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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, June 07, 1932, Image 8

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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday MWitffif Edition.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
TUESDAY.Jnne 7, 193i
THEODORE W. NOYES-Editor
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The Rockefeller Letter.
Some of the more ardent members of
the dry cause may seek to minimize and
to discount the Importance and effect
of the Rockefeller letter, just as the
more ardent members of the wet cru
sade will inflate its importance and
capitalize its effect beyond all reason.
But between these extremes there are
those "millions of earnest, consecrated
people" to whom Mr. Rockefeller ex
plains a change of a point of view that,
for a number of reasons, is highly im
portant. These are the millions who. in
the end, will write the next chapter in
the history of America's experiment in
the control of an ancient evil. Mr.
Rockefeller's statement is significant to
them because of the character, record
. and reputation of its author. Mr.
Rockefeller enjoys a widespread con
fidence in his personal Integrity, and
hla good works in behalf of science and
of religion have created for him an ex
tensive following. He has been listed
among those sincere advocates of tem
perance through prohibition whose con
victions were honestly held and highly
re* pec ted
Those convictions as to the evils, the
remedy of which has been sought by
prohibition, are still as strongly held
as ever. Mr. Rockefeller's recantation
is on another point. With millions of
other Americans, he has viewed with
distress and increasing alarm the growth
of other evils which, in hU opinion,
outweigh the first. With admirable
candor and a frank willingness to meet
the issue squarely, he has reached the
opinion that the first attack has been
a failure and that a new attack on
another flank is necessary. One is
left with no doubt as to the fact that
the material and moral assistance he
has given to the first will be trans
ferred to the second.
The manner in which Mr. Rockefeller
has made known his change of mind as
to methods of forwarding the cause of
temperance should alienee criticism on
that point, for he has been completely
frank about it. But his statement is
another challenge to intelligent thought
upon the solution of the new problem
to which he addresses himself. For,
like so many others, Mr. Rockefeller
has become converted to a theory
without supplying the practical sug
gestions of how to make that theory
accomplish what has been held out as
it* desideratum. The solution that is
suggested In outright repeal of the
eighteenth amendment, accompanied
by a repetition of the statement that
everybody deplores the return of the
saloon, is far from convincing. What
is needed is a guarantee that every
body does, in truth, deplore the return
of the saloon, and neither Dr. Nicholas
Murray Butler, to whom the letter is
addressed, nor Mr. Rockefeller furnishes
that guarantee nor attempts to outline
those essentially important details of
how the return of the saloon is to be
prevented if the eighteenth amend
ment is repealed.
Philologists are again assuming im
portance by claiming that "furlough" is
only another way of saying "pay cut.”
Gen. Dawei S:es the Turn.
Regrettable from the standpoint of
the public service as Gen. Dawes'
retirement from the Reconstruction
Finance Corporation presidency Is, his
reasons for resigning go far toward
reconciling the country to his loss. Hi
considers that his job is done, that the
crisis to meet which the Reconstruction
Finance Corporation was formed is
past, and that frcm now on the trend
. of the economic situation will be up
ward and not downward. If it has
taken that definite turn for the
better—and Gen. Dawes is not a man to
mince words for Pollyanna purposes—
thd emergency organization which he
has headed since its formation last
February is undoubtedly entitled to a
large share of the credit, though hs
modestly ascribes it to other causes.
“Now that the balancing of ths
national budget by Congress is assured,"
says Oen. Dawes, "the turning point
toward eventual prosperity in this
country seems to have been reached.
The work of the Reconstruction Finance
Corporation is now well an its way,
with loans already authorized for about
$700,000,000, and its operations are now
properly systematized and effective.”
President Ho:ver reflects popular
aentiment in voicing his "Intense regret"
that Gen. Dawes finds it necessary to
relinquish the direction of the R. F. C.
in order to concentrate on his Important
business affairs at Chicago. On the day
Gen. Dawes submitted his resignation
the White House issued a statement
citing in detail the remarkable story ol
the Finance Corporation's achievement!
to date.
T_ SU. U. 11 «- 1 —_ _ _
of about $500,000,000 were authorized to
something like 4,000 banka, agricultural
credit corporations, life insurance com
panies and other financial institutions
and, in addition, about $170,000,000 to
the railroads. How this Federal aid
simmered through to the humblest com
munities in the land is illustrated by
the tabulation of the R. F. C.'s loaning
activities in town categories. Of nearly
3.000 borrowing banks, more than sev
enty per cent are nested in towns ol
5.000 in population or less, while eighty
four per cent are located in towns ol
25,004} in population or lei*. Only foul
and a half per cent of money loaned
to banka has gone to institutions In
cities cf over 1,000,000 in population.
It Is estimated that altogether over ten
million individual depositors and bor
rowers have been benefited by the mar
gins provided by the Reconstruct! .ai
Finance Corporation to the banks It hsa
helped.
All this aid is apart from that given
to more than two hundred and fifty
building and loan associations and $68,
000,000 placed at the disposal of Fed
eral Intermediate Credit Banks for re
lieving agricultural distress. Yet an
other $75,000,000 was loaned to some
450,000 farmers through the Depart
ment of Agriculture for seed purposes.
It is throughout a stirring and grati
fying account of Itself that the R. F. C.
under Gen Dawes' skillful leadership
has given.
Americans of all classes will wish
the soldier-banker-diplomat-statesman
continued success in the private under
takings that now are to claim his un
divided attention. As controller of
the currency, as general purchasing
agent of the American Army in France,
as first director of the budget, as head
of the Dawes Commission on German
reparations, as vice president of the
United States, as Ambassador to Great
Britain, and, finally, as president of
the Reconstruction Finance Corpora
tion, this sturdy sen of Illinois has
rendered his country and the world a
full meed of patriotic, constructive
service. It insures Charles Gates Dawes
an honored place in the republic's his
tory.
His type of unselfish devotion to na
tional service is none too common. The
1 Nation never needed it more than it
j does today.
The New Tax Law.
The revenue bill, designed to pro
duce $1,118,500,000 additional money
by taxation in order that the Gov
ernment's budget may be balanced, is
law at last. The measure was signed
by the President late yesterday aiter
the Senate had agreed to the confer
ence report. While the new law levies
a heavy burden upon the American
i people, the neceasity for its passage
i has been apparent for months. WiS*i
j out a balanced budget the financial
stability of the Government and of the
country would be seriously challenged.
Under the weight of these taxes now
I imposed the people undoubtedly will
take a greater interest in what the
Congress does with their money. They
should. Too long the demands from
well meaning groups for paternalistic
action by the Government, with con
stantly growing costs, have been heeded
by the legislators and new projects have
added many millions of dollars to al
ready huge annual appropriations. The
tax consciousness of the .American peo
ple Is likely to be a great factor In
forcing governmental economies.
The new income tax rates, the highest
in the history of the country except
during the World Wsr, will be paid on
incomes derived this calendar year. The
gift tax also becomes immediately
operative. Numerous excise taxes stamp
taxes and so-called nuisance taxea go
into effect fifteen days hence. The in
creases in postal rates become effective
at the end of thirty days.
The business of the country ar.d the
people know now what to expect In the
way of new taxation. It is lar better that
they should, and it Is regrettable that
the knowledge has been so l:ng de
layed. When Congress assembled last
December it was well understood that
new tax levies, designed to balance the
Governments budget, would be neces
sary. Instead of writing a bill Into law
^ promptly, the legislators have wrang'ed
over the matter for six months. Had it
net been for the prodding given by
President Hoover, they probably would
be wrangling still. The country has
backed the Chief Executive solidly In
his efforts to obtain speedy action from
Congress on this all-important matter.
Taxes and economies are not pleas
ant. Unfortunately they are necessary.
! The American people have met other
I trials and have overcome them. They
| will overcome the present economic
| distress. No one doubts that they will
' succeed. But the necessity today is for
economy. The Senate Is at work on a
measure of economy for the Govern
ment itself. It must be worked out
1 successfully if the budget is to be bal
anced. And after the economy meas
ure has been drafted and written Into
law. the Congress la to turn Its atten
tion to a “relief program," that is In
tended to stimulate industry, add to
employment and also to make it pos
sible for the Federal Government to
loan to States which are in need of
funds to help care for the unemployed.
The need is not only for unemployment
aid, but careful planning that the re
lief program shall not become merely
a spending orgy, for which the Ameri
can people will have to pay in the days
to come. Too great spending In the
past has brought the country to a point
where a two-billion-dollar Treasury
deficit stares it in the face. Too great
spending in the future will only con
tinue the evil.
(Calling attention to Mr. Seabury's
rather meager saving on transportation
may be good •'wisecracking.” but it can
l scarcely be regarded as classical repartee.
Full-Time Firemen.
In its decision which reverses the de
cree of the District Supreme Court and
sustains the Commissioners’ order ol
September 19, 1930, forbidding members
of the Fire Department to engage in
gainful occupation during unemployed
hours, the Court of Appeals holds that
a different standard of continuous avail
ability for duty may reasonably be re
quired of this particular branch of the
municipal organization. The nature of
the service the firemen are called upon
to render, says the court, frequently re
quires the exercise of every facility, phys
ical and mental, for the preservation of
life and property, “And there is no
schedule by which these emergencies
may be anticipated.” The Commis
sioners’ rule is therefore upheld and
hereafter, unless by legislation the con
dition is changed, no members of the
District Fire Department may engage
in compensated employment during their
. hours of freedom from routine duties
| under the department schedule.
' When the three-battalion system was
installed, made posslhje by an enlarge
ment of the District department, tht
reason urged for the change was pri
marily that the firemen were thereby
given opportunity to maintain family
relations, which previously had been
difficult and svin impossible m tome
I I
[ rase*. It was not then contemplated
1 that the reduction of the number of
hours on duty would lead to the en
gagement of the firemen In compen
sated employment outside of the public
service during their free hours. Soon,
however, that came to pass, and the
Commissioners' order of 1#30 resulted
to Insure a potential one hundred per
cent efficiency at all times in emer
gencies.
The fact that the District suffers
from few large fires requiring full at
tendance In service on the part of every
member of the department does not
affect this case of the manner In which
the firemen in their off-duty time may
be otherwise occupied. Every alarm
is a potential conflagration. Full-man
service may be required at any time,
and, of course, without warning. If
the firemen who are off duty are scat
tered in various occupations precious
time may be lost in assembling them.
This is a condition that cannot be fore
seen and no arrangements can be made
to insure immediate response to call
when the necessity arises for the pres
ence of every member of the depart
mnt at the scene of the fire or in the
engine houses for secondary protection.
The Commissioners' rule, now finally *
sustained by the court, may impose a
hardship Upon some members of the
department, but the public security is
paramount and the Individual interest
is subordinate. Furthermore, at this
| particular time of widespread unem
ployment there is no justification in
permuting salaried public servants to
, take iobs that are needed by others less
I fortunate. '
When food is so plentiful that Iowa
farmers say they can supply it for noth- j
ing if they can be relieved of trans- !
portation cost, there is hope that the j
Government workers will eventually find !
, the market basket working into adjust
J ment with a pay cut.
Rentals in Washington, D C , differ j
from those in other cities because of
the number of transients who remain
long enough to require the comforts of
home but not long enough to feel a1
reasonable responsibility for upkeep.
Bonus marchers have one advantage
j over the statesmen on the Hill. Having
i no nominating conventions to call for:
; their suggestions or supervision, they
•feel that they can remain here as long I
I as they like.
It seldom falls to the lot of a local
official to gain as much national fame
: as has been forced upon Gen. Glassford
1 His great and unforeseen task may en
title him to a page and even a chapter
In future history.
A method may possibly be devised
in convention to include a Sairy Gamp
plank, which will discountenance ques
tions and tacitly permit the public to
put Its lips to the bottle "when so dis
poged."
Another dastardly character is the
bootlegger who would tempt the veterans
to forget that they are under the ob- J
servation of the world and bound to
observe the strictest rules of behavior.
If there is any truth in the report that
i the Hohensollems think of re-estab
j lishing the old monarchy, there should
I at least be the discreet courtesy of an
• assurance that Von Papen will not be
returned to Washington, D. C.
When the soldiers now sing "Johnny,
Get Your Oun,” they do not mean a
word of it. It is a part of their old
war song revived only in sentiment.
SHOOTING STARS.
BY PHILANDER JOHNSON.
Figures.
Figure* in sculpture are dear to the
heart,
Figures are fair in pictorial art;
But the figure* that orator* place in our
reach
i Are elusive creations called ‘ figures of
speech."
When figures are small little errors
appear.
But they soon fade away and are not eo
aevere;
' But when you add ciphers by threes in
a row
j Whafs going to happen, nobody will
know.
I -
! But we figure along to the end of our
days
! On old calculations in new-fangled
; ways.
The figures in which it is hardest to
think
Are those that the bookkeeper writes in
red ink.
Single-Tracker.
"Our habitual antagonist,-’ aaid the
sympathetic friend, “has what I should
call a single-track mind."
‘ Worse than that,” commented Sena
tor Sorghum. “He can never keep it on
the track long enough to get anywhere."
* __
Jud Tunkins rays Everything is sure
to come out right, but that fact is no
great satisfaction while the cyclone Is
in progress.
Enforced Loafing.
| . This world seems unkind
When your toll you pursue—
But it's worse when you find
You have nothing to do.
Work for Both.
"Do you think a husband and wife
ought both to work?”
“What you think about it makes no
difference,” answered Miss Cayenne.
“They’re pretty sure to do so. And the
most exacting position I know of ia that
of the wife who has to superintend the
household budget so that it will At
father’s earning capacity.”
^ “We seek to hide our sorrows," said
Hi Ho. the sage of Chinatown, “yet
when they are burled they come up like
aeeda and bear blossoms of beautiful
memories among the weeds of vain
regret."
Crashing In.
A Communist said. “I'm not afraid
I To crash into any old kind of parade;
When men are weary and disagree.
It always looks like a picnic to me.”
“Dar ain't a heap o’ usetulness no
way,” said Uncle Eben, “to be expected
f'um de man who wants to be boss ’cause
he ain' never learnt no regular kind of
a job.” ti*
THIS AND THAT ~|
BY CHARLES E. TRAC EWELL.
“It doesn't do you any good to get
sore.”
This is a sentence, caught in passing,
from the conversation of two men on a
downtown street.
It doesn't do you any good to get
sore, eh?
One wonders what they were talking
about. Maybe a business deal, per
haps a private matter.
A right or wrong, of some sort, was
Involved, no doubt, but there was no
way of ever settling the matter, for the
men had disappeared In the crowd.
Nor could one have waltzed up to
them and demanded the subject of their
conversation.
It does no one any good to get
“sore”?
In the abstract, especially in every
day affairs, it is much better to re
main calm, if one can. than to "fly
ofl the handle” and get angry about
something or other.
No one knows this quite so well as
the man or woman whose disposition
is toward easy anger.
By easy anger we mean a sort of in
bom ire, or irritability.
This is a disposition so common that
almost all people partake of it, in some
degree, at least.
In most cases it will be discovered
that many outwardly benign persons
attain that state of perfection through
a tremendous curb put on their tongues.
Religion, ethics, childhood training,
common sense, expediency—these are
some of the diverse causes which tend
io make an irritable person hold his
tongue.
InivutP Hfinpnpr tnn mn«t hp in
eluded. There are, thank heaven,
thousands of men and women who
somehow come to realize that to use
human speech as one instinctively
wants to use it, upon occasion, is
scarcely decent.
Decency here goes beyond #the mere
idea of 'eemly social conduct and takes
in a range of ideas verging on the
ideal states toward which the mind
of man inclines itself in its better mo
ments.
“It doesn't do you''—or any one
else—"any good to get sore."
The genius of the race, on its better
side, is against the practice.
Anger, except on the necessary oc
casion, is a devitalising force which
merely creates more of itself. The only
result Irom average anger is more
anger.
What seems difficult for many persons
to understand is that the one hurt most :
by oil-hand ire. in its common mani
iestations, is he or she who indulges
In it.
The person who is the subject of
these demonstrations, whether in the
theoretical right or wrong, usually puts
on honestly, or assumes, the air of
persecuted righteousness.
His resistance is perfect
Even when he deserves what he gets,
he is able, in most cases to gam a so
called moral victory if he is able to
keep his own temper in hand.
No matter where the victory rest',
however, the man wrho gen "sore" over
something in the everyday walks of life,
and shows it plainly, becomes the real
victim.
The very fact of his irritability shows
that already soma one has scored upon
his inner nature.
Something or other rankles.
And humanity is such a curious
blend of rights and wrongs, of good
and bad traits, that in many instances
this revelation of inner hurt is all that
nine out of ten people want
Whether it is just or unjust makes
not the slightest bit of difference to
them.
They want a handle to grasp, and
here it is!
Hence wise men of all nations, after
reaching maturity, deliberately adopt,
if they have it not by nature, a cer
tain air of reserve which stands them
in good stead, not only In the major j
affairs of life, but in those thousand and
one minor happenings which bulk so
large, after all. and which constitute
for the majority of humanity the
chronicle of their somewhat unevent
ful lives.
This air or extra sagacity otten
strikes young people as indifferency,
but it is not that; it is a deliberate at
tempt of the human mind to guide a
life, and as such, becomes one of the
most interesting spectacles In the whole
range of creation
Thus this average business man. who
naintains a certain amount of gravity
n the face of trying conditions, is one
>f the finest examples in human history
>f applied mentality.
"It doesn't do you any good to get
lore.”
He was Just a so-called "average
nan,” often lumped off by statistical
md other writers as "the man in the
itreet," but he was making a deliberate
ise of hl^mlnd to rule his life.
He had come to a conclusion, and he
ras passing on his acquired wisdom to
mother, who. no doubt, agreed with
ilm. theoretically at least.
The difficulty of turning this knowl
>dge into practical use is well known.
However well one may be "sold" on the
)ld sayings that "a soft answer tumeth
iway wrath” and that "you can catch
nore flies with molasses than vinegar.”
:here often occur situations in which
one has no desire in the world either
,o turn away wrath or to catch flies.
The best immediate attack on the
aroblem of anger Is that hinted at in
:he old saw about counting 10 before
> peaking.
Vinman Vsalntrm Ai/en rhilHrnn on
o the trouble of counting 10. or any
>ther number, but many of them do
ceep their visages as straight as possi
ble, as calm as they can. and as im
movable as nature will permit.
Thia Is emulating the Indian to aome
Mint. The aborigineea of this country
had many good traita, one of them
being this stolid quality of countenance
inown among white men as "the poker
[ace."
In the average walks of this interest
ing American life, probably at no time
iif history more interesting, he gains
most in every way who manages to
keep his temper and play Ihj game
according to the rule.;. In anv game a
man may rheat, and sometimes get
awav with it. but if he happens to have
qualities ol heart and mind to which
cheating is not congenial, he will be
the real loser, no matter how much
he gains.
There are few days which go by,
with meat of us, during which some
>ne does not say something which rubs
ane the wrong way. It is easy to get
mad." and, sometimes, alas, satisfac
tory to indulge in a harsh word or two.
yet In most instance* the very best line
of art Ion is a simple failure to "get
sore"; that is, plainly put. a failure
to manifest any open discomfiture or
resentment.
A little repression, now and then, is
good for us. Sometimes one may feel
inclined to believe that Sigmund Freud
and his discip'es have done more harm
in the world than they have done good
not so much in themselves as through
half-baked understandings, or mis
understandings. of what psychological
nomenclature means.
The term "repression” has been
"reeled into a perfect fetich by thou
sands of people, who have come to be
lieve that any sort of holding In. from
the intellectual standpoint, is inimical
to the best interests of human beings.
The truth seems to be that a certain
amount of jepression is as necessary in
ihe inte!!e"tual life as in the physical
life anu that no such vast amount of
harm can come from repressiens as has
been attributed to them.
In the physical life, for instance,
many people believe that a repressed
>neeze is harmful, or even hurtful. The
truth is that .'topping a sn^ze often is
inconvenient, but that is pi; no one is
harmed by the firm pressure of the
forefinger on the upper lip just below
the n» e. a procedure which will kill
nine out of ten sneezes. Not even the
would-b» sneezer is harmed, while
•cores of nearby persons may be saved
frqm catching a cola.
r.n n:r licvcjvai > i rjji rcviuiw. umi
of anger is one of the greatest and one
of the most immediate. It is one which
may be applied often in the daily life
with the best effect. So many griev
ances are only of the moment. The
next day they look what they are—
8lUv and utterly trivial.
"It doesn't do you any good to get
sore.” Oh. yeah? as the youngsters say.
We get anerv about small things md
remain remarkably calm about me iers
which should arouse our righteous In
dignation. The world of men la made
that way. Only now and then does a
man arrive among us who "gets sore'
in the right wav and for a great pur
pose Tne best most of ui can do is
to remain calm.
Highlights on the Wide World
Excerpts From Newspapers of Other Lands
Berliner tageblatt—For
some time interested circles
have followed with growing con
cern the unprecedented trend
toward the universities. In the
natural sciences, and in medicine, par
ticularly. rather objectionable conditions
have developed. In soma schools, the
laboratories and clinics can scarcely
hold the students who desire to enter
them. For certain courses, no seating
accommodations are available at ell.
Study of these conditions has now
led to proposals which merit equally
serious attention. So far. most of the
suggestions adduced have been confined
to the medical departments, but it is
not likely they will long limit them
selves to this one field.
Alter iciiieuiai mcajut irtuilliuciiuru
would consist in the practice of the
theory of the "numerus clausus.” which
is merely the universal Latin term for
an arbitrary limitation of students to
be admitted to any one course or class.
With this end in view, the national or
ganization of German medical societies
(Der Deutsche Aerztervereinsbund i.
has demanded of the ministries and
faculties that only 1.500 students, of
whom not more than five per cent are
to be women, be admitted to exclusively
medical curricula. Just how radical
a demand this constitutes is revealed
In a comparison of this figure with the
totals of 44.597 men, and 2.011 women
engaged in medicine in the year 1930.
If this proposal fails of adoption be
cause of its extreme restrictions, it will
but exemplify, as have many previous
attempts to ameliorate the situation,
the futility of winning assent to any
fundamental reform. Heretofore partial
solutions have been sought in raising
the requirements for admission to med
ical courses, but opinion is still divided
as to whether it would be wiser to do
this shifting in the preparatory schools
or In the universities.
Prof. Stieve of the school of anatomy
In the University of Halle has proposed
In the Muenchener Medlzlniachen
Wochenschrlft i municipal weekly med
ical review) that faculties exercise
greater strictness in the selection of
students to be retained In medical
courses during the first few semesters.
But he is opposed to the principle of
the '‘numerus clausus," and offers
some very logical and convincing objec
tions to such a plan. And. indeed,
there is no paucity of such Justifiable
misgivings! According to what stand
ards shall eligibility to medical courses
be judged? Have not some of the most
eminent physicians and surgeons been
considered veritable dunces in the early
atages of their training? And what of
the man brilliant in all the letter and
theory of medical science who, despite
his knowledge, has neither the manual
skill nor the cool courage necessary for
the prosecution of hla trade? Who ia
to decide the contrasting merits of these
various types and characters? And
how shall the dangers of political and
denominational narrowness be met?
Controversy Is bound to crop out in the
application of any auch scheme.
* * * *
V. S. Wealthy Send
Children te Europe.
Le Petit Marseillais. Marseilles.—Since
the carrying off of the little Lindbergh,
the infants of many prominent Ameri
can families have been protected day
and night by armed guards. Besides
this precaution, any number of nurseries
have been equipped with alarm signals
of a special and complicated type, mak
1 Ing it impassible for any stranger to
gain access to the rooms These meas
ures. however, do not entirely quiet the
appiehensicns of the wealthy, who have
babies as well as money. They fear
that the atmosphere of tension, and
closer confinement, unnecessary in ac
customed and normal conditions, will
affect the health of their offspring. So
already a certain number of these rich
and aristocratic families have adopted
alternative measures of sending the
children to Europe for safekeeping.
* * * *
Kounuanuuis nrip
Curb British Mishaps.
Evening Times, Glasgow —During the
past few years road accidents in and
I near London have given the traffic au
thorities of the metropolitan area an
infinite amount of trouble and no ef
fort has been spared to find a cure.
Recent results of a most satisfactory
kind in the elimination of accidents
have directed attention to the north
circular road, a traffic avenue of tre
mendous Importance for the flow of
vehicles from and to the midlands and
the north. Expeiience at several points
with central islands or ‘ roundabouts.”
which compel vehicles to slow down
considerably to circumnavigate them,
has proved very effective, indeed, at
dangerous crossings, one ‘ black spot”
having had a clean sheet for some
months past. In time it is hoped to lay
down a large number of these "round
abouts" along the whole length of this
busy by-pass.
Climax.
Prom the Nashville Banner.
The height of something or other Is
indicated by the fact that two convicts
in the'same prison at Joliet. 111., were
painfully hurt when their still exploded.
Waste.
Prom the Butte Montana Standard.
The cost of 11.134 for .printing Ex
Senator Tom Heflin's speech defending
his seat in the Senate wasn’t worth that
much—even to Heflin.
Unsentimental.
I From the New York 8un.
The ruling of the chief of the Bureau
of Navigation that canoee must carry
navigation lighta is a tremendous blow
at the moon.
Dangerous.
Prom the Louisville Courier-Journal.
The trouble with “a political plat
form so simple that the man In the
j street could read It and understand it
in a few minutes" Is that he might be
! able to remember it after the election.
Self-Curing Deficit.
: From the Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman.
Some Congreaamen seem to believe
that if they can only make the Treas
usy deficit large enough it will be able
to CUN itself.
NEW BOOKS
AT RANDOM
I. G. M.
OWEN D. YOUNG: A New Type of
Industrial Leader. By Ida M. Tar
bell, author of "History of the
Standard Oil Co." etc. New York:
The MacMillan Co.
Today, June 7, releases this biography
and sets It upon its way. Here U clear
instance where writer and subject unite
in an unusual harmony of Interest and
outlook, bespeaking for this study both
sincerity of purpose and adequacy of
fulfillment.
For the past quarter century both
have been deeply engrossed In the
rapid industrial development of the
country. In the rise of combinations,
men and means, representing huge
tAnsacttons in money, leaders, workers,
production. Representing also an In
creasing complexity of situation and
process that has gradually imposed a
special technic upon each of the vari
ous great enterprises now grouped un
der the general Idea of industrialism.
Industry is a basic art, founded upon
the larg-as of nature and the needs of
man. Latterly, science, research, in
vention. application—an amazing com
pany—have so lifted and diffused in
dustry as to make plain the fact that,
at bottom, this spinning planet is an
I economic institution. That having
spawned the human so prolifically upon
it. it is now pointing th- way to sus
tain its progeny. And. br implication,
this supreme fact implies that the
earlier political devices of government
were but makeshifts while man was
getting his wind, so to speak, for learn
| ing the true lesson of this teeming
I earth That the setting up of kings
was child's play while the new lesson
was being learned That exalting the
few and degrading the manv was early
juvenile stuff. A new dominion has
risen. L rising. The dominion cf work,
production, a great commonaltv of en
deavor. where crude and deep inequities
must fall awav by their own self
destructive weight.
A new world, upon which these two.
I with manv another, h=ve been looking
I squarely tor these years past. Ida M
j Tarbell has been a patient and fear
less investigator, bringing big industry
| into the op"n for a more general under
standing of its objects, its methods, its
! benefits, its errors, its effects and need
of certain measres of reform and
regulation Her "History of ihe Stand
ard Oil Co." a case—a notable case—In
point.
vine cay. going up ina ocwn ner
newly pre-empted economic field. Miss
Tarbell rame uoon a young Bo»ton law
ver. Owen D Young, whom chance had
j brought into the way of the Boston
street railways, as a possible deliverer.
Street railways were young then, mere
rtly affairs. Thev weren't gting sc well.
Every sort of difficulty, financial, legal
labor, beset them. Failures were too
frequent, receiverships -too common It
was here that the youthful Boston law -
| yer took hold To the mind cf this
1 shrewd investigator of the methods of
! big business. he looked like something
\ new and different in the way of detect
ing inherent weaknesses of management.
| control, financing, delivering. A daring,
patient reasonable persuasive, concilia
tory fellow Miss Tarbell called him. So
she followed him Followed him out of
that particular dilemma of the Boston
'treet railways Into the wider Industrial
fields that opened before him. Fcr these
utilities lapidlv passed city limits,
crossed State lines and gradually en
meshed the Federal Commonwealth in
a system of "public utilities," incon
ceivably involved that railed for na
tional cognizance and regulation
At this or that point of industrial
problem znd resp:nsibility Owen D.
Young wa- likely to be found—still
"daring, reasonable, persuasive, coneili
I atory " later he became part of the
Oeneral Electric Co., where troubles,
internal and external, were of a quality
to test the powers of this man, who.
rlearly, was on his way to be a “new
type of industrial leader." Not merely
( a logician versed in corporation law. but
primarily a man. endowed with under
| standing and a rugged sympathy and
1 a deep conviction of the mutuality of
industry. Workers here, promoters there,
the two halves cf one whole, inseparable
as to wellbeing and success.
From this point there is the story of
the World War. Of the part of the
General Electric Co in matters of
equipment and transportation. In the
remarkable labor policy developed bv
that company during the war peried
Then follows the record of the Dawe*
plan and, later, of the Young plan.
Then the present. A prec-nt wherein
something like a panic of depression
holds A depression more widespread
and deeper than those that have gone
before, but. In essence, net unlike the
• periodic season? of financial distress end
moral deflrtion that have within the
past half century beset this rountn-.
testing the qualitv of the people as V
whole, setting out here and there true
leadership.
i Prnfoacinnalli' Hn ari T> V#nm» „ n
pears to have been brought up on points
cf acute industrial distress. During the
war and since that event the field of
this man In industrial and financial rc
' commodatlons has become an interna
tional field. Today he atands as a
great and greatly useful citizen of the
United States, and of the world, in fact.
Yet so simple a man, so human a
fellow that his story reads as un
, pretentious as "Pilgrim’s Progress" it
self. That Is the man. That is the
; scirit in which Ida Tarbtll has let him
stand throughout this book. That is
, the reason why this book, at this time.
I should have a wide reading. Here is
j some one behaving, under common dis
tress and difficulty, as you and I ought
to behave. As we would behave, doubt
leas, if we knew enough. But we do
not knew enough. We do not read
enough. We listen too much to any
thing that comes along. From such a
Book as this one—and there are others—
we should hold it as our Individual job
to find cut something of the ABC
of this dilemma before which we shiver
and shrink and whimper. However. I’m
no preacher, but it is high time for
the kindegarten class to assemble for
its first lesson in today, for its own
part in this today.
Hpre Is a simple, colloquial, interest
ing story of a man doing his woik right
now. when the going is hard. There is
no performance about it. Nothing here
that any one cannot do. And. besides,
here is a deal of national and inter
national common sense that It is good
to come upon. One will hardly find a
more approachable outlook upon signifi
cant and vital matters pertairjlng to the
Industrial problems of the present, nor
with mere definite rays of illumination
out of a past not essentially different
from this perturbing present, than will
come to you here by way of this highly
competent and engrossing study of a
modem American by way of his serv
ice to an industrialized America, by
way of his service to international eco
| nomic problems.
ai me ena oi ner stuay miss lameii
draws Owen Young off .from the bulk of
her findings. Evaluates him tersely as
an industrial leader, and in certain
1 contributory lines estimates him as an
j educator, also as a farmer. And there
is no more engaging chapter in the
whole bock than the one about the
New York farmer from Van Homesville.
For the all-of Owen Young is there in
the lad, in the young man. in the
country college that trained him and
won his heart. There, in the undimin
ished love with which he goes back to
the place and fairly flaunts It in his
travel signatures the world around.
At the moment it would be hard to
find a more profitable, a more interest
ing book than this story of Owen D.
Young. No. it is not a political pam
phlet. The man has not that brand of
ambition—not now, at any rate. Rather
as the atory of an American should it
be read, an American who meets the
increasing Individual demands of Amer
ican life with a high courage, with a
ready, hand, with a gallantry incompar
ably fine and stimulating. A great
piece of work on the part of Ida M.
Tarbell. Wa art in her debt
| ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN.
Any reader can get the answer to
any question by writing to our informa
tion bureau. In Washington, D. C. This
offer applies strictly to Information
The bureau cannot give advice on legal,
medical and financial matters. It does
not attempt to settle domestic troubles
3t undertake exhaustive research on any
subject. Write your question plainly
and briefly. Give full name and address
and inclose 2 cents in coin or stamps
for return postage The reply is sent
direct to the inquirer. Address The
Evening Star Information Bureau, Fred
eric J. Haslcin, Director, Washington,
D. C.
Q How good a golf game ia it pos
sible for a girl of 14 or 16 to develop?
—G. A. L.
A. It depends upon the training
There are a few girls, daughters of
professional players, who have handled
golf clubs from infancy and have devel
oped games of which men would be
proud. They play consistently in the
low 80s Miss Frances Williams of
Allentown, Pa., at the age of 20. plays
in the 70s on the Ormond Beach, Fla.,
course. ,
Q Where Is the seat of government
of the French Islands In the Southern
Pacific?—C. M S.
A. It la at Papeete, the seat of gov
ernment of Tahiti and of the French
Islands In Oceania. Tahiti Is the cen
ter, both administratively and cultural
ly. of all the widely scattered posses
sions In the South Pacific known as
French Oceania.
Q Is tobacco raised in Australia of
as good quality as American tobacco?
—H. K M
A The Office of Tobacco Investtga
1 tions savs that the types of tobacco
being raised In Australia for cigarette
production are not of a quality equal to
that of the cigarette tcbacco rai'ed In
this country. Attempts are at present
being made by the commonwealth gov
i ernment to improve the Australian
tobacco situation.
Q What are two-syllable words rail
ed which are equally accented on both
syllables?—H. R
A. Words such as compound, con
text. foot ball and amen are called
spondaic.
l Q What is meant by gainfully em
ployed?—E F E.
A. A gainful occupation In census
usage is an occupation for which the
person who pursues it earns money or
a money equivalent, or In which he
assists in the producticn of marketable
goods. The term’gainful worker does
net include women who do housework
in their own homes without wages and
having no other employment, nor does
it include children who assist about the
work at home.
Q Does the brain of the average
man exceed in weight that of woman1
— W A W
A From 11.000 brains weighed. Top
inard finds an average weight of 1,3fil
grams for man and 1.290 grams for
woman.
y nwui nu" u.un>
in the collection Of the British Museum?
—F C
A. The exact numtoer of books in
this London library cannot be definite
ly stated—probably 3,200 000 printed
books, including newspapers, maps and
music; 53 650 manuscript volumes. 85
000 charters and rolls, 18.000 seals 6nd
casts of seals. 2.850 papyri. 120.000
Oriental printed books and 16,400 Ori
ental manuscripts.
Q. How are the time signals sent
from the Naval Observatory in Wash
ington?—B. R.
A. The observatory's time signals,
based oti precise star observations, are
sent out at 3 a.m. noon and 10 p.m.
Eastern standard time, on telegraph
, control line* which operate automatic*
; ly the radio station! at Arlington and
Annapolis, and In addition at noon
those at Key West and San Diego.
Q Is William Beebe, the explorer,
married?—T. L.
A. His wife Is Eswyth Thane, the
novelist.
i -*
Q Is it true that foreigners cannot
own land In Japan—L. G.
A. In March. 1926. an alien lcr
law was passed, going into effect
November of that year. It liberalised
conditions under which foreigners m:
i obtain land in Japan, but barred fren
land ownership Citlsens of countries in
which Japanese are prohibited from
owning land.
Q I* bo* water safe to drink?—
D. T.
A. It is safer than clearer v.ater
which has not been analyzed. A-;d<
accumulate in bog water which kill
disease germs.
Q Is it possible to go to Alaska by
! automobile?—C. P. J.
A. At the present time it is not
nossible to drive to Alaska. The Alaska
highway has been proposed and pre
liminary surveys have been made.
Q What other events are celebrated
on the Fourth of July, our Independence
dav?—S. N.
A. Such a list would include the
birth of such myi an Nathaniel Haw
thorne. Giuseppe Garibaldi. Stephen
Collins Foster. Joseph Pennell and Cal
vin Coolidge John Adams. Thcmas
Jefferson and James Monroe died on
the Fourth of July. The corner stone
cf the Washington Monument was laid
Julv 4 1848: work w*s commenced on
the Erie Canal. 1817; the surrender of
Vicksburg occurred July 4. 1883; Provi
dence. R I was founded by Roger
Williams, 1636.
Q To settle a friendly dispute, kind
ly state whether it is necessary for a
man to be married to become President
of the United State*.—R C. G.
A It is not necessary for a man
to be married in order to become Pres
ident President Buchanan was a
bachelor when elected and remained a
bachelor. President Cleveland was mar
ried after becoming President. Presi
dent Jefferson was a widower, a* wer*
Van Buren and Arthur.
Q What is the population of Panama
City?—E. B
A. About 74.400.
O What la meant by a "ranking
member” in Congress?—B D.
A It refers to the member of each
partv on a committee who has served
longest on that committee next to the
chairman.
y wny aren i electric nciiu u.'ru iu
the Louvre?—D. N. T.
A An electric lighting system has
been installed in the Louvre, in Paris.
It was placed in operation October 29.
1928 The proposal to install electric
lights has been opposed for years be
cause of the fire risk which wiring
installation would bring abcut.
Q Why is water carried, in the In
dian Army, in leather bags made of
goatskin?—S. B
A. This variety of leather is used to
accommodate the Mohammedans, who
could not diink from a bag made of
pigskin, and the Hindus, who would be
unable to drink from one of calfskin.
V- r-iease ar^uiiue m lui/cju —
M B R
A The totem pole is a pole used
among North American Indians to ex
hibit the totem figures. The totem pola
is composed principally of hall-human,
half-animal figures, seated above one
another, above which appear* the par
ticular totem, or symbol
Admiral Benson Is Credited
With Brilliant War Service
The death of Admiral William S
Benscn. retired, has brought forth
many tributes to his conspicuous place
in the fighting organization of the
country during the World War. Htf
personal worth and achievements, both
in war and peace, receive notable recog
nition. and there is expression of the
deep regret felt at the passing of one
who served his country well.
"The death of Admiral William
Shepherd Benson, whom all America
honored, brings a sense of peculiar loss
to Georgia, his native State,” asserts
! the Atlanta Journal, as it says of him:
• Bom in Mncon 76 years ago. of a
family distinguished for its sterling
worth, he graduated from Annapolis,
and steered steadily iorward from en
sign to chief of his country's naval
operations- in the World War. In that
i high command, to which h- was ap
! pointed by President Wilson, he did
work of inestimable value to the allied
1 cause and of lasting Influence for the
efficiency of his own country's rea
forces. When he retired by operation
' of law. in the Autumn of 1919," recalls
i th“ Journal, "he had been 47 years in
I active service. Nor was his usefulness
I to the Republic then over. As chairman
of the Shipping Board, he continued to
promote interests of vital impartanc i
both to commerce and to national de
fense. and to the end of his career was
a scuree of good counsel and rare in
spiration Georgia numbered him
among her best loved and most chival
ric sons." The Hartford Daily Times
declares that his death "brings public
attention to the memory of one who
had a splendid war record, and was
' among the country's great executives."
* * * *
i As to his wora on me snipping
Board, the Portland Oregon Journal
- says: He stayed with the problems of
i shipping until a merchant fleet was
built up. until the trade routes were in
! creased, until the efficiency of the fleet
I was tremendously improved., until the
i cost to the public had been greatly di
minished, until American vessels were
! carrying a percentage of American
products higher than had been known
' in a centurv. until the freight coats to
i American shippers had been reduced
and until the shippers were assured
water transportation when water trans
portation is needed.” In fact, continues
that paper, "this man of naval affairs
saw the need of and fought for an
American merchant marine until the
victory was won.” As the Houston
Chronicle puts it. “Admiral Benson's
services to the Nation as chairman of
the United States Shipping Board after
the war were almost as notable as were
his activities while in the Navy proper.
Retaining his rank, he continued his
peace-time work by helping America
develop its merchant marine, a labor
of love for one who wished to see his
country's flag carried into every port of
the seven seas.”
* * * *
Another form of service rendered by
the admiral la noted by the Nashville
Banner, which states: "When the clos
ing days of the war came. Admiral
Benson was called on to help draw up
the terms of the armistice, and when
the American Peace Mission reached
Paris he acted as its adviser on naval
affairs. He was a splendid citizen,
aside from his excellent service in and
for the Navy, and his memory will
Tightly be honored as long as the recol
lection of the great struggle in which
he played so great a part persists.” The
Providence Evening Bulletin pays trib
ute to his "tact and understanding,”
qualities which he displayed to perfec
tion In the many diplomatic as well as
naval problems he had to tackle. The
Buffalo Evening News remarks: "There
was no question that he was a very
capable man in his knowledge of all
the technique of naval matters neces
sary to develop and direct an efficient
Beet”
“In every charge committed to him
he acquitted himself with distinction
chieBy. perhaps, because he gave him
self wholeheartedly and devotedly to it,
in simple loyalty and in full zeal An
unusual, an admirable and a most
interesting character, is thr opinion
j of the Charleston (S. C.) Evening Post.
Referring to the fact that ' some of the
years of his long service in the Navy
j were spent in Charleston.” the Post
continues: "There are many here who
were his friends then and who have
been his friends ever since and his
admirers always, and whom he never
forget nor turned from as he went
steadilv to the top of his profession
j and into the highest command any
American naval chief has ever attained
To them and to thes- who have heard
of him frem them Admiral Benson will
alwavs be a figure of rich mcdrline and
of fin” substance a warm-hearted,
devoted, true and brave gentleman."
An Accomplished Member.
Prom the Columbus Ohio Slat* Journal
We trust arrangements have been
made to put Calvin Coolidge on the
Reception Committee for that East In
dian who is coming over to break seven
years cf silence.
__|||_
Everybody's ish.
From the Cincinnati Times-Star
Whop, tax day roll! around who
wouldn’t want to be the forgotten man?
California the onderful.
1 From *he Toledo Blade
A California mountain is moving 2S
; yards a year. Those Californians have
a mighty faith.
Distant Reformers.
From the Minneapolis Journal.
A number of commencement orators
are busy settling Mussolini's hash. None
of them, however, are beyond the Alps
in Italy.
A Sad Reflection.
From the Columbus Ohio State Journal
After looking at some faces which
have been lifted, one wonders what they
were like In their fallen state.
Men of Honra.
From tht Oakland Tribuna.
Something should be done to prevent
these men of the hour from talking
more than two hours and a half.
No More Trouble*!
{ From the Roanoke Times.
We can’t get up much enthusiasm
over Nicholas Murray Butler's advocacy
of a third political party. Conditions
are bad enough with two.
_
Gruesome Reminder.
From the DetrMt News.
Dominion papers art giving wide
notoriety to the fact that the license
number of a Belleville, Ontario, motor
hearse is U-2.
•-■ ■
Prevention.
From the Toledo Blade.
To make two dandelions grow where
[ only one grew before, destroy the one.
Soviet Short.
From the Dayton Daily Nave.
Base ball Is going to be given a u.
out in Russia, where there are experts
in dealing out the kind ot punishment
that 1* befitting umpires.

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