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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, B.C. THURSDAY.. .October 2t, 1834 THEODORE W. NOTES.. Editor The Evening Star Newspaper Ctapu; Bullae» Office: ll'.b St. a nd Pennsylvania At·. New York Office: 110 East 4'-'nd β*. Chicago Office: Lake Michigan ButMmf. European Office: 14 Regent St.. T/Ordoa. England. Kate by Carrier W'ilhii tk« City, lciahr Miliw The Evening Star . . 4 &« par month The Evening and Sunday B ar (when 4 Sundays! rtOc Der month The Evening and Sunday Star 'when 6 Sundays) HSc cer eon'h The Sunday Star 6c per copy Nteht riaal F Mil··. Iftaht Final and Sunday Star. 70c per menth Night wtnal Star ftfte per pionth Collertlun made at the end of rarh ronth Orders may be sent In by nail or telephone NAuonal ftoop Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Maryland and Virtinia. Dally and Snnday . 1 yr., $10.00: 1 me. Daily only 1 yr.. M OO: 1 mo., fioe Sunday only . . . . 1 yr.. $4 00: 1 no.. 4Uc All Other State· and Canada. Dally and Sunday. 1 yr , $1·.' OO; I iao SI 00 Dally only 1 yr.. $800: 1 mo.. 7ftc Sunday only...lyr,. $5.00; 1 mo.. 60c Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press ts exclusively en titled *o ihe us· for reoublicatlon of all ■ews dispatches credited to It or not other wise credited in this paner and also the local news published herein. All rlihts of publication of special diapstchei herein are also reserved. Burying the Hatchet. If the bankers came to Washington %ith a bright and sharpened hatchet, the spirit of their convention changed It from an instrument of war to a symbol of peace. A pleasant cere mony was completed last evening when the President accepted the hatchet In the spirit with which it was of fered and. in keeping with the tradi tional proprieties, buried it. That was the tenor of the Presi dent'* speech. The "old lallacious notion of the bankers on the one side and the Government on the other as more or less equal and independent units has passed away." Necessity, in addition to being the mother of in Yention. also breeds leadership. The necessities have made government the leader, "the judge of the conflicting interests of all groups in the com munity, including: bankers." This leadership has been used, and will continue to be used, in relation to banks, to promote the confidence of the people in the banks; to make the confidence a "real and living thing" by assisting the banks to render their useful and worthy services to the people. And there is a third and equally important goal of leadership which the Government is now trying tn reach. It is to encourage the "con fidence of the banks in the people." A few days ago Francis Marion Law, the retiring president of the American Bankers' Association, suggested that there is "hardly a sane banker in the country who is not only willing, but anxious to make good loans." The ex isting impediments to a more freely flowing credit, he said, were not to be found in the attitude of the banks, but In the timidity of the borrower. Last night the President devoted the major part of his address to the de velopment of the thesis that, with confidence of the people in their banks restored, the essential thing now is restoration of the confidence of the banks in the people. In this he shared the view of Jesse H. Jones, chairman of the Reconstruction Finance Cor poration, that the banks, more than the borrowers, are to be blamed for the delay in lending. It is reasonable to believe that a state of mind which afflicts both banker and borrower, denying to each the confidence in what the immediate future has in store for them, has de layed that free flow of credit which has been and remains one of the chief hopes of recovery. The President in directly addressed himself to this state of mind last night in discussing some of the objectives of government now in relation to banking. The vast reservoirs of Government credit, hastily constructed to supply the needs which the banks could not extend, are temporary. The Government expects that as the "banks will resume their responsibility and lake up the burden that the Government has assumed through its credit agencies" it is also assurneu mai privai* ousineu gen erally will be financed by the great credit resources which the present liquidity of the banks makes possible." That is the basis for "our traditional system," and that is the system on which the Government depends for recovery. In his references to the large relief expenditures and to the "objective of a greater steadiness" in prices and values through understandings with other nations, the President took note of two sources of criticism of hie policies and answered It, if not directly or specifically, in a manner designed to lessen the fears created by impassioned statements of extremists. And his own conception of the profit system will be generally accepted. The President was not, however, as frank or as specific as he might have been. There was considerable gen eralizing in his friendly speech. It is one thing to tell a man there Is no basis for his lack of confidence, but it is even better to show him and to assure him beyond doubt that fears of such things as inflation, continued currency manipulation and Govern ment borrowing, unbalanced budgets and excessive taxation are in reality groundless. The President did not go as far as he might have gone. Railroad Retirement Decision. The first decision yet to be rendered adverse to the constitutionality of New Deal legislation has been given by the District Supreme Court on the rail road pension act. That act provides for the creation of a retirement fund, under supervision of a Federal board, to be supplied by contributions, two thirds from the carriers and one-third from the employe·. Suit to teet the constitutionality of the act was brought by one hundred and thirty four of the leading railroads of the country, contending that Congress exceeded its powers under the Con stitution In compelling the main t tenance of « fund for the benefit of all of their employe·, whereat approxi mately one-fifth of them are engaged In work that la not rel&ted to Inter state commerce. The court accepts this view, declaring: "The retirement act confer· 1U benefits upon all em ployes of any company to which it relates, without retard to distinction between Interstate commerce, intra state commerce or activities which do not constitute commerce at an." Thus the ralMlty of this feature of the New Deal legislation is denied in the court of first instance. This de cision will of course be reviewed. In the Court of Appeals and finally In the Supreme Court. It is not altogether a clear-cut definition, as affects the con stitutionality of the majority of the laws enacted In this present program which have been challenged In court For there is a special condition in volved, In the distinction between the beneficiaries of the retirement system who are workers In interstate com merce and those who are not. The higher court may disagree with the ruling that this distinction of service governs, if the employing corporation, in one organization form or another, is primarily and mainly enfaffd in interstate commerce service. The decision is notable in that it is the first in denial of the validity of one feature of the series of Federal legis lative enactments which constitute the ι legal structure of the New Deal. It may, however, not prove to be an index to the disposition of the highest court in regard to the vital principle of con stitutionality. Its importance is lim ited to the degree that it may reflect the judicial view in the broadest sense. Oil and the Open Door. While Great Britain and the United States are In virtual deadlock with Japan at London over the latter's si*nrmnsi frvm naval emialitv th» IT η υ - I lish-speaking power» have suddenly become Immersed in a controversy with the Tokio government over the open door in China—the keystone of American policy In the Fir Eut ever since Secretary of State John Hay enunciated the doctrine a quarter of a century ago. Oil la the cause oi the Imbroglio, which so far has led only to informal diplomatic representations, but may at any moment assume firmer form. At issue is the projected state oil monopoly in Manchoukuo with Britain and the United States alleging a v'olation of their treaty rights. Hie Western powers maintain that the monopoly would undermine the whole principle of the open door and in particular run counter to article three of the nine-power treaty guaranteeing full equality of trade opportunity in China, including, of course, the former Province of Manchuria, which is now the "Empire of Manchoukuo." The Standard Oil Co. of New York and the British Asiatic Petro'eum Co., which possess profitable refining and distributing systems In Manchoukuo. contend that if the monopoly la Instituted they will practically be driven out of business In tht territory in question. The oil corporations Insist that the Japanese government itself la a party to the alleged treaty violation because It holds forty per cent of the Manchuria Oil Co.'s stock and nfty per cent of the stock of the South Manchutian Rail way. According to the plar.s against which the Western interests are pro testing the Manchuria Oil Co., to which the monopoly would be given, would purchase from foreign com panies crude oil for its refineries and such refined oil as Manchoukuo re quires, the net effect being to elimi nate the foreigners as distributors and retailers. Besides the dispute over the oil market· of Manchoukuo, the British and Americans assert that Japan's new oil-control law Is unfairly dis criminatory. It calls upon them to store in Japan supplies equal to a half-year's sales, thus Insuring large stocks available to the government in the event of war. Japan has given repeated assurance to the outside world, since the Incep tion of the Manchurian adventure in 1931, and especially since the crea tion of Manchoukuo, that the open door principle would remain Inviolate. The oil incident would seem to afford Tokio «η opportunity for practical fulfillment of that pledge. The con troversy has no direct connection with Japan'* demand for naval parity, but it throws some light on the commer cial, political and strategic situation that might confront the West it ex panded se» power made Japan even more irresistible than she already is in the Far East. Cvery banker must study the inti mate problems of his own community. Yet human nature is a sufficiently stable quantity to ir.ake it worth while for bankers to assemble sod compare note*. _J ,,, Bed Tape and Red Lights. A preposterous situation exists at the airport which aerves Washington, consisting of a combination of two fields between which runs a road un der the jurisdiction of the Army. Fail ure of plans to combine the two fields with the elimination of this road, which is open to public travel, leaves the highway a menace both to vehicles using it and to planes arriving at and departing from the airport. Recently, as a means of lessening the danger, the superintendent of the port estab lished traffic lights on the road, to be set at "Stop" when planes were ap proaching. He had no authority to do so, but assumed it in the interest of aecurity against accident. A teat of the legality of the lights came recently when an Army truck ran through a '■Jed" signal and narrowly escaped collision with a plane. Protest sent to the commandant at Fort M.ver with the request that the Army vehicles be compelled to obey the signals elicited a demand for information on the score of the authority by which the lights were Installed. Thus the case stands. The road 1 cannot be safeguarded unless the M Army consents and the Army docs not consent. It remain* in fact u In nam· k "Military road." It ta not vitally essential to Army use·, aa other routes to and from the post are avail able. It is In truth a superfluous line of travel and highly dangerous so long as the airport ta maintained In Its present situation. Pending the adoption of final plana for the development of a proper air port for Washington, by the physical combination of the two fields now used, or by the creation of a new field to the southward, there should certainly be some adjustment of au thority that will permit the safe guarding of the highway both as to its users and the air patrons of the fields. Meticulous insistence upon the rigid letter of road control, to the point of denying the right to put up safety lights that must be observed, does not ex» tribu le ιο the public security and does not appreciably ad vantage the Army. A common-sense solution of the problem would lie In the recognition of the necessity for the lights, even though the initiative was taken by the airport authorities, rather than the nilltary. But that would only abate the danger. It would not make the airport satisfactory or adequate. There must be an early decision on the score of the establishment Itself. The safety-light question plainly points to that as a public necessity. ' A philanthropic gesture was made by Huey Long in sending students to a foot ball game. A certain amount of foot ball spirit might be worth controlling in case of a local political clash. Arithmetic is the basis of eco nomic science and all any budget balancing needs is a process of evolu tion that will prevent the subtrahend from growing larger than the minuend. Brilliant performances by the au thorlties in capturing criminals meet with applause that must encourage them to embrace the numerous oppor tunities to take encores. Prof. Tug we 11 is 111 Rone, whose ancient agrarian laws are worthy of study, although Italy herself finds no modern benefit. A certain sense of financial en couragement may be derived from the fact that the great oil interests feel able to engage in a gas war. More direct relief is needed and at tention may be called to the admirable success of the Salvation Army in keeping out of politics. SH00TI5G STABS. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Getting Talked A boat. Elections bring a cruel test As journeying on through life we gç. The friend we rated as the beet Seems for the moment like a foe. "For office I shall run, my dear," Exclaimed the husband fond and true, "So please don't notice what you bear About me for a week or two." Musical Appreciation. " Do you enjoy music?" ''Sometimes," answered Senator Sor ghum. "There's nothing I like more than * brass band at a political rally where I am being featured." Jud Tunkins says he has no desire to go to Europe. He thinks prosperous Europeans should be coming orer here and giving tips to American waiters. Fictions. How many disillusions are Held in life's cup! Even the motion picture star Is just made up. Hardship. "Many of my friends are starving and ill clad," said Mica Cayenne. "Can't you get relief for them?" "They don't desire relief. They are obeying the instructions of the dieti cians and dressmakers." "If you could stop munitions mak ing," said Hi Ho, the sage of China town, "your stout and courageous foot ball playera might easily become the muUrt ο f the world." Cerebral Vacation. Why should I make an effort strong To regulate my cares When some one always comes along To manage my affairs? Somebody tells me how to vote And what to say or sing. Wherefore should I occasion note To thinlc of anything? "Dey tells you dat trouble will im prove yoh character," said Uncle Eben, "but tain' no use to tell a flshin' worm dut either he or de fish is better off foh be in' hooked." Fifty States for the American Union. From the Pasadena Star-News. Make way for two more stars on the United States flag! Such is the hint heard in present agitation; and the increase will come, if it does, not by division of Califor nia or of Texas, but by admission of Ala.sk* and Hawaii as full-fledged members of the Union. They are America's only remaining Territorie-. Since 1912, when New Mexico and Arizona were granted statehood, there has been no change, in the alignment of States. Hawaii was formally lilted as a Territory in 1900. Alaska was organized under that classification in 1912. Hawaii and Alaska would profit in many wayi by such recognition. Self government of their Internal affairs would be assured a«d a larger voice in national discussions and decisions would be acquired. Incidentally, the membership of the United State* Senate would be Increased from M to 100 and the moat western and most northern Important outposts of the American Republic would become real factors in shaping Federal policies. The country's strength would be solidified by this mean*. 4 4 , THIS AND THAT , BY CHARLES E. TRACEWELL. It do·· not aecm sufficient nowaday! that a man be what he Is, in hiinaelf, and for himself and I or humanity ι alone. He also muat be some one else'· idea of him. He muat live up to this Idea, even ι more so than to his own idea of himself. This makes it difficult for certain natures. They pride themselves on being themselves and do not wish to be anything else. 'Not that a change might not be beneficial. But it is so difficult! I It seems that a great many human beings have built up their own idea of what a standard person should be like, and they are utterly unwilling that any one they know should de part from it. This idea of theirs is a queer thing. It seems that they want one way of dress, one way of talk, one way of possessions, one way of Ukee and equally dislike·, one way of mental and moral characteristics. * * » » He who departs from this standard ever so slightly must answer for it. Not only answer, he must change, or the Judge will not like him. This is a curious streak In hu· 1 manlty, this desire for sameness. It has cursed mankind all down the ages, i forcing men who want to be them selves to give in to it at least enough to "get along." Even this departure from themselves is harmful to them, however, and they always regret it. The desire for sameness grows a· mankind herds Itself into cities. The eccentric character who was accepted in the small town or country finds . himself very much the center of I eyes in the city. For all the fact that the city is suppoeed to be in different, the slightest physical or mental difference in It draw· wide spread attention. This the newcomer feels, until he, too, settles down to the elty routine, even If it involves changing himself to meet new condi tions. . Every one knows the country lout or bumpkin who comes to town, at tracing attention to himself by his clothes and his wide-open eyes. Look up this man a year later and you will sec one who lock* quite different. But is he any better? He is different from the old man. ana very much like all other men, but the question remains: Is he any better? * » * * And certainly he is very much less himself in that he has taken on new appearances and habits and ways of thinking, not because he particularly wanted to do so. but largely because he had enough common sense to see that it was the best way to get along. No one would advocate that such a fellow should not "Improve" himself; I the queation is whether he improves himself by aping others. It simply is not "the thing" to be different. Probably this was always true, that In every age true differences were frowned upon. Yet some will believe that the dlf fusion of knowledge attained today has led to a far greater degree of sameness than ever before in the history of mankind. So long as this similarity touche· 1 only superficial things. It does good. ι j but when it changes the inner core of a man's mind and heart the 1 process Is at leut open to question. ' Among certain persons, li you do not play bridge you we a tool, or worse. The fact that you may prefer the more ancient game of chess makes no difference. You muat play bridge. They play it. therefore you mast play it. So runs the argument. The fact that you rather pride your self on standing aloof from it shows them just what a fool you are. It is the same with anything you chooae to think about, or human beings think about. No choice is permitted. It is exactly in this refusal that all freedom of opinion Is taken away and the essential dignity of the human soul made sport of. * * * * Every human being ought to have the right of choice, because it is In freedom of choice that the essential buman being stands forth. ' It Is the choice between good and evil that has worried mankind since It raised its forlegs off the ground. When any one denies choice, even In small matters, he denies the sanctity of the individual buman being. Where choice la denied, all sorts of mass wrongs can be put into effect. Therefore, a denial of choice in little matters Is no small matter, after all, but Is seen to be the beginning of slavery of all sorts. Did any one think the Civil War actually ended slavery? There are millions of slaves to other peoples' opinions and demands that they hold the same opinions. Even in our games we must all think alike. Thus, if one does not like foot ball, it Is best to keep the heretical opinion to one's self. As for not liking bridge, that is treason. * * * * Let no one feel that these things are trivial, that It Is only the large affairs of life that count. It is |uat as Important to be one's self, and thoroughly one's self, in a small matter as a large one, in so far as the effect on one's own mind. Nobody else can tell one what the effect on the mind will be or is. No one else can get into another's mind to find out. now or ever. The effect of a false belief, however trivial, of * lip aervlce to small matter, joe* farther than It seems to go. It may color the whole of a subse quent life, though there be no out ward sign of it. Psychologist* and psychiatrists can tell about this. Every man Is two men—what be is to him- ; self and what he seems to be to other , men. Sometimes there is a confusion between the two. a coming and going In thought. In which resulting mix-up ι no true picture of a human being emerges. What every one can do. in addition to sticking up for his own ideas, is to permit others to stick up for their own. and not to rush to brand them with inimical term.· just because they have no Interest In something or other in which one happens to be interested. ' No doubt there is a very good reason for their believing as they do. Maybe one is mistaken, after all. The thing Is possible! It is helplul If one brings tolerance to bear, then in time one may attain a greater degree of perfec tion In this matter, to the point that one honestly prefers differences in others, rather than agreements. When this stage is reached man has at tained perfection in this world. No doubt that Is why another one is necessary. New Deal a Patriotism of the People, By the People and for the People To the Editor of The St»r: There U in our country an un , healthy feeling with regard to what lwe call wealtn, a feeling that at times approach*· actual hostility. This feeling is directed against a few of the really wealthy men or against great corporations. But men, as such, and corporations, as auch, are relatively of little consequence, and | while this feeling of hostility finds a tangible object of attack in such , 1 men and In corporations, 1U true j significance must be sought in a wider | field, and iU menaces, if any exist, are not simply against men. but against I society at large. We thought until a few year» ago that both actually and potentially we were a very wealthy Nation. As a matter of lact, we have always been poor and are poor today. The gaunt ι figure of hunger stalks only a little way in the rear of erery man and «01 nations. The great contest of all lije has been for a mere existence; some thing to eat. It is just as truly the condition today as it was a hundred years ago. New York, for examine, Is supposed to have a supply of food that would last two weeks if all ex ternal sources of supply were suddenly to fall. If we were really wealthy, the specter of hunger might be re moved some distance; It can nev*r be banished. Our country's problem therefore, broadly stated, is how to become really wealthy. To solve this problem the first step In its solution was and is to seek more fully the physical conquest of Nature with the proper control over production and distribution. The sec ond istep was and is the full co operation of capital and labor with one another and with our Govern ment. . , We have learned many secrets from Nature, which we have turned into account. We have used the winds, the tides, the Reasons. We have devel oped chemistry and mechanics, and little by little we have gone forward, only to fall back, and then advance again, until a few years since we thought we had in some senses not only the earth, but the solar system in our grasp, or, if not in our grasp, at least spread out before us in such a manner that further secrets would be learned. But again we fell back— and oh, what a fall! And agfcln we , are advancing. I The contest of nature has always been intricate and painful, not only because the contests are unequal, but | because men have never been fully] able to understand one another, we grow rich, then we throw the riches away. We accumulate power and use It to crush others. But there is reason to believe that, a new idea is at work in our country | today. The new idea—new in the ι sensé that it is now really making itself felt—is; The New Deal, a new process initi ated by our Government under the leadership of Franklin D. Roosevelt, is a co-opsrattve alliance that com pre- t hands all the leading forces of mod ern life. This idea, with the neces sary modification, if carried to a prop er conclusion will bring about a u>Wt of co-operation in all walk· of life, and brinr men in «olid rank· for the benefit of our Nation solely. The wealth added to such an alliance is beyond calculation. That the gaunt j figure of hunger will be pushed back and the burden of fear that rott upon the hearts of cur people i"^11 ** lightened by this piece* I» **»° yond calculation. The hope of the people and our country Is in tlw wee·· ef ϋύ· Ρ*®· I 1 \ jram. It-» a real form of co-opera tion. Tjs methods are good. It ha· sin ideal. It has called into use the Best organizing ability, the beat meth ods: it links men together in a com munity of interest. It is not an Me» [or a dav or an hour: It doc» not stand in simpl* negation: it take* a broader new. It looks at the picture of our rounti7 today and sees the significance ι af an alliance between our Govern- I ment and all tilt social, financial and Industrial institutions of our Nation. 1 [t also takes into account a co-opera Lion which includes the study of the | past, the duty of the present and a plan for the future. It is an expre»- ι (ion of an idea that is unselfish and peaceable, yet having a militant aide. . This idea preaches the doctrine of a I square deal, and at the same time j ,'igoruuslv attacks unfair practices and rice· of 'he business world. The period Df organization seems to be drawing lo a cloae. and the militant period, the time of real command and lead ership, begins. Our President has not waited for times to come right, as did his prede cessor, but through the New Deal he is forcing the hand of time; calling into use the best brains and beet organising ability; growing more in sistent and more and more success ful. until today we feel we are on the road to happy days. ♦ * * * If it be said that the New Deal does not create material values, but is only a method of the distribution of ! wealth, the sociological answer is that j distribution is necessary in order that other social processes may go on. It is not only a plan to Increase wealth by distributing it to the worker as payment for his labor, but a plan to transform material wealth into social wealth. The New Deal introduce· a new element Into co-operation. It seeks what the sociologut seeks, the betterment of society—that U. a society of the future. It seeks to draw men together as moral forces, whose high est alms lie in seeing that his fellow man gets a square deal. It seeks to prevent the pathological conditions into which our country was plunged a tew years ago. It seeks to have the development of our country proceed in an orderly manner, without any fu ture violent changes in our industrial, financial or social relations. If the primary symptom of falling health In a body politic is lack of op portunity, then opportunity, indus trial and opportunity of every other sort, for each individual is the aim of the Government. Obviously, it fol lows that anything that promotes the well-being of the individual is a bene fit to our Nation as a whole. If the New Deal enable* men to succeed by giving them an oppor tunity to earn money with which to live and pay their debts and to work out larger plans for themselves: if it adds to wealth by distributing it to the worker for hi· hire: If it enable· men to develop along normal lines, without any violent wrenches, which tend to throw development out of gear, then it supplies the condition and force# for a normal and healthy develop ment. Perhaps poverty can never be ban ished by the New Deal, but we can see how, to the confusion of an old adage, it can be made a fault and generally akin to a crime. The New Deal is a new standard. The old standard· are gone. It la * new patriotism. It is not the patriot ism of a hundred years ago. which is as much out of date as the stage coach, hut a patriotiam whose follow ers extend the full length and breadth of our country. A patriotiam of the people, by the people, for the people. The Political Mill Ëy G. C*uU Lincoln. With million* of potential voters «η the relief roll· thla year there U tre mendoua Interest In «bat these men and women «111 do at the poll· No vember ·. The general assumption of many Democratic leaders In many States is that they will support the New Deal Democratic candidates. It Is not likely, it Is urged, that these people on relief «ill bite the hand that feed· them. It 1· not human na ture. This line of argument is baaed on the belief that those receiving re lief «111 have the idea firmly im planted in their minds that only through a continuance of the New Dealers In office «ill they keep right on receiving relief. Democratic ora tors point to the speeches of Repub lican spellbinders demanding that the expenditures by the Government be cut down and the budget balanced. How, the Democrats say, can you eut Government expenditures to the bone and keep on feeding and caring for the million· on relief roll·? They do not suggest that the Republicans are aiming at the billions of dollars which are being expended for all kind· of projects outside οt the straight relief of the destitute. » » # » It seems quite obvious that if all the voters "on relief' east their votes (or Democratic congressional and sen atorial candidates, the O. P. O. can look for few gatns and perhaps con siderable losses on election day. They would appear to hold the balance of power in many States and congres sional districts, perhaps all of them. There is something particularly re pugnant to American ideals that a Government should be kept in power merely because of Its ability to hand eut a dole to a very large number of citizens. On the other hand, no one would desire that these people on re lief should be allowed to sutler or starve. The Democrats cannot be blamed for feeding them. But they can be blamed for trying to convince these voters that only through a con tinuance of Democratic control can they hope for relief. ♦ * * * X SIC UfUIUVU tUBI mu icunci· will vote together for the New Demi Democrat* ta strongly disputed In Republican quarters. Τ bey are doing their beat to show that millions of these men and women are more anxious for work than they are for a dole: that the New Deal has failed to provide jobs, except Government Jobs, in great numbers, and that there are more people on relief and out of work this November than there were a year ago. Some of the more cynical politicians are saying, pri vately however, that too many of the people on relief, having had a taste of living off the Government—the public funds—prefer to keep on with that style of living rather than return to the more arduous life at work. It doea not seem possible that this can be widely true. However. If an administration had many of that kind of clients, it might keep Itself In power indefinitely, or until the money to feed these clients ran out. * * * * Under the caption. "A Political Myth." the Columbus Dispatch, In an editorial published following the primary elections in Ohio, declared that the assumption the voters were purchasable through relief and other eleemosynary activities of the Gov ernment had been disproved by the election returns. There is no reason to believe, the editorial continued, that because State and Federal ad ministration had been advancing money to people in distress those who find themselves in this unfor tunate position feel under any obli gation to vote for the hand which is temporarily feeding them. It adds: "Franklin County provides a per fect example of the proof. In this county there are approximately 11, 000 families which for many months in the past have been receiving some of the public funds distributed both front Washington and from Ohio, and who will continue to receive them for many months to come. This number of families should con tain at a conservative estimate be tween 20.000 and 35.000 voters. "Yet when the appeal was made by Congressman West that be ought to be supported for the Democratic sen atorial nomination because he «as the representative of the political school and administration which have made poeaible current relief measures, he was definitely rebuked. "In a total county vote of about 84,000, Mr. West received 5,180, or about 1 vote in 12 of the total cast and about one in five of the number of voters wbo are on the relief rolls." * * * * In Missouri, just lor example, there were ιυ4,428 iamines on relief in August and 16.191 single persons. Of course, » great many of these person* on relief are probably of the Demo cratic faith, for Democracy has flour ished strongly in Missouri. They could not be accused of selling their political convictions for relief funds. It would not be fair to do so. That would be true of Democrats in other States. However, there is every rea son to believe that a lot of the re liefers are Republicans, or so-called independent voters, and they might be influenced. • * * * As in other campaigns, there is talk today about the "silent vote" and what it is going to do. Both partie· are hopeful that this silent vote is going to be favorable to their candidates. It is difficult to predict how the cat will jump, simply because the vote is silent. Tbe Literary Di gest poll would indicate that the silent vote is swinging away from the New Dealers. In many of the States and cities there is a large registra tion this Fall, very large considering that this is an oil year, with no presi dential election. Here and there a local condition seems to explain this unusual registration, as in Indiana, where a new law provided for can vassing the men and women of voting age to get the m registered. The ean vassers were paid a nickel a head, so to speak, for registrant· on their list. However, there h much interest in the outcome of the elections, gen erally speaking. * * * * California has more ideas for new wrinkles in Government than a dog has fleas. One of tbe strangest is that advanced by Dr. M. E. Townsend, a physician in Los Angeles. In'brief, this plan provides for a $200-a-month pension to all citizens 60 years of age or more who do not have criminal records. This money cannot be laid up by the recipient, however, and must be expended each month; The sponsors of the plan assert that 1A,000.000 person· In the country would be eligible for ' this pension, bringing about an expenditure of ».00·,00·,000 by them each month. Not only would the superannuated be taken care of by this plan, but It would stimulate spending and busi ness and lift the country out of the depression. The followers of the Townsend plan have sprung up Ilk· mushrooms. Tbe project has bee· indorsed by mast of the Southern California congressional candidats· and Got. Merrlam, the Republican candidate for Governor against the radical Upton Sinclair. Merriam as serts that it is In line with the Re publican platform calling for old-age a ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC J. HASEJN. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bu reau. Frederic J. Haakrn. Director, Waahingtoa. D. C. Plea*· Inclose ■tamp lor reply. _______ » Q What newapaper vu the fltst to eatahttah a titcbea of lta own for teatln( recipes'—H. M. A. The New York Herald Tribune Initiated thla Idea IT yeara ago with the creation of lta Home Institute. Q. What la the pMfe that the churches are asking people to sign regarding the movlea?—L. R. A. The heart of the pledge la the following atatement: "J declare my purpose to remain away from all mo tion pictures which offend decency and Chrlatlaa morality." % How much money baa been spent by rial tors to Chicago during the World'a Pair?—P. W. Α. Ζ ί Chicago Association of Commerce estimates that A Century of Frogreas Exposition has been respon sible for the expenditure of 1750,. MM,000 In Chicago by rial tors since the fair opened in 1(33. Q. Where c*n I |et » eoociie, up to-date description of the forms of government in various countries?— H. r. A. "Outline of Governments" by Roger Shaw, foreign editor of the Re view of Reviews, published by the Re view of Review» Corp.. New York City, 1934, not only describes the various governments, but gives a resume of the history, civics, economics, and men of the nations. Q Why are more immigrants per mitted to enter this country from Northern Europe than from Southern Europe?—P. O'C. A. "Recent Social Trends" explains is as follows: "Designed to favor cer tain groups of nationalities, it encour ages the Nordic racial types of North western Europe and restricts the Med iterranean and Alpine typea of South ern and Southwestern Europe. This policy selects a physical type which closely resembles the prevailing stock In our country, for about >5 per cent of the whites In the United Statea in 1 >34 were from strains originating in Northwestern Europe where Nordics predominate." Q. How far from Washington was ; President Hoover's BspMsn camp?— Ε J. A. By airline It is M miles. By | highway It is *6 S miles over one road and 100 Vx miles over another. Q. How did the Mallet type of rail road engine get its name?—Ε. B. P. A. It was first proposed by Anatole Idallet, a native of Switzerland. Q. What country is called the South American Denmark?—H. C. M. A. Uruguay has been given this name. Q. How much money did school chil dren have in school savings deposits last year?—M. P. A. Pot the year ending June 30. 1934. they had deposited <10.737,505. Of this, tl.375.307 remained at the end of the achool year. Q. What oath of office, If any. does the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics require officeholders to take?— T. A. McO. A. The Ambassador of the Onion of Soviet Socialist Republics says there is no oath of office for civil branches >f the administration In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Persons •ho enter the Red Army are required to take an oath. Q. How many marriage ceremonies ire performed In this country without ι religious service?—J. K. A. It Is estimated that about 25 per cent of the ceremonies are merely civil rites. Q What rivers are crossed by the James River Bridge system?—8. C. A. The James, Chuckatuck and Nansemond Rivers. The three bridtes with their approaches, operated by one corporation, constitute the longest highway bridge system in the world. Q Who Is president of the National Aeronautic Association?—T. W. A. Senator William O. McAdoo has recently been elected to the office, succeeding Senator Hiram Bingham. Q. In what place In Virginia Is the memorial tree known as the Westover Oak?—C. M. A. The massive oak tree knows as the WMtover Oak lUnda In Norfolk, Va. The Norfolk Garden Club in 1923 purchased the lot on which the tree standi for $12.000. the money being donated by pupils in the public schools, members of the club and other tree lovers. The tree is not only a memorial to the American soldiers who lost their lives in the World War, but it serves to stimulate interest in the preservation of beautiful shade trees. Q. Whs·, do the initials of the word "Epic" stand for?—K. L. A. The Initials stand for the words, "end poverty in California." Q. Of what nationality are the people of Paraguay?—Ε. H. A. The people are of mixed Indian ind Spanish blood, speaking Spanish and Guarani. Q To what amount are pennies, nickels and dimes considered legal tender?—P. M. A. At the present time they are legal tender in any amount. Q Why is Belgium called the cock pit of Europe?—Ν. Β. A. It Is because so many battles have been fought on Its soil. Q For whom is the Morris Plan Banking System named?—Ε. B. A. It takes Its name (τon a lawyer, Arthur J. Morris, formerly of Norfolk. Va, but later residing in New York City. The company began operation on llarch 33, 1110, with the modest capital of «20,000. Q. Which is the oldest of the Eng lish colonies?—A. P. T. A. The British dominion of New foundland is the oldest. It has been in the possession of England sine· Its discovery by John Cabot in 14Π. Q. If a crime is committed on the high seas in what country is the case tried?—E. S. A. It is tried under t£e jurisdiction of the nation whose flag the ship flies. Q. Why is the Arctic Ocean so named?—T. M. A. It is from the Greek word, "arctoa," a bear, the reference being to the northern constellation of the Great Bear. Navy Aid for Merchantmen Has National Indorsement Plans to «end naval officers voyag lnc oo merchant ships to check on Ore and boat drill» and other meas ures for the protection of passenger» are welcomed by many editor·. With the Morro Castle fresh in mind the public demands that something be done to make another such tragedy impossible. "Merchant seamen may growl long and loud at the announcement." thinks the Owensboro ( Ky i Messen ger. "but the public generally will ap plaud." The Messenger adds: "That the toll of lives in the Morro Castle disaster would not have been so great had there been an efficient, disciplined organisation prepared to meet the emergency goes without saying in the light of disclosures made during the recent investigation. More than one poor battleship seaman, awakened from a sound sleep during the mid watch by the stentorian 'All hands abandon ship,' has thought this ship drill thing could be a trifle overdone. But it has shown dividends. It is im possible to imagine such scenes of confusion and excitement aboard a naval vessel as were described as tak ing place aboard the Morro Castle." "Something needs to be done," ac cording to the Charleston < W. Va.) Dally Mail, "to prevent a repetition of the Morro Castle tragedy, and the use of naval officers is among the most promising ideas brought forth by the disaster." Discussing other means of assuring safety, the Daily Mall offers the suggestions: "The Federal Steamboat Inspection Service is suppoaed to see that ships are equipped with a sufficient number of lifeboats and other safety devices to take care of all passengers in case of disaster. It Is able to exercise little oversight or control, however, over the crew in the way of seeing that they are properly acquainted with their duties and capable of perform ing these in the proper way. The use of traveling safety Inspectors would offer a way of accomplishing this. And it probably would be hard to find men better equipped for this service than naval officers, highly trained in discipline and proficient in safety procedure." "It looks like a useful service." says the Topeka Dally Capital, "that naval officers can perform, at least until merchant ships are brought up to old time standards. Naval as weH as Army officers seem to be utilised for some desirable civilian purposes. The Army is looking after the valuable work of the C. C. C-. and the Army, in fact, is somewhat disintegrated by allocation of regular officers to training men as officers of the national military re serve. R O. T. C.. etc. Some earnest pacifists even want them to help in police service." "It ia an exceedingly sensible move." in tbe opinion of Ute Seattle Star, while the Ann Arbor Daily News com ments: "The watchful eyes of trained naval men can be depended upon to detect any flaws in equipment or con struction. And a taste of discipline after the naval manner might not hurt crews that tend to get confused and panicky in tine of crisis." Observing that the case of the Morro Castle la not entirely typical of the character of the American mer chant marine, the South Bend News Ttaaas finds cause for satisfaction in in lary· atiafcm would be removed fro·» amptojraaent and their places opened up to Um younger workers. It looks, however, as though there would be a lot of grief for the ad ministrators who sought to put such a plan into effect. And there might be a lot of lying about ago·, one way or another. 4 the conduct of Capt. George Preid, "hero of a dozen Atlantic rescue*, who continue· on his placidly epic course." The News-Times offers the statement of his fitness for the position that he holds as a ship's officer: "Capt. Preid stopped his liner lone enough to save five men from a crippled seaplane. The news account says the boat was put off In a moderately heavy se» How remarkable are these matter-of fact American aeamen. Blow high or blow low, Capt. Freid and hundred· of others like him are ready at a mo ment's notice to swerve from their course into the teeth of danger to ef fect an act of mercy. In a day when great liners race for a minute's advan tage, men like Preid will continue to sacrifice a week If necesaary and their own lives to save the life of cne in trouble. In this way the American merchant marine once achieved great - ! ness. In this way, despite the Morro Castle catastrophe. American seamen will again sail the Nation to eminence I in maritime affairs.'* Marriage-Divoree Reform. From tht Philadelphia Evening Bulletin. Nothing done by the Episcopal Gen eral Convention at Atlantic City is likely to attract a greater degree of public attention than it* action on the marriage law of the church. It : has before it the report of its Cotn ! miasion on Marriage and Divorce, of I which such prominent laymen as ! Roland S. Morris and George W. Wlckershsm are members, along with ; leading bishops. The commission, admitting the [ present canon satisfies neither party ι in the church, advises against any essential change at this time, and pleads that the changes made In the so-called liberalisation of the mar riage law by the last general conven tion should have further study before they are altered. The point la atresaed that modern condiUona require edu cation for marriage, and the educative process In this field is so new that 1 it is too early to see the results of its application. Only one alteration of the canon is advised, that clergy men be permitted "for weighty cause* i to waive the provision requiring three days' notice before a marriage may ! be performed, the changes of 1131 made no concession as to divorce, but did liberalise the canon in other ways, the bearing and significance of which the commission thinks la hardly generally realized. While the decision of the church is its own province, it Is of public concern in its bearing on the stand ards of society. As the study V>f a social as well as a church problem the report of the commission is nota ble for candor and breadth of view, and in its counsel for careful study of the problems involved and avoid ance of precipitate action might serve as a model for those dealing with purely secular problems involving so cial change. The divergence of views of conscientious persons wltnin the church itself suggests the Imprac ticability, at this time, of a national civil law on divorce attempting to reconcile the varying standards of 48 States. Percussive, Λ·· Mm m>r*v«aort Journal. The Senate committee probe Into the munitions business, as waa to be expected, has caused several explo stone. Hardly! Fro· the Toted· Blade. It'll soon be time to put up th· •term doors at Indiana prisons. And maybe that will hold them. .