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Along Washington’s Path
Virginian in Fringed blunting Shirt Leads Advance
of Gen. Braddock’s Army as It Sets
Out for• Fort Duquesne.
by JAMES MOBGAN.
PITTSBURGH. Pa. March 8 fN.A.
N A , —None other than George Wash
ington. in fringed hunting shirt led the
advance in the winning of the West
when the first march in that long, hard
campaign halted at the tip end of
Pittsburgh, where the Alleghany and
the Monongahela sing their mating
song and their union is blessed by the
birth of the great Ohio River.
Four times he started for Pittsburgh.
First he came to warn the French away
from this valley, when he swam his
horse through the Alleghany. The
Washington Crossing Bridge, a short
way up the river, is a memorial of his
return from that errand, when he and
his guide, with the one hatchet they
possessed.’made a raft which they poled
amid the floating ice.
Starting again the next year to at
tack Fort Duquesne, which France had
hurriedly built here at the meeting of the
rivers the pioneer was turned bark in
defeat at Fort Necessity. A third time
he took the same path under the com
mand of Braddock, but was stopped al
most In sight of his goal. Success came
with the fourth attempt, when he was
in the van of the army that raised the
red banner of England where the sturdy
brick walls of the old block house of
Fort Pitt still mark the scene of that
earliest victory in the conquest of a
Backed His Faith.
Washington was the father not mere
ly of seaboard America, but of the
whole country. He was the first leader
with a vision of its great destiny, the
first to turn his eyes westward, and he
backed his faith with his money in the
purchase of thousands of acres of virgin
land. Twice he returned to the Ohio
after hP had aided in the conquering of
it. and he still was day dreaming, in his
dying year, of a journey to the Mis
We take today the path of Washing
ton when he came with the Braddock
Expedition, whirh the British govern
ment had sent oversea in 1755 to avenge
his loss of Fort Necessity and to cap
ture Fort Duquesne. Although serving
without rank or pay. the young farmer
cf Mount Vernon readily made himself
welcome among the King's officers, in
cluding Lieut. Col. Gage and Capt.
Gates, whom he was to meet in an
other act of the drama of life, when
he would besiege one of them in Bos
ton and the other, turned rebel, would
become his jealous rival for the com
mand of the Revolutionary Army.
The 23-year-old aide de camp quick
ly won the fatherly regard and finally
the affection of his veteran commander,
with whom he made free to speak his
mind with the boldness of youth in a
"What think you of this from a young
hand, a beardless boy?" demanded the
old veteran of Marlborough's cam
paigns, as he once turned to his aston
ished and speechless staff; but probably
his growl had a chuckling undertone.
Taken to ('amp Hospital.
No doubt some of the young man's i
impatience with the slow-going old
worldlings in stopping to "level every 1
mole hill," as he complained, "and to
erect bridges over every brook" was in- I
flamed by a feverish physical condition,
which presently laid him up in a camp
hospital. Fretting at being left behind,
he sent on ahead by every courier a
reminder cf the general's promise to let
him have a part in the assault on Fort
Duquesne. When not yet strong J
enough to lift himself into stirrups he
started for the front, lying in the bot
tom of a wagon. Having to mount a
horse for the last stretch of the painful
journey, he arrived at headquarters
with a pillow in his saddle.
Upon the sunken-eved. hollow-cheek
ed youth, appealing to Braddock for a
chance to lead the way to Duquesne. j
the general only called out to his body
servant: '‘Bishop, this young man is
determined to go into action, although
he Is really too weak and sick. Keep an
eye on him!"
But the next day came the historic
rout of the strongest army that ever
had been seen in the Colonies, when the
young man took to the saddle and hard
ly left It for a week.
• Copyright. 1932. by the North American
Newspaper Alliance. Inc.)
Sees Doom of Capitalism
TROTSKY SAYS El’ROPE CANNOT ESCAPE.
Special Dispatch to The Star.
NEW YORK, March 8 (NANA).
—In an interview with the
North American Newspaper
Alliance, received by mail
from his place of exile at
Prinkipo. near Istanboul, Leon Trot
sky, former Soviet war lord, organizer
and chief of the Red army and co
leader with Lenin of the Bolshevist
revolution, declared that there was no
escape for Europe from the present eco
nomic ^crisis, and that even should a
measure of stabilization be achieved,
"the crisis will return in a compara
tively short time with redoubled force."
"I see no prospect of a general sta
bilization of European capitalism,”
Trotsky asserted, saying "world capi
talism has outlived itself as a system.”
The interview with Trotsky was ar
ranged through the courtesy of Simon &
Shuster, publishers of his "History of
the Russian Revolution,” and took the
form of questions put to Trotsky in
writing, which the former war lord
answered. The questions and answers
Pans Soviet Perversion.
Q What is your attitude toward the
A To answer this question I must
distinguish sharply two different con
ceptions—the Soviet regime as the re
gime of proletarian dictatorship and
the Stalin regime, which is a bureau
ciatic perversion of the Soviet regime.
It is with the aim of strengthening and
developing the Soviet system that I
wage a struggle against the Stalin
Q. Will you give your appraisal of the
five-year plan and the economic per
spectives confronting Russia?
A. The question of industrialization,
and particularly of the five-year plan,
was one of the chief points of conflict
between the Stalin faction and the Left
opposition, to which I belong. Up to
February. 1928, the Stalin faction con
sidered it necessary to rest Its power
upon the strong peasant and refused
to compel him to make aacrifices in
the interest of industrialization. The
very principle of planning was laughed
at by the bureaucracy
“We depend upon rain, not plans,” it
said. In 1925 I proved that with proper
leadership industry could show a 20
per cent yearly increase or more.
Stalin and Molotov considered these
figures fantastic and accused the left
opposition of •superindustrialism.”
These cursory comments on the history
of the thing are sufficient to demon
strate my attitude to the five-year
plan: I consider it a gigantic step for
ward in the development not only of
the Soviet Union but of humanity.
Predicts Capitalism's Doom.
Q. What is your view of the present
world economic crisis and its implica
tions for the prevailing social order?
Do you still look lor world revolution
as a likely consequence of the crisis or
do you believe that capitalism may sur
mount the crisis and enter upon a
period ol stabilisation? What would be
the situation of Soviet Russia in event
A. The present economic crisis is an
indubitable expression of the fact that
world capitalism has outlived itself as
a system. The question of the historic
date when It will be replaced by an
other system will be decided, of course,
in different ways for different countries,
and especially lor different parts of
the world. Present-day Europe has no
wav out. Even though the automatic
working of the laws ot the market lead
to a softening of the crisis in Europe
after a year or two, the crisis will re
turn again in a comparatively short
time with redoubled force. The pro
ductive forces are being strangled in
the national cells of Europe. The
dilletante plan of M. Briand for a
union of Europe has not emerged and
never will emerge from the laboratory
of the chancellories and editorial offices.
The ruling classes will cure the crisis
with a further economic decimation of
Europe and a strengthening of protec
tionism and militarism. Under these
circumstances I see no prospect of a
general stabilization of European
Q. You have been reported as urg
ing the Communists In Germany to
support the Bruening government as a
means of staving off the victory of
Hitlerism—is that true?
Denies Favoring Bruening.
A. Dispatches to the effect that I
have urged the German Communists
to support the government of Bruen
ing are, of course, false. I proposed to
the German Communists to carry out
the policy of the so-called united front.
The Communists ought to propose to
the Social-Democrats and to the trade
unions, led by them, a program of co
operative, practical struggle against the
attack of the Fascists. The Social
Democratic masses quite sincerely de
sire to wage such a struggle. If the
leaders reluse, they will compromise
themselves in the eyes of their own
masses. If the leaders agree, the
masses, in practical action, will go
beyond their leader* and support the
Q. How do you view the position of
the United States in the present
A. I think as a result of the present
crisis the predominance of American
over European capitalism will grow
still more pronounced. In the same
way. as a result of every crisis, you see
ft growth in tfi» bwmbIbmcs of the
big enterprise over the small, the trust
over the Isolated undertaking. How
ever, this inevitable growth of the
world hegemony of the United States
will entail further deep contradictions
both In the economy and in the politics
of the great American republic. In
asserting the dictatorship of the dollar
over the whole world the ruling class
of the United States will introduce the
contradictions of the whole world into
the very basis of its own dominance. ,
The economy and the politics of the
United States will depend more and
more directly upon crises, wars and
revolutions in all parts of the world.
The position of "observer" cannot long
be maintained formally.
Foresees U. S. Militarism.
‘I thing that America will create the
most colossal system of land, sea and
air militarism that can be imagined.
The conclusive emergence of America
from its old "provincialism.” the
struggle for markets, the growth of
armament and active world policy, the
experience of the present crisis—all
these things will inevitably introduce
deep changes into the inner life of the
United States. The emergence of a ,
labor party is inevitable. It may be
gin to grow with an "American tempo,”
leading to the liquidation of one of the
two old parties, just as the Liberals
have disappeared in England.
To sum it up, you might say the
Soviet Union will be Americanized
technically, Europe will either be
Sovietized or descend to barbarism,
th£ United States will be Europeanized
(Copyright. 1932. by the North American
Newspaper Alliance. Inc.)
LECTURE SERIES TO DEAL
WITH MAGNETIC FIELD
Dr. J. A. Fleming, First Speaker,
to Be Heard Tonight at
The first of series of three public
lectures on the magnetic field of the
earth and Its atmosphere will be given
at the Carnegie Institution of Wash
ington tonight by Dr. John A. Fleming,
director of the terrestial magnetism
laboratory. He will speak on ‘ Time
Changes of the Earth's Magnetic Field
Other lectures will be by Arthur E.
Kennelly of Harvard University on
cosmic disturbances In the earth’s mag
netic field and J. Bartels, research as
sociate of the Carnegie Institution, on
tides in the atmosphere._
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