper to advertise our religion or our politics. Emotions be long in the heart, not in our external garments. There is sorrow enough in the world without reminding people of it by the somber vestments of death. Census Figures Awake Annexation * Question From the Green Bay Press-Gazette. As the census figures come in, and city after city is disappointed in its total, the question of annexation be comes a live one. Cities and towns have not yielded to the modern tend ency to consolidation as much as have business institutions. Communities which have visibly grown together, and which may be functioning practically As one for economic purposes, still maintain their separate political organ izations and identities. Big communities which have spawned populous suburbs often find themselves closed in by a relentless ring. The suburbanites, when away from home, unhesitatingly give the parent city as their residence, because it is well known and they are proud to be associated with it. Yet at home they stubbornly stand aside with their separate set of officials, even though it creates awk wardness and confusion in adjusting public utility services, fire protection, taxes, educational systems, traffic reg ulations, etc. Census year, with its emphasis on population, tends to change this atti tude. Citizens of parent cities and daughter cities alike come to feel the injustice of the census totals and wrong impression given by them. They realize more clearly that communities which are one economically and socially should be one politically. So there is a strong movement for municipal mergers, either through annexation of the smaller units to the larger or through borough systems which, uniting the whole group of municipalities in a sort of federal plan, leave the outlying unite self-governments ip local matters. I The Political Mill By G. Gould Lincoln. National interest is focused on the New Jersey senatorial primary, which takes place Tuesday. And chiefly this interest lies in the struggle between wet and drv forces for supremacy. Am bassador Dwight W. Morrow, since his opening campaign speech declaring against national prohibition and for the control of the liquor traffic by the States, has become the great ‘‘wet hope.” He has given the Republican wets the country over a thrill. They see in him a possible national leader. The Republican wets have been in the minority, not only nationally, but. gen erally speaking, in the Individual States. Jersey, as a matter of fact, is one of the few, very few, States which have elected Republican wets to the Senate in recent years. ** * * But just when the stage seemed all set for a struggle for the Republican senatorial nomination between two wets, as they have been dubbed—Mr. Morrow and former Senator Joseph S. Freling huysen, at one time a dry—Representa tive Franklin Fort leaped into the fray as a “drv." The fat was in the fire, and all South Jersey, where Republicans are principally dry. was ablaze. And now the race is said to be between Mr. Mor row and Mr. Fort, with the wet strength split because of the candidacy of Mr. Frelinghuysen. In Jersey the sentiment is predominantly wet. It has been proved at tht polls many times, despite the fact that President Hoover, run ning as a supporter of the eighteenth amendment, defeated A1 Smith, the wet Democratic candidate for President, two years ago. A lot of things besides the wet question were involved in that elec tion. One of them was the fact that the country was running - along on an even keel, with the people generally prosperous. The cry was. “Don’t upset the apple cart!” No Democrat could have carried Jersey under such cir cumstances. •** * * The question which is to be settled next Tuesday is whether there are enough drys among the Republicans in Jersey to put across Mr. Fort, despite the wetness of Mr. Morrow and of Mr. • Frelinghuysen and the national reputa tion of Mr. Morrow. Incidentally. Mr Morrow’s reputation is more national than State-wide. There are plenty of voters in New Jersey who are much more familiar with a mug of beer than .with Mr. Morrow's record as an Am bassador to Mexico. „ Mr. Morrow has the organization back of him. The organization was bent on defeating the senatorial aspi rations of Mr. Frelinghuysen and settled on Morrow to turn the trick. It is the dry Mr. Fort who has threatened to upset the organization’s calculations. It is a fact, however, before Mr. Morrow got into the race at the request of the organization the leaders w-ere very much afraid that Mr. Frelinghuysen could not be defeated. The former Senator had ' been working for more than a year to build up an organization of his own. Reports were to the effect he was en tirely liberal in meeting campaign ex , penditures. + * If Mr. Morrow wins, the wet cause will receive a big boost. It will be widely heralded as a victory over the drys. On the other hand, if Mr. Morrow loses, the Ambassador will go into a political eclipse and the wets will suffer the hu miliation of having a foremost potential leader of their cause defeated in a State which is supposed to be wet and which has had wet Republican Senators in the recent past. So both sides are working tremendously hard. Mr. Fort has sought to bring the Hoover administration into the picture. He claims that Mr. Mor row and Mr. Frelinghuysen have de serted the President in his stand for the eighteenth amendment.. He insists they have drawn away from the Re publican national platform of 1928. which pledged the G. O. P. to uphold and to enforce the eighteenth amend ment. ** * * The wet Republicans in New York and elsewhere have caused the drys some uneasiness by threatening to put up wet independent Republican candi tdates for Congress in districts and States where Republican drys have held office. If the wet Republicans follow such a course they will simply be mak ing the drys take a little of their own medicine. The drys appeared to be lieve that the wet Republicans would remain loyal to party even if the can didates nominated continued to be bone dry. But the dry Republicans them selves did not play the game that way. For example, in New York in 1926 they put up a dry independent Republican to take a fall out of the wet Senator Wadsworth. They polled 300,000 votes for their dry candidate and brought about the election of a wet Democrat in his place. Now the wet Republicans are suggesting that they might force a few wet Democrats into Congress by placing wet Republican candidates in the field to split the Republican vote. These wets are becoming almost as clever at the game of politics as the drys have been in the past. The Democrats should worry, particularly the wet ones. ** * * The drys are claiming that despite all the noise about wet sentiment they have had no reverses at the polls so far this year. They point to Mrs. McCormick's victory in the Illinois senatorial primary. But Mrs. McCormick was running against a dry, with a drier record than her own. The wet and dry test in Illinois is to come in November when Mrs. Mc- Cormick meets the wet Democratic Senator J. “Ham” Lewis. They, the drys. are pointing with pride to the Tact that Gifford Pinchot won the guber natorial nomination in Pennsylvania and that he is an ardent dry. On the other hand, the wet vote in Pennsylvania was split between Phillips, an out-and-out wet, and the moist Mr. Brown. Had Mr. Brown in the beginning declared himself a real wet, he might have beaten Pinchot hands down, but he straddled. Furthermore, out in the State of Wash ington, the State Republican convention went wet and adopted a wet platform. That means something, probably a good deal more than the nomination of Pin chot in a three-cornered race in Penn sylvania. And now the Republican wets are proposing to support the Democratic nominee for Governor in Pennsylvania because he is a wet. ** * * Senator William J. Harris of Georgia is to have opposition in the Democratic primary for the senatorial nomination after all. Former Gov. John M. Slaton has announced his candidacy for the nomination, although it was expected for a tune he would not do so. This means a bitter fight, although Senator Harris’ friends insist he will win re nomination. Slaton doubtless will have the support of former Gov. Hardwick, whom Senator Harris defeated for the Senate years ago. Indeed, Hardwick has declared as much and Senator Harris has charged that it was Hardwick finally w ho persuaded Slaton to enter the race. Former Gov. Slaton has announced he will oppose the entrance of the United States into the World Court and the League of Nations. He has accused Senator Harris of supporting both. He has attacked Senator Harris also for his vote against the confirmation of ihe nomination of Judge John J. Parker of North Carolina for the Supreme Court. He has sought to raise the race issue in this last attack on Senator Harris, claiming that the National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People, which strongly opposed the con firmation of Judge Parker because he had made campaign speechs* declaring the Negro should not take pwt in poli tics, is claiming the rejection of the Parker nomination as a victory. ** * * Already there is talk of the coming mayoralty fight in Chicago, to be staged next year. Judge Joseph Sabath, brother of Representative Adolph J. Sabath, is mentioned as a possible can didate. Judge Sabath has presided over the Superior Divorce Court in Chi cago for nine years; he ft popular and has been a great vote getter. Inciden tally he has granted 35,000 divorces dur ing his service as judge. It has been suggested he would have at least 70,000 votes cast for him under these circum stances. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS , BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN. Few Americans realize how much i their Government does for them Readers of The Star can draw on all Government activities through our free information service. The world's great est libraries, laboratories and experi mental stations are at their command. Ask any question of fact and it will be answered, free, by mail direct to you. Inclose 2-cent stamp for reply postage and address The Evening Star Informa tion Bureau, Frederic J. Haskin, di rector, Washington, D. C. Q. Does a person going to Oberam mergau to the Passion Play have to get a German visa on his passport?— J. P. A. A visa is necessary, but there is no charge for it. Q. How many working people are there in the United States? —P. O. R. A. There are approximately 30,000,- 000 wage earners in this country. Q. On a tailspin does the nose or the tail of the airplane come down first?— p a A. The nose comes down first. The heavy nose spins around in a small circle and the tail follows around in a larger circle. % Q. Are lotteries legal in Canada? — A. Lotteries are prohibited in Canada. Q. Please give the origin and cere mony of ivy planting at Princeton. — W. V. Q. A. The first class ivy at Princeton was planted by the class of 1877 on its class dav at its graduation in June, 1877, and the ceremony was accom panied by an oration, called then and since the ivy oration. The orator in 1877 stated that ivy had been chosen as a symbol of the perpetual remem brance the class would have of Prince ton, striking deep, clinging close, and always green. The class of 1877 turned out to be one of the most remarkable classes in after years that Princeton has graduated. The first ivy was planted at the new library. Since then it has been planted at Nassau Hall with a tablet naming the class. Some of the ivy has been historic, being brought spe cifically for the planting, one spray having been sent from the castle in Germany of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, after whom Nassau Hall was named in 1756. Q. Why is cream of tartar put in candy?—H. G. A. It is used In making candy and icing to prevent crystallization of the sugar by Inversion. Q. How much ground can a camel cover in a day?—G. F. D. A Some of the racing camels are capable of doing more than 100 miles a day. Q. What is a cryptogram?—R. C. A A cryptogram is a cipher used in secret correspondence whereby the message is interwoven into a book, story or just a sentence. A special key is required to know how to understand and-put the letters together. Probably the best known cryptogram is the one believed to be contained in the books of Shakespeare, proving according to some authorities that he was not the author but that the real author had laboriously woven into the text the facts of the case through a complicated cipher. Q. What is the Cardiff giant?— B. S. G. A. The Cardiff giant is a rude statue of a man. 10 Vi feet high, cut in Chicago from a block of gypsum quarried from great beds of that mineral near Fort Dodge, lowa, in 1868 and buried near Cardiff. Onondaga County, N. Y„ where Pride in Bobby Jones’ Crown Expressed by Whole Nation Bobby Jones, as the unrivaled mon arch of the golfing world, is made the subject of universally friendly comments on his recent brilliant success in adding the British amateur championship to his other trophies in this country and abroad. Happy phrases in complimentary vein are found in papers throughout the country. “The climax to the career of Jones will be greeted with enthusiasm wherever golf 1s played,” says the Pitts burgh Post-Gazette. The new title “makes his golf diadem complete,” as serts the Cleveland Plain Dealer. "Cer tainly the young man from Atlanta Is a marvel, and he has made sure of a most distinguished niche in the golfers’ hall of fame,” exclaims the Manchester Union, while the Little Rock .Arkansas Democrat sums up its opinion in the words, “Undeniably the king of them all.” His is not the fate to be a prophet without honor in his own courary, for the Atlanta Journal waxes eloquent in his praise, saying, “Coeur de Lion of the links, king of the sport of princes, golf emperor of the world, starry son of Atlanta, we salute you,” and the At lanta Constitution proudly avers that his “unprecedented performances have fixed his fame in the popular interna tional sport and set a mark for all after-comers on the links to shoot at, with faint hopes of becoming his peer.” ** * * The Indianapolis Star concedes that “other stars will flash across the firma ment.” but asserts that “Bobby Jones undoubtedly will go down in the records as one of the greatest players the popu lar game ever produced.” Confessing that “Bobby is our hero,” the St. Joseph Gazette declares, “We like to see him win.” The Jersey City Journal calls rim “the pride of America and the para gon of amateurism,” while the Spring field Union places him as “one of the greatest golf champions of all time.” The Salt Lake Deseret New'S sees him as having “brilliantly fulfilled every ex-| pectation,” and the Flint Daily Journal , cries. “He is the Lindbergh of golf, or the flying colonel is the Jones of avia tion, depending on the viewpoint.” That to reach the position he occu pies today Bobby Jones has had to con quer not only the - game but himself is referred to by a number of editors in their reviews of his career. Says the Milwaukee Journal of the recent event on the links of St. Andrews: “Jones, standing there, probably remembered the day, nine years before, when in a fit of temper he tore up his card on St. Andrew’s because the ball had not fallen as he wished. It was only when he became the cool, imperturbed player that he succeeded.” And “this trans formation has been the result of ardu ous self-discipline and a continuous quest of self-control,” says the Kala mazoo Gazette, which states further that “it is only by mastering himself that Bobby has succeeded in mastering the royal and ancient game.” ** * * The Kansas City Times recalls that years ago Chick Evans predicted of Bobby Jones that “here was a boy who might go far if he could only subdue his temper,” and the Times notes that Jones .“recognized his fault and con quered it, as he had conquered the deli cate health that first sent him to golf for outdoor exercise.” The New York Sun says of the champion’s career, “Per severance is all that copybook maxims have said it to be.” And the Dayton Daily News declares his latest achieve ment was “another evidence of his com plete self-control, or rather the pow'er over self,” adding, “It has taken a long time to produce this Jones, and it may take longer to bring another,” The New York Times speaks of him as “a splendid example of self-mastery,” and describes him as “not only a model of sportsmanship in his bearing but a man whose poise and self-control are never shaken by the slings and arrow's of outrageous fortune on the golf links.” As to his newly won championship, the Lynchburg Daily Advance calls It “no pyrrhlc victory,” but the reward “that cones from a grueling, nerve it was “discovered" late in the follow ing year and exhibited as a petrified giant. The hoax was subsequently ex posed by Prof. O. C. Marsh of Yale. It was perpetrated by George Hall (or Hull) of Binghamton. N. Y„ his pur pose being to ridicule the belief in giants. Q. Did the Earl of Shaftesbury ever live in the Carolinas? —L. G. C. A. Biographies of the first Earl of Shaftesbury do not indicate that he actually came over to America to look after his estates in the Carolinas. although he took a leading part in the management of the colony. Q. How many Presidents of the United States are buried in Arlington Cemetery?—J. O. A. William Howard Taft is the only President buried there. Q. In what batuTwas the American flag first flown?—H. P. A. The American flag was first flown from Fort Stanwix on August 3. 1777. It was first under fire three days later in the Battle of Oriskany. August 6, 1777. Q. What is the length of the River Lena? —J. L. A. Approximately 3,000 miles. Q. About how much money a year does this country lend in otner coun tries? —L. D. „ < A. For the first quarter of 1930 the foreign borrowing in this country • totaled $338,000,000, the largest total since the second quarter of 1928. Q. What places in history were oc cupied by the following characters: Razi and Hugbald?—K. F. R. A. Razi or Rhazes was an Arabian physician who lived from 852 to $32. He is noteworthy as being the first man to describe smallpox and measles in an accurate manner. Hugbald or HucbeJd was a Benedictine monk and writer of music. He was born at Toumai, France, about 840. He later started a school of music and other arts at Nevers. He was the Inventor of the gamut. The only work positively ascribed to him is the Harmonica Institutio. He died in 930. 1 q Did Gary Cooper to to college?— M. C. F. x . „ A. He was a student at Grlnnell College, Grlnnell, lowa, for two years. Q. How much money is spent on higher education in the United States? What per cent is Government money?— S A* 1 In 1927-1928 half a billion dol lars were spent on higher education In the United States. This represents in come and receipts, including additions to endowments, for 1,071 colleges and universities. One-fourth of the amount came from tuition and educational fees paid by the 919,381 students, 23 per cent was appropriated by State and city governments, 13 per cent was given by private benefactions, 12 per cent was income from endowments, the bal ance came from miscellaneous sources. The Federal Government contributed 3.4 per cent of the total funds. Q. How does the number of battery sets in use compare with the number of electric radio sets? —B. W. A. According to a survey made by Radio Retailing, at the end of May there were approximately 13,000,000 families in the United States equipped with radio sets. They are divided as follows: 7,700,000 electrically wired homes have all-electric receivers, 2,000,- 000 electrically wired homes are using battery-operated sets, 1,000,000 unwired homes in' cities and suburbs are using battery sets and 2,300,000 farm homes are provided with battery sets. racking week of hard play,” and affirms that “the crown rightly rests upon the brow of Georgia’s favorite son.” The Roanoke Times quotes and approves the statement of Reger Wethered, who was defeated in the final round by Bobby Jones, “There goes a real champion of golf.” The Chattanooga News, placing him “at the pinnacle of golfing fame,’ says, “Perfect co-ordination of body and brain alone could have carried him ; there.” As the New York Herald Trib une puts it, “Knowing what was ex pected of him at St. Andrews, Jones faced the worst of hazards —the mental one—without flinching.” #* * * “The Jones record, unequaled In the annals of golf, is the more remarkable because of the nature of the sport in which it obtains. For golf is not a sport in which a reasonable margin of supe riority guarantees victory,” the Cleve land News explains, and asserts, “Greater the glory of Jones.” The com pleteness of the Jones victories is stressed by the St. Paul Pioneer Press with the statement: “In winning the British amateur golf championship Jones has won the only major golf trophy he had left to win, and becomes the first golfer to have held all the major titles the game affords —the Brit ish and American open and the British and American amateur championships.” And the Appleton Post-Crescent notes that now Jones has “won every national and international championship worth going after,” and is “in a class by him self.** The popularity of the victory on both sides of tie water is most pleasing to the American press. The Baltimore 1 Sun rates Jones as “a great favorite” both in this country and in England, as does also the Springfield Republican, which notes that “true art knows no national bounds, and the British par ticularly admire perfection in style.” Os the Scots the Columbia State re marks: “All of us Joke about the ‘near ness’ of the Scots. But who piore gen ! erous in tribute to excellence? Golf is their game, but they are as appreciative ! of its great master from Atlanta as they ' would be were he native of their own country.” In fact, the Chicago Daily , Tribune asserts that the Scots are said “to regard him with a sort of awe, a wholly generous admiration of a player who always has enough golf for the sit uation which requires it.” The Duluth Herald sums up American sentiment in the words: "It is great to have an American win this splendid vic tory. It is greater still that it has been won by this quiet, modest, unspoiled young man who, before he is a golfer, is a true sportsman and a true gentle man—which are, after all, much the same thing.” 4 Fascist Kills Fascist; News “Tucked Away"’ Dingy heads, tucked away in the last pages of Italian newspapers, are the standard type of measurement ordained by local city editors when “Fascist kills Fascist.” In the beautiful town of Ravenna recently, a Fascist named An gelin! was mortally knifed by a member of one of the local Fascist syndicates. From what the reader could gather from write-ups, the victim of the ag gression was standing in conversation with other Fascists outside the Fascist headquarters of the town, when a man named Gordini walked up and struck a blow at him, which immediately proved fatal. Gordini. who was chased and classified as an “old oppositionist,” told the police that Angelini had pre viously beaten him with a stick. Re prisals on the part of thq policemen took the form of no less than eight , i arrests. * t Street 220 Feet Wide. From the Detroit New*. » The widest paved street in the world —Main street in Keene, N. H —is 220 feet wide from curb to curb. We shall have to look up the mark for the 70- yard dash to see if it is held by • Keene pedestrian. A •: .... . . ,/.• '