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Venom of Plant Essentially
the Same, Experiments by Scientists Reveal. The poisons of the rattlesnake, the fecorpion, the honey bee and the nettle are essentially the same. The rattle snake Just has more of It. This is the conclusion from experi ments with these toxic substances conducted jointly by Dr. J. Markowitz, present professor of physiology at ^Georgetown University Medical School, and Drs. Hiram E. Essex and Frank C. Mann of the Mayo Foundation. When this work was done Dr. Markowitz was with the Mayo Foundation. The secretion of this poison is charac terized as "a general means of offense and defense among lower animals and plants.” In such cases the toxin has essentially the same physiological re action, although there are obviously minute differences in the chemical com position secreted by different animals, •ince injections with one substance will not confer immunity against the others. The experimenters Injected into dogs amounts of the bee poison roughly equivalent to the amount an animal might receive if bitten by a rattler. The physiological effect was precisely the same. Then they used rattlesnake toxin on themselves in the same minute amounts that would come from bee stings. This resulted in typical bee stings. Evolve Nothing New. The rattlesnake and his cousin, the copperhead, it was explained by Dr. Markowitz, simply have evolved along the line of more copious and efficient toxin secretion. But they have not •volved anything new in the line of poisons. „ ... The outstanding effect of a rattle snake bite, said Dr. Markowitz, is a quick and enormous fall in the blood pressure, which, in turn, has far-reach ing secondary effects on the system, causing death in extreme instances. The bite is extremely painful and has a great local destructive action, which Is also true for similar quantities of bee venom locally injected. , This he points out, is quite different from the effects of the toxins of other deadly snakes which have-evolved along ©ther lines. The poison of the cobra and its relatives, for example, does not act on the blood vessels, but directly on the breathing control center near the base of the brain, often making arti ficial respiration necessary to save the life of the victim. A third snake poison, and the most deadly of all, Dr. Markowitz explained, Is that of certain Australian water anakes which coagulates the blood. The victim’* blood becomes a thick Jelly in a few minutes after being bitten, and he is beyond all human aid, because no decoagulating agent is known to sci ence. * Only 10 per cent of the rattlers victims die, while 80 per cent of the cobra’s bites are fatal. Bites from the Aifttralian water snake are fatal In 90 per cent of cases. Some Bee Stings Fatal. The bee, Dr. Markowitz explained, in jects only an extremely minute amount of the venom. But there are several cases on record of persons killed by the ■ting of a single bumblebee. The prob able explanation, he said, is that the venom was injected directly into the blood stream. It is well known that a great manv bee stings received at one time constitute a serious danger be cause of the resulting fall in blood ^Markowitz and Essex obtained their bee venom In the dead of Winter in Minnesota, taking advantage of the fact that a bee is Incapable of stinging in extreme cold. Once out of the warm hive the insect survives only as long as it keeps flying. At 20 below zero. Dr. Markowitz said, the bees driven out of the hive froze solid almost instan taneously when they alighted before they had a chance to sting. By pulling out the stingers and at tached venom sacks of 500 chloroform- . ed bees they obtained about two cubic centimeters of the toxin with which to experiment. Other samples of venom were ob tained from tarantulas. They came to the conclusion that the same toxic principle was at work, if not precisely the same toxin, in all those cases where the bite or sting is followed by pain ful “wheeling.” The effect appears al most at once. This is the case with the nettle and Several other poisonous plants. Poi aon Ivy, whose toxin required a latent period of one or more days before its effects appear, apparently works on a different principle. Common Among Worms. Defense and offense by means of pot ion, the experimenters concluded, is more widely distributed among the lower animals than is generally sup posed, but in many cases the amount of the toxin Is so slight that it is un noticed, except among the creatures’ specific enemies. A similar type of toxin, they found, fc quite common among worms, where it is needed. The common earthworm, ■whose way of life makes it unnecessary, does not show the slightest trace of it. The toxin, In Its various forms, prob ably has played a prominent part in the general mechanism of evolution. They found, by chemical analysis, that the venom of the rattlesnake con tains a single toxic principle and is not, as sometimes has been maintained, a combination of several poisons. This ■ingle substance, an albumin, can be obtained in relatively pure form and produces the characteristic effects of the whole venom. The remainder of the toxin has no such effects. The rattlesnake toxin, at least, sets up its own immunity on repeated in- ] jection. The same probably holds for the similar substances from the other creatures. Bee keepers, for instance, become immune to bee stings. Each bite of a rattlesnake probably would be less serious than the preceding bite DANDRUFF Ends Overnight! There is one sure way that never fails to remove dandruff completely, and that is to dissolve it. Tills de stroys it entirely To do this, just get about four ounces of plain, ordi nary liquid arvon: apply it at night when retiring: use enough to moisten the scalp and rub it in gently with the finger tips. By morning, most if not all, of your dandruff will be gone, and two or three more applications will com pletely dissolve and entirely destroy every single sign and trace of it, no matter how much dandruff you may have. You will find, too, that all itching and digging of the scalp will stop Instantly, and your hair will be fluffy, lustrous, glossy, silky and soft, and look and feel a hundred times better. You can get liquid arvon at any drug store and four ounces is all you will need. This simple remedy never falls.—Advertisement. Regular Delivery Over 100,000 families read The 8tar every day. The great ma jority have the paper delivered regularly every evening and Sun day morning at a cost of l‘,2 cents dally and 5 cents Sunday If you are not taking advantage of this regular service at this low rate, telephone National 5000 now and service will start tomorrow. and a man who hart been bitten eight or ten times probably would not suffer any 111 effects at all. Develop Slowly. Injection of dogs, they found, sets up antibodies In the blood. At first these develop very slowly. If the In jections are discontinued for 90 days the demonstrable Immunity Is lost alto gether, but when the injections are started again the development of anti bodies proceeds much more rapidly than at first. Incidentally. Dr. Markowitz says, the studies confirm the fact that whisky is about the worst possible remedy for a rattlesnake bite. Crotalin (rattlesnake venom i acts directly on the blood and blood vessels. The problem, then, is to keep It out of the blood stream so far as possible. Whisky speeds up the cir culation and hence the toxin is. carried more quickly through the system. It warms up the victim and makes him feel better for a few minutes, so he thinks that it is doing good. Probably the best emergency treat ment. says Dr. Markowitz, is to suck the wound immediately after putting on a tourniquet. Crotalin has no in jurious effect when swallowed. Ap parently it can work only through its effect on the blood stream. The experimenters used large amounts ot rattlesnake venom in their work and. incidentally, acquired a high re spect for the intelligence and funda mental decency of the rattlesnake. Snakes Become Calm. They obtained it by pressure on the salivary glands of the reptiles, treating them as gently as possible. At first the snakes became greatly excited when attendants approached them to obtain the toxin, but in a few days they seemed to realize that they were not going to be hurt and submitted to the operation without the least re sistance. They did not even sound their rattlers. They appeared to have grasped the fact that if they didn't fight they would not be hurt. One great secret of handling a rattle snake, says Dr. Markow'itz, is to stay behind him. So long as this .position is maintained he cannot hurt anybody, no matter how mad he is. The snake can strike like nightning, straight ahead. When he tries to turn around, however, he is very slow and clumsy, so it is easy to keep ahead of him. It is perfectly safe to pull a rattlesnake’s tail, if you don’t wait around too long.__ REDS ARE DENOUNCED BY GOTHAM PATRIOTS - Fish, Eslick and Bachman Speak at Meeting Which Demands TJ. S. Bar Communists. By the Associated Press. NEW YORK. January 19.—More than a hundred patriotic organizations of the United States massed their col ors in an attack upon communism here Sunday. Three members of the Congressional Committee that Investigated Com munist activities denounced the “Red menace.” while policemen patrolled the streets outside and stood guard at the entrances to the Waldorf Astoria, where the meeting was held. Resolutions were adopted calling for the establishment of a Bureau of In vestigation In the Department of Jus tice to scrutinize "the revolutionary activities” of Communists in this coun try; to bar them from admission to the United States: to deport alien Comm«ntsts and to boycott Soviet trade. .. , . A committee of five was authorized to lay the resolutions before Congress. Representative Hamilton Fish, jr., chairman of the Congressional Com mittee. assailed the Communist party as "an alien conspiracy" to incite "strikes, sabotage and industrial un rest and, lastly, to bring about a class of civil war aimed to overthrow our republican form of Government.” Other speakers included Representa tives Edward E. Eslick of Tennessee and Carl G. Bachman of West Vir ginia. Maj. Gen. James G. Harbord pre ! sided. FLAYS WET CANDIDATES CHARLOTTE, N. C., January 19 (IP). —Mrs. Ella A. Boole, president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, yesterday asserted 600,000 mllitantly dry women of the country would stand firm against the election of any Presi dent or Vice President who would favor repeal of the prohibition amendment. Mrs. Boole addressed a mass meeting here. _ THREE DAYS COUGH IS YOUR DANGER SIGNAL Persistent coughs and colds lead to serious trouble. You can stop them now with Creomulsion, an emulsified creosote that is pleasant to take. Creomulsion is a now medical discovery with two-fold ac tion; it soothes and’heals the inflamed membranes and inhibits germ growth. Of all known drugs, creosote is recog nised by high medical authorities as one of the greatest healing agencies for per sistent coughs and colds and other forms of throat troubles. Creomulsion contains, in addition to creosote, other healing ele ments which soothe and heal the infected membranes and stop the i$Titation and inflammation, while the creosote goe* on to the stomach, is absorbed into the blood, attacks the seat of the trouble and checks the growth of the germs. Creomulsion is guaranteed satisfac tory in the treatment of persistent coughs and colds, bronchial asthma, bronchitis and other forms of respira tory diseases, and is excellent for building up the system after colds or flu. Money refunded if any cough or cold, no matter of how long standing, ia not relieved after taking according to directions. Ask your druggist. CREOMULSION TOR THE COUGH OR COLO THAT HANGS.ON Woodward ScLothrop 10™ 11th F and G Streets r _* Tomorrow—Save 25c to $1.55 on each pair of hose— Men's Hose Reduced Jhe Savings Average X Every pair bought for this season’s stocks —only a limited quantity in each group. 75c Were Imported and domestic wool hose, in fancy, plain and ribbed effects. This season’s newest designs, patterns and . colors. Fancy lisle hose, in various striped, clocked and figured effects.' $|.I5 Were $150 Imported pure wool hose, medium and light weights, in an assortment of plain colors. Imported and domestic, full fashioned, fancy lisle hose, also “six and three’’ ribbed lisle hose. $ | Were $2 and $3 Imported fancy wool hose, in fine light and medium weights that men like for wear now. Clocks, stripes, figures, checks, plaids, and two-tone mixtures, Tm Men’s Store, Srcokd Floor. For a Limited Time— The Men's Store Offers Made-to-Measure Suits Identical Suitings and Tailoring Regularly $65 to $85 You may choose from our entire stock of English, Scotch, Irish, and the finest of domestic fabrics for your custom-tailored suits. Hand tailored over your personal pattern—drafted by our own designer— in the model and construction you personally select. An immediate selection assures early delivery. Custom Service or the Men’s Store, Second Floor. These Vig-Row Machines Are Proving Very Popular —consequently, we have had great diffi culty in keeping a stock of these machines that open the way to perfect health. A few minutes a day using this splendid exerciser will keep you fit and let you enjoy every minute of a healthful life. The Vig-Row, offering all the health and body building exercises of a higher priced machine, is low priced at— $||.85 See It Demonstrated Here Sporting Goods, Fourth Floor. Woodward &Lothr.op 10™ 11™ F and G Streets First Time—to Our Knowledge—You Have Been Able to Buy These Electric Boudoir Clocks Regularly $5.95 Tomorrow morning at 9:15 these clocks will go on sale at the lowest price of which we know for clocks of this quality. We secured them at a concession from a well-known manu facturer, from whom we have bought hundreds of clocks. This is a rare opportunity to enjoy the convenience of a smart-looking electric boudoir clock at an almost unbelievably low price. Cathedral, oval, octagon and arched shapes—with gilt frames—and in these colors: Rose, blue, maize, green, and orchid. Clocks, Aisle 1, Fust Floor. s3 and $450 Qualities in Leading Spring Woollens An exceptional purchase brings—at the beginning of the season—the leading Spring woollens at this special price. Novelty Wool Crepe, Diagonal Woollens, Tweeds and Nub- Jp by Coatings, in cadet, black, navy, green, tan, rose. Dress and coat weights. Originally $3 and $4.50 yard. A limited quantity now on sale at... ... Woollens, Second Floor. Imported Gift Furniture Reduced I/4 and More A feature collection of distinctive pieces—greatly reduced from their former prices. 1 Table; red. Was $42.50. Now .$30 2 Game Tables. Were $65. Now. .$48.75 1 Kidney-shaped Table. Was $85. Now .$63.75 1 Dressing Table. Was $138. Now, $100 2 Tile-Top Tables— 1 was $40. Now .$30 1 was $48.50. Now .$35 1 Green Metal Table. Was $35. Now .$25 6 Adapt Tables— 3 wers $50. 1^1 opt ... „. .......$25 $ were $35. Now .........$17.50 tin Orrr Shop, Sitewth PToo*. 2 Marble-Top Tables. Were $40. * Now .$30 2 Triangle Tables. Were $75. Now. $55 4 Coffee Tables. Were $25. Now, $18.75 3 Round Tables. Were $85. Now, $63.75 1 Card Table. Was $125. Now .$93.75 1 Small Table. Was $15. Now....$10 2 Nests of Tables; 3 tables in each nest. Were $35. Now .$25 9 Chests— 1 was $45. Now ..$33.75 4 were $65. Now .$48.75 2 were $67.50. Now.$50 2 were $95. Now $71.25 6 Chest* of Drawers— 4 were $85. Now .$63.75 2 were $50. Now .$37.50 2 Book Cases. Were $60. Now...$45 2 Round What-Nots. Were $59. Now ...,..$37.50 1 Cabinet. Was $25. Now.$18.75 1 Sewing Cabinet. Was $55. Now, $48 1 Smoking Stand. Was $55. Now, $40 2 Jars. ^Vere $65. Now ..$48.75 Furniture of Fine Quality Lower Priced Now Two-Piece Living-Room Suite in The Semi-Annual Selling Deep, exceedingly comfortable, lounging type of living-room suite in the spacious Charles of London manner. Luxuriously up holstered, as is typical of this period type of furniture. With reversible cushions, soft moss-and-cotton filling, deep springs, and heavily padded arms—over a sturdy, doweled and glued hardwood frame. Covered to your order, in your choice of several beautifully patterned tapestries and frizets. Another 2-piece Suite $95 Louis XV Period Suite $175 Queen Anne Period Suites, $245 Furniture, Sixth Floor. The January Linen Sale will continue throughout the month with savings characteristic of this event 14NENS, SECOND FlOOI.