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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. SATURDAY. ...'...June 18, 1932 THEODORE W. NOYES-Editor The Evening Star Newipaper Company Business Office: 11th 8t. and Pennsylvania Ave. I New York Offlce: 110 East 42nd St. I Chicago Office: Lake Michigan Building. European Offlce: 14 Regent at.. London, k England. ^ Rate by Carrier Within the City. The Evening Star. . ,45c per month The Evening and Sunday Star (when 4 Sunday*) .00c per month The Evening and Sunday Star i when 5 Sundays) .85c per month The Sunday Star .. .-5c per copy Collection made at the end of •«ah> month. Orders may be sent In by mall or telephone NAtlonal 5000. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virginia. Pally and Sunday.1 yr., 110 00: 1 mo.. *Se Dally only .1 yr., IS 00: 1 mo . 50c Sunday only .l yr., 14.00. 1 mo., 40c All Other States and Canada. Dally and Sunday.. .1 yr.. J12 00: 1 mo . 11 00 Daily only .1 yr.. |8 0C:lmo., 76c Sunday cnly .1 yr.. 15.00; 1 mo., 5ou Member ef the Associated Pres*. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of all news dis Jlatches credited lo it or not otherwise cred ted In this paper and also the meal news published herein. All rlshts of publication of •pedal dispatches herein are also reserved. * Victory in Defeat. In the manner of their acceptance of the defeat of the bonus bill, admin istered with such decisive finality by a heavy coalition majority of the Senate yesterday, the veterans who beseiged the Capitol in a dramatic show of strength won a great victory. Their victory was one that results from good discipline, and good discipline is only possible among good soldiers. There was a deep murmur that grew as it spread through the ranks after announcement of the vote from the steps of the Capitol. But a moment later heads were bared and the soldiers sang “America.” Within a few minutes the straggling columns were moving from the Capitol grounds, back to camp across the river. Nothing quite like it has ever happened in America These men wrote a new chap ter on patriotism of which their coun trymen may well be proud. But now, what? Will these men con solidate the gains they have made, reap the full benefit of their splendid and dignified conduct In battle under a fire that has been more galling, more trying to the nerves, more heartrending than j a sudden burst of shot and shell? Their leaders now, those within their ranks whom they have chosen and those in Congress who fought for their cause, bear a heavy responsibility. They should strive together to turn these men toward the homes they left to come here. While there is time and while the op portunity yet remains to tum a moral victory to best account cool heads should take control of the situation and bring about the only appropriate con clusion of this remarkable demonstra tion. That conclusion would be an; exodus from the city as orderly and as dramatic as the gathering of the army In the beginning. if they go now, every hand will be turned to help them. Their return will be likened to the return of an army from a battle, where honor has been won. Their march on Washington has Won many friends from erstwhile foes. No demonstration could have more itrongiy emphasized the tragic error that would have been made in pay ment of the bonus. No demonstration could more clearly have pointed out the fact that in dealing with the dis tress and suffering of this period no class can be singled out for special favor. For every one of these men who have assembled in Washington there are tens of thousands of other men at home whose condition is no better than theirs. For every one of the veterans, clamoring for the dollars that would be paid through the bonus, there are tens of thousands of others whose need is as great. To have sur rendered to the claim of these misled men would have been to deny to their comrades at home the promise of what relief now may be given through one or more of the measures sure to be enacted before the adjournment of Congress. But the mo6t significant demonstra tion of all has been that while these men may be ex-soldiers, while they may Xeel that they have an extraordinary claim for aid upon the Government for which they offered their lives, they are first of ail Americans. They have made a fine record here, and they ahould preserve it for history', unstained. A moratorium is often considered de llrable in affording time to develop polite excuses for no payment at all. i Speedy Justice in Sweden. Sweden moves more rapidly in its Judicial proceedings than some other countries, notably the United States. Yesterday a court at Stockholm passed sentence of nine months’ hard labor and a fine of $162,000 upon Bror Bred berg. a director in the enterprises of the late Ivar Kreuger, the so-called match king, who took his own life in Paris March 12. Bredberg Is one of six associates of Kreuger who are ac cused of fraud in connection with the manipulation of the accounts of the corporations that comprised the great Kreuger combination. It is not unfair to say that If this situation had de veloped in America probably three years rather than months would have elapsed between the disclosure of Irreg ularities in the management involving heavy losses to investors and the con viction and sentence of a participant In the fraud. Of course, the prompt ness of the punitive proceedings in Sweden will not effect the restoration of a dollar to those who lost in the Kreuger enterprise. But the moral ef fect of this speedy justice as a warn ing and deterrent is assured. American judicial procedure is slow to the point o' virtual denial of jus tice to the public. Cases are pre pared for trial with deliberation on the part of both the prosecution and the defendant. Calendars are congested and trial dates are set months after In dictment. Trials are protracted by the multiplication of testimony, by elaborate examination, by profuse ar guments. After verdict is rendered, in some instances three and four months after the beginning of the testimony, long lapses occur in the preparations for appeal in case of conviction, and when the appeal is finally presented to the upper court arguments are begun only after further delay and the higher court takes weeks and in some cases months for consideration and decision. Therj U always a chance of i|versal on some technicality which Involves re trial, with further time spent In a rep etition of the process. So persistent Is this course of de liberate and protracted judicial proceed ing In the United States that the public has come to expect It and to look for ward to the lapse of two or three years between discovery of an offense and, In the event of conviction, the beginning of penalty. Impatience with this long process of law enforcement has been manifested for years. Some advance has been made toward expedition by the clearing of the calendars of the higher courts, but no steps have been taken toward expedition of the Initial trials either in the shortening of time be tween accusation and examination or in the period of the trials themselves. Occasionally when a particularly shock ing crime has been committed, arousing public indignation to a high pitch, grand juries act promptly and trial courts press ! through to exceptionally quick conclu sions. These exceptions, however, only occur when an emotional public urge demands speed. The average of time required to apply the law to the point of punishment remains undiminished. Reform in this matter of judicial procedure to the end of greater expedi tion has been demanded so often with- 1 out effect that hope of a betterment of conditions has ebbed to a low point. The problem is being studied by emi nent persons both in and out of the legal profession, and yet with so little result that it seems to have become rather an academic question than a matter of urgent public necessity. The French Gold Withdrawal. With the purchase in New York of $55,000,000 of gold by the Banque de France, an element of uncertainty for tlie American bankers and the Federal Reserve has new been removed. Since last September, the foreign banks of issue, and especially the Banque de France, the Belgian, the Netherland, and the Swiss national banks have been withdrawing their gold from the United States. Speculation was rife in Europe as to when the United States, unable to stand the pressure of gold withdrawal, would follow Great Britain’s example and go off the gold standard. The platonic speculation of the European financial experts was followed by the actual speculation of many European bankers and brokers who, on the as sumption that, the United States would abandon the gold standard not later than this Fall, had sold the dollar short in the hope of reaping as rich a harvest as in the case of Great Britain. The New York bankers and the Fed eral Reserve Bank, although confident that the withdrawal of gold from this country would be ultimately beneficial to all concerned, were nervous, not be ing able to gauge the moral effect on the people of the United States. The final liqu*»*«on of the foreign gold occurred on <bu» 14. Out of some $3,000,000,000 of tcrvlglt money depos ited or invested in this country in 1929 only some $700,000,000 Is left. This amount is. however, as good as non existent, as far as the Federal Reserve is concerned, because It is all earmarked for export abroad In the form of gold bullion. Until September, 1931, the pound sterling was Uia yardstick which meas ured all lntemnjcnal money transac tions. When fte pound became un stable as a consequence of Britain hav ing given up the gold standard, France had hoped to take her place on the assumption that America would follow Britain's example, under the pressure of the gold withdrawal and its in ability to ielance the budget by new taxes on *he eve of the presidential elections The reasoning of the European financiers and speculators was wrong; the foreign gold has been withdrawn in full, the budget is being balanced, and the dollar has remained the only stable currency in the international market. The effect of the liquidation of foreign deposits in this country has been to stabilize the dollar at its exact value in the foreign money markets; to ease the credit situation in the United States, where bankers need no longer worry over the necessity of having j liquid money to meet any call from abroad; to put an end to the world speculation in foreign currencies, and to Increase the gold reserves of the various European banks of issue, thus enabling them to use their surplus of gold for the needs of their commerce and industry. If the political situation in Europe improves in the course of this year, the increased gold deposits will be an important factor for the revival of economic life in Europe. Should the political sky remain overcast there Is a. serious danger that the private in vestors will again let their gold emi grate to the United States in spite of the desire of the Federal Reserve and the Wall Street bankers to avoid the renewal of such an occurence. A race with results as securely pre dicted as the recent one in Chicago may go a long way in reform by dis couraging gambling. There were a few speakeasies, but no handbookmakers. , Mtr - The Late Mayor Walker. It would seem that the mayor of New York, now under accusation as negligent of his duties, would be scru pulously careful to keep his official en gagements and try to correct the habit of tardiness which has earned for him the ribald title of the "late” Jimmy Walker. But evidently the habit of tardiness is too firmly fixed to permit him to meet his engagements on time. An illustra tive case occurred yesterday. The United States has just bought from the | municipality a site for a new Federal j court house. The transaction was some what complicated, involving certain ex changes of territory. It finally worked out to the point where the United States owed the city of New York $2,440,640 in immediate payment. A Treasury check for that amount was drawn and arrangements were made to turn it over to Mayor Walker at City Hall yesterday at 12:35 p.m. The United States attor ney for the New York district and a representative of the Treasury Depart ment presented themselves at municipal headquarters promptly at that time. The mayor was absent. The mayor’s secretary was consulted and explained that the mayor must have been held up by traffic. He suggested that the bearers of the check return at 2:30. They went away and presumably had luncheon, and at the postponed hour reached the City Hall, and there they met the mayor, who had just arrived. The check was formally turned over to him, the usual flashlight photographs were taken, the mayor beamed In acknowledgment of the check and handed the deed to the site to the Federal ofllclals. The Inci dent was closed. No explanation has yet been vouchsafed as to why the mayor kept the United States waiting for two hours to pay the city about two and a half million dollars. New York got the money, the United States got Its deed, and It was all In the day's work. What Is time to a mayor, any way? Long and Coxey Proposed. Owing to a mlx-up over the eligibility of the nominee of the Farmer-Labor party for President, selected at a con vention held In Omaha, a new ticket may be named by that organization. The chairman of the National Executive Committee at Council Bluffs, Iowa, has taken the matter in hand, and without bothering to call another convention, has written a ticket that pleases him, whether it satisfies the rank and file I of the party or not. He has invited Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana to be the party’s candidate for President and Jacob S. Coxey of Ohio, now mayor of Massilon, to run for Vice President. "General” Coxey has, it Is now reported, accepted the honor, but thus far no response has come from Senator Long. It is really to be hoped that he will take the nomination. The ticket of Long and Coxey would be an Interest ing one. Senator Long would make a lively campaigner for himself and “General Coxey” Is never at a loss for words. Both are national figures. Both are believers In peculiar doctrines of Government. Senator Long is an adept at office holding, has proved his abil ity to hold two offices at once. These are strange times and strange things may happen. He might be elected President on the Farmer-Labor ticket and he would then have a chance to bifurcate himself again and occupy the presidential chair and a senatorial seat simultaneously. The experiment might be worth trying. If restoration of the brewery as a raiser of public revenue should by any means prove a success some reminis cent economist is pretty sure to recall the old custom of lotteries to help the State financially. Even the old Louisi ana lottery was never accused of being as precarious as some of the stock ex change speculations. It is reported that Chicago night clubs and dance- halls were disappoint ed by the scant patronage by conven tion delegates. They were all previous ly informed about the perils of a me tropolis. The most remote hamlet now lias its motion picture theater. Objection to any interference with Hawaii's present political system was expressed in the Republican platform. This averts another incidental topic calculated to Interfere with a discus sion of debts and collections in lucid terminology. Good judgment would lead Chinese and Japanese to suspend any warlike demonstrations during a presidential campaign which would prevent the American public from paying much at tention to anything else. There were many decorative toy bal loons In the big convention hall, but none of them attracted as much atten tion as former Senator France's ora torical parachute which failed to open. A number of weeks of campaigning must intervene before the radio can go back to George Washington's Bicen tennial. SHOOTING STARS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Truth. My Uncle Jim, he says, says he "The Good Book's never wrong; In it the simple truth we’ll see In phrases clear and strong. The Truth as Golden Apples stands With Sliver Pictures Framing.” This statement in far ancient lands Our faith anew is claiming. The sounding brass, the base alloy, Will make a showing brave, But are not what we must employ In a transaction grave. And in our business, small or great, In friendship or in quarrels, Relations we must regulate With bimetallic morals. Lofty Observation. "Where do you stand on prohibi tion?" asked the lady with a note-book. "I'm not sure,” answered Senator Sorghum, "that I'm standing at all.” “Yet you are inevitably prominent in the discussion.” "Prominent, but powerless. It has gotten me so much in the air that I feel like a pole-sitter.” Jud Tunkins says It’s a fine feeling to be having your own way, but you're lost if you pick the wrong direction. Tonic Specialist. When In his youth he misbehaved Gambrinus went to college. In grim seclusion there he slaved To gain superior knowledge. When economic pains arise And symptoms new entwine us, Some of us think it might we wise To send for Doc Gambrinus. — Recipe. “What do you think of the sugges tions regarding the eighteenth amend * ment?” “Some of them,” responded Uncle Bill I Bottletop, "remind me of an old-fash I ioned mint julep—a measured amount | of alcohol, along with ice water, with , discretion; vegetation to encourage the ! farmer, and political sweetenin’ accord 1 ing to taste.” “A philosopher with a great idea,” 1 said Hi Ho, the sage of Chinatown, “is like my ancestor who invented gun powder, but had no conception of the possibilities of its practical application. So he was satisfied to amuse himself with the explosion and made firecrack ers of it.” Reminiscence Acclaimed. The orator great heights would reach. His effort had a punch. ] It was no after-dinner speech, * But just about free lunch. ‘ De best music to my ear,” said Uncle Eben, “is de p’litical jazz dat kin make three cheers harmonize wif de dinner ben.” v THIS AND THAT BY CHARLES E. TRACEWELL. What looks better In a lawn than some clover? Yet many home owners profess to de test It. Perhaps they are the same people who claim to like the dark meat of turkey better than the white. Nothing bo sets ofT the true grasses In a lawn as patches of some small clover, such as the so-called Dutch, with Its dark green leaves. Even the blossoms, rightly viewed, are aids, not detriments. Too much clover of course, with the white blossoms permitted to remain on their stalks until faded, would not par ticularly beautify a yard. The weekly cutting with the mower, however, will remove most of the stalks and flower heads, and these may be raked up. The flowers are soon gone, but the leaves linger on. * * * * Seedsmen, as well as home owners, differ in their liking for clover in a lawn grass mixture. Some use it, some do not. The claims made against it are main ly two-fold, that it is unsightly, and that it tends to die out at the wrong time of the year. In its favor it is said that It helps make a mat of roots, preventing lawn surfaces from washing out, particularly on terraces; that Its beneficial action on the sell Is very large; and that It keeps places green which otherwise might be bare in the height of Summer. So take your choice. We happen to be a cloverlte, and are always glad to see it listed in the com ponent seeds of any grass mixture. If necessary, we go to the extent of pur chasing a pound or so to sow on bare spots. * * * a There is not a pound of anything, not even butter, which the householder may purchase more advantageously than a sack of Dutch white clover, Trifolium repens. It will not be a large sack—these small, round seeds are very heavy. They will go a long way, however. A pound will be enough. A few dropped into bare spots, at al most any tune of. the year, will grow readily into sturdy, flat clover plants. The browning of the blossoms, after all. Is a very small matter. The big thing to keep in mind Is the ameliorization of the soil. * * * * It Is not for nothing that modem agriculture, with its rotation of crops, Is built solidly around clover and Its ac tion in the earth. Nitrogen-bearing bacteria on its roots do what man, unaided, scarce can do. This co-operation of bacteria and certain plants, chiefly the Legumi nosae (peas, beans, clovers, etc.) results in the restoration of nitrogen to the j soil. And nitrogen is the one element which the growing things in the earth must have. Various cultures may be secured, to put upon legume seeds, in order that j their growth may be the greater, owing 1 to their Increase in this power of creat ing nitrogen. * * * * Who is there so unfortunate as not to remember some field of red clover through which he wandered as a youth? The scent was delightful, even to childish nostrils. Then there was a large form of white clover which grew thick and delicious. Some of the more cultivated forms of red clover long ago eser.ped to home lawns. There were few yards in the small towns of America which did not have at least a few clumps of red clover growing in them. There is something utterly clean about the smell of clover; few other plants can equal it in this respect. There Is nothing cloying about it, although It is strong enough. All clovers belong to the genus Trifollum, which means three-leafed. As every one knows, the discovery of a clover plant with the leaves grow ing In fours, known as a four-leaf clover, Is held by the world to be par ticularly fortunate. Only this year the Washington ball team, after losing several games, was sent an envelope of four-leaf clovers, with the Instructions from the “fan" who sent It to place one In the shoe of each member of the team. One man held out, and the team began to lose. When he at last placed his clover “as per directions" the team won the game. So went the story, at any rate, and those who have since ancient times be lieved in this superstition will be able to see nothing unusual about It. * * * * There are about 300 species of leguminous plants, most of them used for fodder, either animal or human. The seeds are what mankind eats, notably in peas, beans and lentils. The latter are mentioned often in the Bible, but are not much used in America for food. Veterinarians advise a mixture of beef and lentils for house cats. Some of these animals often prove very fond of this, but mostly In time tend to shy away from It. The word "legume" comes from the Latin legere, to pick, quite understand able in the case of our peas and beans. Our word "legerdemain" posslbly comes from the same root, through the French "leger de main," light of hand. * * * * In the home lawn one Is not so much Interested in clover secrets as in clover results. What one aims at. in planting it, Is a better lawn, one which tends to look greener the year around. Since Dutch white,clover Is a peren nial, It will not go back on one, In most cases, especially if the grass, as a whole, is fed certain plant foods. If clover Is used In apy appreciable quantities, it is necessary to see to it that the soil has plenty of lime, phos phorus and potash. The last two are supplied by most commercial fertilizers. Some of them use lime as a basis for the incorporation of these elements in an integral fertilizer. Clover should be sown, therefore, only on those lawns seeded In accord ance with what may be called old-time methods, which depend upon an alka line soil, rather than In tune with the newer idea of a slightly acid soil. The use of hydrated or agricultural lime on the lawn Is not to be under taken offhand, even by the most care less person; lime is not a material to scatter heedlessly any place. Rightly understood, and correctly used, It is beneficial to soils and to many plants. * * * * German iris, for instance, treated with lime in early Spring, as early as February or March, will respond with splendid blossoms. But Japanese Iris should not have it. If lime is to be used on lawns, it should be placed out not later than February, and permitted to become thoroughly incorporated with the soil through the action of the rains. Clover sown in such a soil, either by itself, or in a certain percentage in the grass seed mixture, will take root Joyfully, and reward the amateur hor ticulturist with some of those fine patches of deep green which are like pools and eddies in the ocean. Strict uniformity, therefore, is lack ing in such a lawn. Whether the home owner will like this, or not. depends en tirely upen his temperament. If he does, the lawn will be more beautiful to him with plenty of Dutch white clover in it. And he may rest assured that his grasses will be In better condition, as a result of the underground work of the clover roots and their little aides. Highlights on the Wide W orld Excerpts From Newspapers of Other Lands VATERLAND. Lucerne—In the council and legislative halls, and in the press, we hear or read much about the question of foreign cheese. How far should we go in permitting importa tions, and what mere drastic regula tion should be enforced to see that neither the government nor Swiss in dustry is defrauded of its just returns from these commodities? it is a very illogical thing* that in a country whose chief product, in an agricultural sense, at least, is fme cheese, should be injured in that very particular. No similar product of any nation is any better, and in our own country it should be cheap, so cheap that there would be no market here for inferior grades imported from the “outland.” It has become increasingly evident, however, that these importations are not intrinsically for local consumption, but are rather designed to promote a new commercial exploitation of our country by foreign merchants, who re label and repack ordinary Italian gorgonzcla, or French roquefort and ship it to America or to some other country with a vitiated taste, as genuine Swiss cheese. Even after they have paid the duty into Switzerland, they can still undersell real Swiss cheese in the foreign markets and make a handsome profit besides. Such is the situation confronting the Schweizerische Kueseunion (Guild of Swiss cheese makers) and it has already revived an agitation for stricter vigilance and control on the part of the government. Every deputy and member of the council is to be made fully cognizant of the threat to so I important an .ncustry. <- -X- ^ I Cairo Writer Sees Dangers for Irish. Egyptian Gazette, Cairo.—Eamon de Valera has been called the world champion hair-splitter, but there is nothing finicky about the policy he has advocated for some years past and now intends to try to put into operation. He believes in three things: (1) Turning the English out of Ireland (2) The union of Ireland into one whole. (3» The repudiation of Ireland’s debt under the land act. "Turning the English out of Ire land," means, now. nothing more nor less than abolishing the oath of al legiance. for the English have long left Ireland in the sense of having ceased to interfere in any way in her internal affairs. We have the late Tim Healy’s word for it during the time he was governor general there was never the slightest ! suspicion of an English wish to in i teifere or give advice. If Mr. de Valera persists in his intentions about the oath and has a majority of the Irish people with him, the oath will certainly go, for England has not the slightest intention of going to war with Ireland about the question, nor even of using any sort of coercive measures. The results to Ireland of abolish ing the oath will be the results purely of her own action. She will, for the time being, become a country with no international status, will cease to be a member of the British Common w'ealth of Nations and, now that Britain is a protectionist country will risk losing favored treatment in the market which buys 90 per cent of her exports. Further, the large number of Irish citizens officially employed in various parts of the British Empire will have to choose between resignation and naturalization. Mr. de Valera’s hope for a United Ireland is shared by the British govern ment and during the last few years some of the old bitter feeling between the Free State and Ulster has evaporated. But the time is still far from ripe for union, and the British government would certainly not be a party to any pressure on Ulster In this direction. To repudiate Ireland's debt under the land act would be an act of dis honesty. The land grants were part of the agreement between Britain and Ireland. They were modified in 1926 In a manner which Mr. Cosgrave described as most generous. To go back on the obligations entered into would be political perfidy and would show that Mr. de Valera does not recognize the essential requirements of friendly relationship between civilized govern ments. The situation is. no doubt, as is conveyed by Reuter's cables today, a grave one for all concerned In Ire land’s welfare. But it is grave chiefly for the Irish people themselves. If they allow themselves to be led into folly by De Valera it is they who, economically, will suffer the worst consequences. Ecuador Police Aid Health Drive. El Telegrafo, Guayaquil.—The senor superintendent general of police, echo ing the denunciations uttered by the senor municipal physician, to whom is confided the health cf the city, has imparted orders to all subalterns in the Police Department that they proceed to arrest every person they see throwing any sort of rubbish or refuse in the streets, no matter of what description. These people are to be detained without any distinction of class, sex or condition, in a further effort to see if our thoroughfares can not be kept in a more salubrious state. Infractors of this ordinance will be severely fined, and in default of pay ment be imprisoned until they have been duly mpressed with the serious ness of this matter. The municipal physician declares It impassible to maintain a satisfactory state of public health, while the streets continue breeding grounds for fevers and malaria. Tax Bankruptcy. From the Morgantown Dominion-News. The specter of tax bankruptcy is faced by a good many Americans these days. Tax levies, according to Melvin Traylor, president of the First National Bank of Chicago, take the estimated equivalent of cne day’s labor every week from every one In the country. A few years ago 1 out of every 22 persons gainfully employed was on the public pay roll: now the percentage is 1 in 11. It Is said that if the present rate con tinues, in a little over 20 years we will have 1 perscn working for government for every person who pays taxes! Recently, in a Middle Western State, 1,000.000 acres of land were taken over by the counties for unpaid taxes. Another State has an $18,000,000 deficit. Another has $10,000,000 In signed con tracts for certain projects and is un able to raise a single dollar with which to meet them. In many parts cf the country local bond issues have de faulted, schocls have been closed, neces sary functions of government have been crippled, public employes have been un paid. This is what government extravagance has done. Higher taxes is not the solu tion. The people cannot pay. In Ohio, according to Mark Sullivan, with present low commodity prices, the State and municipalities take, In taxes, an amount about equal to the entire value of every farmer’s crop. Nothing but tax bank ruptcy can result if the trend of today is continued. Predicters. Prom the Toronto <Ontario) Dally Star. They now employ a machine to pre dict earthquakes, although plenty of men would be glad to accept the Job at [ at a fair salary.. v . a* THE LIBRARY TABLE BY SARAH G. BOWERMAN. Gertrude Atherton, who hu Just pub lished her memoirs under the title "Adventures of a Novelist,” will, accord ing to "Who’s Who in America,” be 75 years old In October. Though she has reached the reminiscent period, there Is nothing in these memoirs to indicate philosophic aloofness from active life or a farewell to adventure. Mrs. Atherton obviously enjoys looking back upon all the varied experiences of her life, and in telling of them seems to relive them with relish or vigorous diBtaste. Per haps the great vitality of her spirit and style are partly to be explained (she herself Suggests this explanation) by the Stelnach rejuvenation treatment which she took in New York Just before she wrote her novel "Black Oxen.” in which the heroine Is a rejuvenated woman. Mrs. Atherton describes her treatment and the writing of the novel on pages 554-559. In reading "Adven tures of a Novelist” one receives the im pression of a personality precocious and mature from early childhood, extremely vital, unemotional. Intellectual, egotis tic, super-sophisticated, "hard-boiled." Another impression is that Mrs. Ather ton has had a wonderfully good time all through life—that is, ever since the death of her husband after only a few years of marriage. This qualification is not one suppUed by the reader. Mrs. Atherton herself makes It quite clear, and her reasons are scattered through the early part of the story. When her not very satisfactory husband set out on the journey to Chile from which he never returned, "I was reasonably con tent," she comments, “for this mild phase of freedom was better than noth ing.” When the news of his death was brought to her by Rose, her mother's privileged old servant who had cared for her In childhood, and Rose re marked, "You're a cool young one. . . . You don’t even look excited,” she re plied "diplomatically.” "Perhaps I am stunned. . . . But you’d better go home and get breakfast. It was good of you to come.” After the death of George Goni Ath erton, Gertrude Atherton turned her back on all the legal possibilities caused by her husband's borrowings and failure to pay, left her small daughter with her mother-in-law, of whom she was always fond, and went to New York to make a business of being a writer. She had already had a small and somewhat scandal-producing literary success in “The Randolphs of Redwoods.” a novel in which she revived an old San Fran cisco scandal and introduced many of the elite of Menlo Park, including her sister-in-law, as characters. The New York critics were not kind to her next novel, “What Dreams May Come,” and she says: "I was more horrified and astonished by the lack of chivalry' in these tirades than by the wholesale condemnation of the book.” In disgust she left New York and went to Paris to visit her sister-in-law, who had for given her for the liberty taken in im personating her in “The Randolphs of Redwoods." From this time Mrs. Ath erton spent much of her life abroad— in France, England and Germany. Her next novels, published in England, were more hospitably greeted by English crit ics. who prophesied that she was the coming American iTTman novelist. In writing her novels abe has had the habit of selecting a nmw place in which to write each new novel. After spend ing a short time in the place* chosen for the setting of a novel, in order to impress herself with the atmosphere, she has retired to another place to do the creative work. Some of the places chosen have been far from comfort able—poorly heated, scantily furnished, noisy—but in them her Imagination has been able to work. They have included a picturesque but chilly Sacred Heart Convent at Boulogne; & “hotel of sorts” at Fort Ross. Calif., “with the sea thundering at the base of the cliffs and the Winter wind howling in the red wood forest"; a lodging in Haworth, within sight of the churchyard where the Brontes were buried; a lodging in a Hertfordshire cottage; a neglected old house in a tangled yard outside Rouen; Washington. D. C. (when writing “Sen ator North"); a resort in the Adiron dacks: an apartment in Munich, where altogether she spent many years; Ber keley Inn. where she was at the time of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, and many different temporary abodes in San Francisco, New York and London. * * * * Her writing has always been Mrs. Atherton's primary Interest, but she has found time in a crowded life for many other activities and for many persona] associations. Her enjoyment of people and things has always been keen. Even when she has been drawn, with great reluctance on her part, into enterprises which were not to her taste, she has entered into them with zest and energy. Hers is a dynamic person ality. She may often have been, rest less, rebellious, indignant, but it is doubt ful if she has often been bored. She campaigned in California for Woodrow Wilson, although she had only a "slight leaning" toward the Democratic party, had never made a speech in her life, and "never had wanted to make one," and privately "admired Roosevelt more than Wilson." She was. however, "bent upon being thorough,” and so in one of her speeches attacked Roosevelt as “the 100-per-cent male—one had only to look at that cave-man face.” She notes with pride that the Republican State of California was carried for Wilson, but confesses that during the campaign she was several times privately admonished -to be less flippant and to take her sub ject more seriously. Her very success ful organization and conduct of the "ceuvre,” Le Bien-Etre du Blesses, in New York during the World War, was not work of her own choosing. It was forced upon her, almost frantically, by French friends, when she was in Paris for the purpose of visiting the war zone, to gather material for newspaper ar ticles. The story which she tells of her decorations from the French govern ment is an amusing part of the “ceuvre" experience. * * * * Not all the “life” of the United States is to be found in the cities. Albert Blumenthal in his book “Small Town Stuff," ft University of Chicago study, takes a typical small community, Mine ville, surmised by some critics to be in Montana, and describes the industrial, domestic and social life. The popula tion of Mineville is about 1,500: that of the county in which it is located about 3,000. Its industries are silver, lead, zinc and manganese ore mining and stock raising. The average income of a family is less than $2,000 a year, but on this families live very well, and in times of depression the town takes care of Its own unemployed without asking outside help. There are no mil lionaires in residence. The “outstand ing economic successes are middle class people with incomes which usually range from $5,000 to $10,000 a year." The townspeople love the town and feel that “when a fellow goes away he gets lonesome because he don’t know a soul.” ! Social activities are as continuous as In a large city, if the social circle is more i restricted, and they are “required and i not optional.” Seven leading families j constitute the “four hundred.” On a j smaller scale, Mineville has all the ad vantages of a large city, Including speakeasies and bootleggers. * * * * Anne Parrish wrote one good novel, i “The Perennial Bachelor,” and since Its ! appearance has written several not so good, which have perhaps sold because readers have been hoping for a worthy companion to the ’’Bachelor.” Her most recent novel, “Loads of Love.” is the story of Bessie, approaching middle age, who carries about “loads of love” for every one, when, unfortunately, no one wants her love. Evat while feeling sorry for her, we know that we should not want It ourselves. She Is good, but uninteresting. t Pests. Prom the San Antonio Express. The most destructive Insect pest of 1931 was the grasshopper, reports the Federal Bureau of Entomology, but the habitual gloom-spreader was ft close second. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC J. UASKIN. Any reader of this newspaper Is wel come to make use at any time of the free Information service of this de partment. Address your Inquiry to The Evening Star Information Bu reau. Frederic J. Haskln, Director, Washington, D. C.t and you will re ceive a personal letter In reply. Inclose 2 cents for return postage. Be sure to state your question clearly and to write your name and address plainly. Q. Do steel strings on a tennis racket wear a ball quicker than gut strings?—D. B. A. No Information is available on this point. However, the great wear on a tennis ball Is due not so much to contact with the racket as to the abrasion which takes place In contact with the ground. Q. How does the amount of money spent by the United States Govern ment for veterans’ relief compare with a like expenditure In other coun tries?—B. M. A. The appropriations of our Gov ernment exceed those of all other coun tries combined. The men mobilized in this country totaled 4.355.000, while the armies of Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy and Canada totaled 34,244,636. Q. Is there to be another Byrd ex pedition to the South Pole?—O. S. A. Rear Admiral Byrd Is planning a second trip to the Antarctic in Sep tember, 1932. Q If all the gold money in the world were melted into one block, how large would the block be?—E. D. N. A. The monetary gold in the world cast in one solid block would form a cube 31 feet in each dimension. Q. How many miles of the Trans siberian Railway are double-tracked?— F. -W. H. A. It is double-tracked from Omsk to Vladivostok, a distance oi 3,566 miles. Q. What 1s the pomato?—T. M. L. A. It is a plant produced by the late Luther Burbank, obtained by cleft grafting tomato scions onto potato roots. These two vegetables are closely related, being two different species of the same genus (Solanum), and Mr. Burbank succeeded in producing both tomatoes and potatoes on the same plant. The pomato has never had any commercial Importance, but is interest ing as an example of plant breeding. Both the fruit and the tubers are edi ble. but such a plant could hardly be made to produce both tomatoes and potatoes of good flavor, nor in com mercial quantity. Q What force patrols the Mexican border in Texas?—E. S. A. The State of Texas maintains a small body of mounted military police, called rangers, or the Texas Rangers, whose principal duties con sist in enforcing the State laws along the Mexican border. Q. Did the real Alice of “Alice in Wonderland’’ marry?—A. S. D. A. She married and became the mother of three sons. Two were lost in the World War. Q Is the postmistress at Wakefield, Va., related to George Washington?— F. W. K A. M:ss Julia L. Washington, post mistress at Washington's birthplace, is descended from George Washington's half-brother Augustine. Q. How was the tax on bank checks collected in 1898?—T. W. R A. The Bureau of Internal Revenue says that the tax on bank checks was passed July 1, 1898, and repealed July 1, 1901. The tax was an imprinted stamp on blank checks that were made by certain companies. Employes were kept In the banks to certify as to the number of checks that came in. The bank placed a requisition for a supply of these bank checks and paid in ad vance the price of the tax. Individuals who used the checks were then required to pay for the book or for each in dividual check when used. The charge was two cents for each check. Q. What per cent of the trade of the United States is foreign when times are good and when times are bad?— W. W. H. A. The foreign trade of the United States is approximately 10 per cent of the total trade. This holds fairly true regardless of prosperity or depression. Q. When was the crossbow used in England?—C. A. V. A. It was used chiefly in the twelfth century, but was not unknown in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Q. Did the United States actually pay to Spain $5,000,000 as a purchase price for Florida?—V. W. A. The $5,000,000 which the United States paid for Florida instead of being paid directly to Spain was paid to citi zens of the United States in discharg ing claims for damages to American commerce permitted bv Spanish author ities during the War of 1812. Q. How many stamps has the Gov ernment Philatelic Agency sold in the past five years?—P. H K. A. The Post Office Department says that during the last five years approx imately 1,200.000 stamps have been sold by the Government Philatelic Agency. Q. When was Flag dav first cele brated In a public school?—W. Me A A. Philadelphia was the first to ob serve the day in the schools—June 14 1893. Q. What are the Pillars of Hercules? —N. T. A. The Pillars of Hercules are two hills on opposite sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, so called because of the myth that they had been torn asunder by Hercules to admit the flow of the ocean into the Mediterranean. Q. Please give the names of the win ners of the Indianapolis classic —L L. M. A. It was won this year by Fred Frame driving a Miller-Hartz special He averaged 104 144 miles per hour. Howard Wilcox, in a lien Head special, won second prize: Cl.ff Bergere, in a Studebaker, won third: Bob Carey, In a Meyer special, won fourth: Russell Snowberger, in a Hupp Comet, won fifth prize. Q. Why do people live longer now than formerly?—E T. A There are many factors which contribute to prolong the span of human life. Among the more important are improved living conditions, pure food, cleaner milk, pure drinking water, proper d-sposal of refuse and specific action cf the public health service to ward various diseases Q When were marble-topped stands and table popular? ’—L. C. A They were at the height of their popularity in the 1870s. Q When did Kipling live in the TJ"n’ts*^ A He visited the United States and married in 1892 the daughter of H. WT Balestier of New York and lived for several years in Vermont. Q What is meant by the practice of ' Fletcherism"?—A L. R A. "Fletcherism'' is a theory advo cated by Horace Fletcher that perfect health requires and is maintained by complete mastication or a chewing of the food into pulp. Brookhart’s Defeat Is Laid j To Criticism of Policies “Signs of the times.” are seen by the country in the primary defeat of Smith Wiidman Brookhart. Senator from Iowa. Lack of patience with his opposition to constructive legislation, and with his extreme independence are pointed to as factors in failure to obtain renom ination. His influence with agricul tural interests is held to have been weakened through increased public at tention to costly legislation. The charge of nepotism also receives some public attention. The successful candidate is Henrv Field. "Dressed up as a champion of the plain people against the dragons of this, that and the other, he no longer represented Iowa, but a tendency and policies which Iowa only wanted one good straight look at to repudiate,” de clares the Chicago Tribune (independ ent Republican i. As viewed by the Schenectedf Gazette (independent Democratic, “campaigning in his own State as an ultra-progressive, he had voiced some governmental schemes oi marked instability at Washington, while actually falling far short of insurging against reactionary administrations.” The Gazette thinks “It Is doubtful if he could have won any following to his proposals.” ■ Denunciation of the ‘interests.' that once came in so handy to raliy the voters, fails to register,” in the opin ion of the Baton Rouge Advocate (Dem ocratic), while the San Jose Mercury Herald i Republican >, calling him "the standard bearer of Populism.” con cludes that "the agrarian radicalism that he stood for offers no remedy for existing economic ills." The Sioux Falls Argus-Leader (independent Re publican!. attests that “at no time has he turned his hands toward construc tive accomplishments for the people he was supposed to represent,” while the New Orleans Times-Picayune (Demo cratic). believes that he "never has been cured of his persuasion that gov ernment could work, by process of lav ish appropriation or regulative device, miracles curative of almost every farm and economic ailment, no matter what its cause.” * * * * "The people are learning rapidly to differentiate between ballyhoo and good business,” says the Toledo Blade (in dependent Republican), and the Apple ton Post-Crescent (independent) sees evidence that "in the face of. hardship, agriculture turns conservative.” The Janesville Gazette (independent Re publican) declares that "the public has all it can stand of radical reme dies, that are only impositions,” and that “all the remedies for ills that Brookhart has had came to naught when the crisis arrived." The Roanoke Times (Demo cratic) recognizes sentiment that Iowa "was tired at last of Brookhart’s nar row and fanatical opposition to Wall Street and big business, and decided in favor of more conservative repre sentation at Washington.” The Youngs town Vindicator (Independent Demo cratic) believes that “the Progressives who followed Roosevelt have too often been mere Populists masking as Re publicans. and for many years they have formed such a solid block of malcontents and dissidents, refusing to work with either Republicans or Demo crats, that they have been a serious obstacle to good government.” The Co lumbus Ohio State Journal (indepen dent Republican) "cannot recall a single major, much less constructive, movement Brookhart has ever spon sored.” “It was a sensational upset,” ac cording to the Omaha World-Herald (independent Democratic), "for it was the defeat of one of the most promi nent of the little coterie of insurgents who have held the balance of power in the Senate for the past decade. * • • The Brookhart defeat is notice from the voters that they are no longer to be satisfied with a Senator whose only claim to distinction is that he is opposed to nearly everything. The in surgents, the exponents of revolt, have been as Incapable of formulating poli cies as have been the ultra conserva tives. Wa$JjlngtoH needs a new and ! ; more earnest and more intelligent type : of office holder. The first step in ! placing that type in power is to re t tire such men as Brookhart." * * * * “Everybody is free to make his own analysis,'’ advises the Des Moines Tribune (independent Republican i, “but some of the factors that certainly will not be disregarded by any shrewd analyst are these: (1) The nepotism charge against Brookhart was effective. It put him on the defensive for the first time in his political career. Even the fact that others in Congress have been, in greater or less degree, guilty of the same practices did not count heavily. A reformer, whether this be fair or not, is likely to be judged a trifle more severely than one whose chosen role is not reform. (2) In this period of economic trouble the public tends to oust the ‘ins.’ The public's dissatisfac tion with the ‘ins’ seems to .extend to the protesters who happen to be ‘in,’ unless they have been unquestionably result-getters. (3> The views of Senator Brookhart may have come to be re garded. not only among conservatives, but also among some groups of liberals that hitherto have been benevolent toward him, as too extreme. And his tendency to simplify every issue to a struggle between good and evil, with ‘Wall Street' invariably present as a personal devil, perhaps pot monotonous. (4) Field proved to have an astonish ing appeal to the voters. Quite likely even Field himself was surprised by his showing. Part of his strength unques tionably came from voters who simply preferred him to Brookhart. But most of it derived from Field's own 'folksy' character, his personal qualities of simplicity and friendliness, and belief In his sincerity." The Davenport Democrat (Demo cratic) offers the judgment: “That Brookhart is no. longer wanted by the majority of Iowa Republicans as their representative in the United States Senate is only too plainly .evidenced in the vote at the primaries. That in itself shows he has lost his popularity and his hold on the Republican party.” The effect of Brookhart relatives being on the Federal pav roll is em phasized by the Danbury Evening News (independent), the Rochester Times - Union (independent), the Texarkana Gazette (Democratic) and the Colum bia (S. C.) Record (independent Democratic). Evidence of a new and more critical spirit among the voters I of the country Is pointed out by the 'Harrisburg Telegraph (Republican), ! the Yakima Daily Republic (Repub j lican), the Haverhill Gazette (inde pendent Republican! and the Morgan town Dominion-News (independent Democratic). The Miami Daily News j (Democratic) emphasizes the effect of the radio on the fortunes of Brookhart i in the statement: “Henri- Field has a i broadcasting station of his own. From j the first days of radio the voice of 1 Henry Field has battered against the j eardrums of all Iowa and the fringes of the nearby States. Why has Henry I Field now beaten Brookhart? Have the I rural discontents worn out? Has Henry I Field, with his radio, out-discontented Brookhart himse’f? Senator Arthur Capper holds Kansas In the hollow nf his farm papers. Have we now our first Senator by radio?" Unworn. From the Columbus Ohio State Journal. It may be said of some men that their morals are in excellent condition, having been used so seldom. Some Solace. From the Florence (Ala.) Herald. Anyway, It will cost our creditors a cent more for each bill they send us. Puzzling. From the Roanoke Times. The problem which every bank must i work out for itself Is how to keep solid i by staying liquid.