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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, February 27, 1936, Image 10

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With Sunday Morning Edition.
THURSDAY....February 27, 1936
THEODORE W. NOYES.......... Editor
Thl Evening Star Newspaper Company.
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Mailed Fist in Japan.
Political _ assassination and militarist
terrorism in Japan have been oi such'
periodical occurrence during recent years
that the world is hardly surprised even
by current catastrophic developments at
Tokio. The way was paved for them by
the late elections. These resulted in
vindication of the Okada “national cabi
net” and implied popular repudiation of
the army's pretension to dominate the
civilian government. While there was
reason to fear that the hotspurs who
would convert Japan into a Fascist
military autocracy would not accept
w-ithout protest their rebuke at the polls,
the violence to which they have had
resort is a shocking demonstration of
the extremes' to which the mailed fist
party is ready to go in order to impose
Ua supremacy.
Following the assassination of Premier
Okada and of four of his aides, and
the serious wounding of other high
officials, the civilian authorities have
resumed command. While Tokio rocked
with riot and turmoil, requiring procla
mation of martial law, it is declared
that “peace and order were maintained
throughout the empire and the situa
tion is now quiet.” Relusal of Fumio
Goto to accept the Emperor's mandate
to form a cabinet, however, indicates
that conditions are by no means normal.
These sanguinary convulsions in Japan
are the product of chronic conflict be
tween the military and civilian ele
ments. The army and navy resent the
political curbs imposed upon them, espe
cially in the field of expenditure. The
generals and admirals charge the states
men and business interests with a lack
of patriotic appreciation of Japanese
"destinies” and the necessity for ex
pansion on the mainland of Asia. They
unceasingly inflame public passions along
corresponding lines. It was in expres
sion of the militarists’ objections to in
terrerence wun ineir aggressive jjiaus
that Premier Hamaguchi was slain In
1930, and Finance Minister Inouye and
Premier Inukai in 1932. Several other
officials and business leaders at intervals
have met similar fates. The latest blood
purge is in pursuance of the reign of
violence which the militarist-imperialist
party has continuously promoted in its
fanatical hostility to civilian restraint.
It was with the inception of the Man
churian adventure in 1931 that the army
extremists began to exhibit progressive
recklessness. Civilian efforts to stay
their hand on that occasion were utterly
futile. Growing contempt for govern
ment policies and orders ensued. On
one pretext or another these were braz
enly flouted, though latterly the Okada
ministry had achieved a measure of suc
cess in curbing the army in North China.
The civilians, too, contrived to check
recent aggression in outer Mongolia, with
incidental danger of war with Soviet
The world will wait anxiously to see
whether the'latest upheaval will incite
the army to justify itself by embarking
upon some mad venture doomed to drag
Japan into war. There is obvious danger
that the military zealots, frustrated in
their desperate thrust for supremacy,
will precipitate conditions designed to
bring on the long smoldering clash with
the Soviet, or push matters in China
to a point where grave complications
with non-Asiatic powers might become
The Western nations, which observe
sympathetically the attempts of Japanese
liberals to mold the empire's policy
along lines of peace and international
co-operation, will hope that the week's
eruption will leave in its wake no dis
astrous consequences either for the
tranquillity of Japan or for peace in the
Far East. But only time can establish
whether civilian or army influence defi
nitely has the upper hand at Tokio.
A puUUCal meigci uj »*uo
eolini and Hitler would involve possi
bilities of a quarrel eventually revealing
what may happen when dictator meets
There may be some contention with
reference to health for the District of
Columbia. Fights are not pleasant, but
health is always worth fighting for.
Responsible Leadership.
The petition to the Commissioners for
more health funds concludes with this
“We maintain the unquestioned right
of the disfranchised citizens of Wash
ington not only to petition you, but to
look to you for appropriate action, even
If necessarily drastic, and for a display
of fearless and aggressive leadership.”
Commissioner Hazen’s reply was that
the Commissioners “are with you and
will continue to be with you.” Commis
sioner Hazen, moreover, promises to
accompany the doctors to the Budget
Bureau for a hearing if an appointment
can be made.
This may not be “fearless and aggres
give leadership” within the common
meaning of the adjectives. But under
the gag rules laid down by the Budget
Bureau it is about as far as the Com
missioners can go without placing their
jobs in jeopardy. And it is impossible to
reconcile any such condition with 'the
elementary principles of a democracy.
It emphasizes the fact that people in the
District are not only deprived of any
participation in their government, but
that those appointed to administer their
local government and in theory to rep
resent them are rigorously confined to
the passive role of submitting recom
mendations to a Federal bureau. If that
bureau says "No,” they are effectively
silenced by rules as binding as those
laid down by any Fascist autocrat.
"Fearless and aggressive leadership”
in presenting the needs of this voteless
community and demanding that they be
met should of course be displayed by the
Commissioners. But if Budget Bureau
rules make mere automatons of them the
responsibility of leadership in such a
matter as securing from Congress ade
quate public-health protection appropri
ations naturally rests upon such organ
izations of citizens as the Medical So
In the meantime the Budget Bureau's
response to the new request for funds
and the provisions of the District appro
priation bill for 1937, soon to be reported
from committee, are awaited with in
“Mass Education.”
There has been a good deal of talk
about ‘ mass education,” and much of
the discussion has been worth while.
Indeed, the subject has a fascination
which gives it perennial interest. The
late Senator Huey Long, appealing for
the democratization of learning, found
many thousands of sober-minded citi
zens agreeing with him. From the be
ginning of civilization in the Western
Hemisphere it has been a fundamental
tenet of popular belief that the advan
tages of practical literacy should be open
to all. The little red school house
symbolizes America, and the basic drama
of the Nation has been the struggle of
the people for the power that accrues
from knowledge.
But the extension of so-called “higher
education” to the masses has opposition.
Not long ago Dr. Carl W. Ackerman,
dean of the Graduate School of Journal
ism at Columbia University, publicly de
clared that “mass production” of college
alumni “had made negligible the face
value of a college degree.” His theory
was supported by Dr. Francis P. Gaines,
president of Washington and Lee Uni
versity, who insisted: “The real danger
is that the process of education itself
will be lowered In response to the clamor
for types of training which can be appre
hended by all grades of intellect.”
Yet there is nothing new in such pro
tests. The revival of learning in Europe
after the Dark Ages brought complaint
from princes and potentates who saw' in
the renaissance a personal threat. Dic
tators in church and state alike always
have dreaded the results of free and
unlimited inquiry. Study of letters, his
tory and philosophy, they have feared,
would lead to self-assertion on the part
of the multitudes. Thus the aristocracy
of France pointed to tlfe encyclopedists
as the authors of the revolution. It was
when the mob had been taught to think
that the ancient regime fell before the
Aim uicic was mcuv m uiau mmuig ui
causes and effects. Ignorance is con
ducive to the status quo in countries
ruled by tyrannies. By the same logic,
however, education is imperatively nec
essary in lands in which government
rests upon the consent of the governed.
Indeed, the only cure for dt...agoguery
and mobocracy is general knowledge. So
long as literacy is a class possession the
institutions of society are in danger of
attack by those incapable of understand
ing their value. The current notion that
the voters of the United States care
nothing for the Constitution is a sorry
indictment of the cultural character of
the population. If it be true, it chal
lenges the Federal state; and if it be
false, it pillories the critics who sponsor
it. The people certainly would be vastly
concerned to protect their charter of
orderly freedom did they know its mean
jjegrees, Ol cuurfee, uiay nui maim.
What is wanted is a civic spirit equal to
the need. And such a spirit cannot be
produced from above. Instead, it must
arise from the informed and disciplined
comprehension of the commonalty. Only
those who fear truth and progress will
rejoice in the decline of cultural stand
ards which unhappily has distinguished
the past few years.
Education shows an increasing tend
ency to proceed on practical lines. In
attaining high official station worldly
wisdom is important as well as book
Carl Sandburg.
Many, surely, must feel some debt of
gratitude to Wilson Teachers’ College for
bringing Ckrl Sandburg to Washington.
Indeed, it may be wondered if anything
more inspiring than his appearance in
the Nation’s Capital has happened in a
long time. Seeing him and hearing him
talk, read and sing was a refreshing
Sandburg may not be a poet in the
narrow meaning of the word. But there
can be no question about the elemental
music in his soul. He belongs to the
fundamental American type of human
stock—like Lincoln and Edison, Will
Rogers, Orville and Wilbur Wright,
Henry Ford. In character, temperament
and personality he is native to his coun
try. Let him travel anywhere abroad,
he would be recognized at once as a
product of the American scene, Ameri
can conditions, American advantages and
And such men are vastly needed just
now. In them the future as well ap the
past lives, pulses, has vigorous being,
But because they have "the inquiring
mind,” modesty and reticence they are
apt to be forgotten. The panic rampage
of more confident and less liberal leaders
tramples them down; their philosophy is
overwhelmed by dogmas, their melodies
of the spirit are lost in noise.
Sandburg, however, is not pessimistic.
Keen student of folk history and folk
art as he so notably is, he smiles at the
tumult and “keeps sweet." After a
thousand years, perhaps, the clamor
will subside, and when it does new gen
erations will rediscover the old themes
still possessed of their ancient charm,
still rife with quiet magic which cannot
die, still instinct with whispered beauty
which cannot fade.
For discouraged people Sandburg is a
marvelous tonic. To meet him is to
begin to hope again.
The Teddy Influence.
Like Ben Webster in the comic strip
whose life is being directed by his father
from the grave, Theodore Roosevelt is
having an unusual influence over na
tional affairs these days. For one thing,
he has Col. Frank Knox, Republican
presidential candidate, hunting lions.
Publicity issued by the colonel’s cam
paign headquarters in Chicago gives an
item under Phoenix, Ariz., date, reading:
“For the second time In modern history
a fighting colonel has the West gasping
for breath.”
According to this publicity, “not since
the days when Col. Theodore Roosevelt
used to tour the West has anybody seen
one man keep such a strenuous schedule"
and “he has recently extended it to in
clude lion hunting in the wild mountain
liic tUiUUCi Id UIC U1UJ vuc WI1U iiao
gone this far in emulation of the great
Teddy, but the others frequently Invoke
his name. As a matter of fact, President
Roosevelt has frequently drawn on his
name for support and at exercises in
his honor recently likened himselt, by
inference, to his illustrious kinsman.
Senator Borah preceded the announce
ment of his candidacy with a letter to
Teddy Roosevelt, the younger, saying
what was needed was another trust
buster like his father. Senator Norris
of Nebraska may have unwittingly
started the whole business. Meditating
upon affairs in his office one afternoon
back in early 1932, he observed: ‘ What
this country needs is another Roosevelt.”
That gave considerable impetus to the
present President's candidacy which was
just getting under way and may have
been the beginning of the beautiful
friendship between Mr. Roosevelt and
the Senator.
Of course, the Republicans insist that
the people got the wrong Roosevelt when
they took Franklin D., an error that
the lion-hunting Col. Knox, the lion
biting Senator Borah and others will
do all they can to rectify.
American art is asserting itself in
journalism and drama. Since President
Roosevelt has come into closer relations
with Harvard, some especial intellectual
Influences may be expected from the
press of the Lampoon or the proscenium
of the Hasty Pudding Club.
There is a certain element of depen
dence on the theory that Postmaster
General Parley as a politician knows
what he is talking about whether Secre
tary Wallace does or not.
There would be architectural agitation
if Hitler were to insist on claiming all
buildings that innocently included the
swastika as a part of the mosaic
■■ --» I — - —. am
Shooting Stars.
If you would be a candidate
And lead a mighty clan,
Yourself prepare to educate
To be a busy man.
You'll have to learn to talk all day
And also all the night.
You’ll have to hear what others say;
You’ll also have to write.
Repose afar your toil will keep.
Brief is your slumber sweet.
A war horse has to learn to sleep
While standing on his feet.
You’ll have to have an iron fist
And cultivate your voice
Till nothing can its sound resist
When lifted to rejoice.
And when in this enlightened state
You raise your mighty row,
It may turn out that Cruel Fate
Will down you, anyhow!
From Smiles to Thrills.
"Fashions change in politics as well as
in literature.”
"Yes," replied Senator Sorghum. "Can
didates used to appeal to an audience
with humor or sentiment. Now we are
compelled to give ’em mysterious plots
or studies in current slang.”
The Self-Made Hero.
"I wonder how it would feel for a
literary man to be a candidate for high
office?” said Mr. Penwiggle.
"It would feel,” replied Miss Cayenne,
"like writing a sensational and romantic
novel with yourself as the dashing hero.”
Sadly Commonplace.
A man of energy and fame
Afar set out to travel.
A steed he did not pause to tame
And raise the dust and gravel.
He didn’t mount an aeroplane
To help the advertising.
He merely got on board a train.
It does seem most surprising.
Sometimes you see a man listening for
the call to patriotic duty with exactly the
same expression on hit face that he wears
when he is listening for the dinner bell.
The Reliable Remark.
Whene’er a statesman of today
Desires a reputation wise
And thinks of nothing else to say
He shouts, “We must economize 1"
"I has heard," said Uncle Eben, “dat
politics makes strange bedfellows. But
dat don’ make much dillunce when dar’s
tech a rumpus dat nobody kain’t sleep,
- 1
- . ‘
By G. Gould Lincoln.
Senator Borah continues to make it
difficult for the Republican bosses. He
has done more in the last few months to
bring the race for the presidential nom
ination into the open than it was believed
possible when he started his campaign
against “favorite son” delegations to the
national convention and “uninstructed
delegations.” His latest move was to
accept a virtual challenge issued him by
former Senator Edge of New Jersey to
enter the New Jersey preference primary
—with conditions. It remains to be seen
whether the other candidates and their
supporters will come through. Said
“The primary law in New Jersey is not
binding, or very effective. But if all
parties in New Jersey will agree to abide
by the result of the primary and put
their candidates in the field, I am per
fectly willing to enter. I shall be glad to
do so. I do not know that I could suc
ceed under the circumstances, but I do
know it would help to establish a sound
and decent system in the selection of
delegates. And I am always willing to
contribute to that cause.’
* * * *
Edge, said Borah, who used to be an
Ambassador as well as a Senator, "ad
vises us in diplomatic language that he
is for Gov. Landon (of Kansas). That
was known long before he gave his inter
view.” Whether Edge will be able to pur
suade his candidate to come into the
primary—and to persuade the New
Jersey delegation to abide by the result
of the preference primary—remains to
be seen. Unless Landon changes his
tactics up to date, it does not look as
though he would be entered in the Jersey
♦ * * *
a i i__i_ _11..
n * ».n A1 u t VI tl IV/
claims of the Landon people that the
Governor of Kansas has been responsible
for balancing the Kansas State budget
and keeping it balanced. Democrats
have insisted that former Gov. Woodring,
now Assistant Secretary of War, was in
reality responsible for economy in Kan
sas. Other Democrats, for example,
Chairman James A. Parley of the Demo
cratic National Committee, liave sneered
at the efforts of Landon to economize.
Parley, speaking in Topeka on Washing
ton's birthday, took a rap at the Kansas
Governor for cutting salaries of school
teachers. “The policy of the Roosevelt
administration,” said Farley, “has been
to save the schools of the Nation wher
ever possible.”
* * * *
Landon's friends say that Landon has
saved the schools but at the same time
has made them keep within the budget.
A close friend of the Governor has re
cently written to Landon supporters here
a rather succinct picture of what the
Kansas Governor has been doing. He
“You will be asked a lot of times about
how the Landon record compares to his
predecessor’s. Deal with that just as
frankly as the Governor has dealth with
it. In his speeches he has given full
credit to the preceding administration.
Woodring approved the budget law that
was in effect when he was in as Gov
ernor; he made some progress toward tax
reduction; but the big thing in the
Landon administration is that the Kan
sas constitution does not prevent, and
never has. the issuance of anticipation
warrants; it does prohibit issuance of
“The thing Landon did was in
strengthening the budget law and in
causing the enactment of a 2 per cent
tax levy, and in general good adminis
tration by practicing economy, and not
talking about it. The fact on which
there is no argument is that he enacted
a cash-basis law which makes not only
the State government, but every gov
ernmental subcivision within the State
down to the one-room school house, live
within their revenues. That is the rea
son Landon gets so much credit as a
budget-balancer. The program he put
through caused the balancing of thou
sands of budgets in every community in
Kansas. The cash-basis law is one with
full teeth in it. Any official violating the
law is automatically subject to ouster;
and in Kansas, that means automatic
“You remember, that in addition to
enforcing the budget law, the way Kan
sas met its waste was by cutting 25 per
cent in the cost of its State government
alone, and that was an absolute Landon
order. The record will stand up any way
vmi fqL’o U m
* * * *
Demotn. lc politics in West Virginia
seem to be at sixes and sevens. In the
first jflace Rush D. Holt, the junior Sen
ator, is not satisfied with the manner
in which patronage has been handled
and the W. P. A. has been administered
in his State. Seemingly he has broken
flatly with the senior Senator, Neely.
He has made a number of speeches in
the Senate assailing the conduct of
affairs in West Virginia and Senator
Neely has replied with considerable heat.
In 1934, when Holt was elected to the
Senate, he had Neely’s support. Holt is
an active young man—the baby Senator
was still only 29 years old when elected.
What the split between Holt and Neely
will mean in the coming campaign has
not yet fully developed. Neely himself
is up for re-election this year. The
Republicans have expressed confidence
they can carry the State next November
and the ructions in the Democratic
ranks are still further encouraging them.
♦ * * *
And now it is announced that the
Democratic national committee man,
Herbert Fitzpatrick, is going to retire
from that office, probably at the time
of the Democratic National Convention.
Fitzpatrick comes from Huntington, the
old home of John W. Davis. It is said
that hfe is more in sympathy with the
ideas of Davis than with those of Roose
velt and the New Deal, and that he
cannot go along further. Fitzpatrick is
a vice president of the Chesapeake &
Ohio Railroad, has a private car at his
disposal and has for years been a big
corporation lawyer. His business and
social friends are in that group which
President Roosevelt has assailed under
the heading of “entrenched greed.”
Time to Decide.
Prom the Jamestown (N. Y.) Post.
If the bonus recipients have not de
cided what to do with the money, at
least they will have time to reach a de
cision before they get ltP
Dress “Ages”
Prom the DanvlUe (HI.) Commercial-News.
Some Hollywood girls, called “agers,”
can make a new dress look old in 20
minutes. Many a husband, deluged with
bills, will sneer at that record.
Chance to Take a Walk.
Prom the Watertown (N. Y.) Times.
If this elevator strike goes into effect
in New York, A1 Smith may take his
walk right in his Empii'e State Building.
Next to Hamilton.
Prom the Grand Island Independent.
Mr. Morgenthau is probably the most
worried Secretary of Treasury since
Alexander Hamilton, anyhow.
> A
More bird gossip from the people of
Washington and vicinity:
“Edmunds street.
“Dear Sir: I am a constant reader of
The Star, often turning first to the
editorial page to read your articles. This
Winter your discourses on birds have
been very interesting indeed, and I am
sure they have made many converts to
bird feeding.
“It seems to me that you are new to
this bird-feeding game, and it makes
me feel good that I have long since had
those tribulations you write of—squirrels,
starlings, sparrows, etc.—and that I know
how to handle them.
"I am particularly pleased that you
have noted and mentioned the superior
beauty of the female to the male car
dinal. The blending of dusky colors in
the female is almost indescribable, and
her bill color is superb. The male is red
and not of such a good hue, which brings
me to the main reason for writing you.
* * * *
“A letter from one of your corre
spandents, appearing Thursday the 20th,
mentions having several tanagers at his
feeding station (but he doesn’t say
when). Any handbook on birds will tell
you that the tanager is one of the early
ones to leave for the South, but before
leaving moults, the new feathers chang
ing from red to greenish or olive shade,
and can scarcely be identified by the
“Bird Lore, a splendid ornithological
magazine, publishes a Christmas census
each year, and I have never read that
the observers have noted tanagers in
Winter I have never noted tanagers
lower than 20 to 25 feet, and usually 50
to 75 feet, in the tallest of trees.
“Further, I believe the tanager is en
tirely insectivorous. You, at the end of
the article, discussing the subject, write:
‘We did not know they Wintered here.
But perhaps that explains one particu
larly vivid fellow we have.' You prob
ably have your first tanager to see, and
when you do see one you won’t need to
see his black wings—just one flash of
his brilliant scarlet is all you will need—
and that will probably be all you will
see—and you will feel sick—have a ter
ribly empty, sad feeling that you cannot
petrify him so that you could gaze at
him for hours and then realize how in
sipid is the color of the cardinal. The
particularly vivid fellow you note has
! probably plumage older than the others.
Very truly, B. C.”
* * * *
"Clarendon, Va.
“Dear Sir: I have enjoyed reading
your interesting articles about feeding
birds—and have been feeding them in
my back yard all through this snowy
“In your articles you frequently men
tion ‘bird feeders.’ Can you describe
these feeders to me? I have been feed
ing on a garden table, but would like to
know how to put out the food so it
would be protected from snow and rain.
Sincerely, M. I. W.”
From Alexandria, Va., the following:
“Dear Sir: May I be one of This and
That and tell you of a very unique ex
perience I have had this Winter in re
gard to our little feathered friends?
“I am fortunate in having a sun room,
practically all glass, with wide sills. I
have kept them filled with suet which
I have nailed to a board, bread crumbs,
scratch feed and canary seed. The lat
ter appeals to the song sparrows and
“During the stormy days it was great
fun to see all the different visitors—Car
olina wren, white-throated sparrows,
cardinals and numerous others.
“About two weeks ago ‘his highness,
the mockingbird, arrived on the sill, and,
after looking the situation over, he al
most devoured the large piece of suet.
"From then on he has usurped our
place. He won’t allow a bird near any
of the feeding stations: in fact, he won't
even allow them on the place. I am
Indeed gratified that such an aristocrat
should favor us, but how about my other
little friends who have been more or less
dependent on their board at my domi
cile? Thank you for listening. I am,
sincerely, G. M. D.’’
* * * *
“Park road.
“Dear Sir: The attached, ‘Gratitude
With Reserve,’ was inspired by your col
umn of a recent date. Please offer my
apologies to The Star, but if I am rushed
for time or have a headache I skip the
news events and the editorials and read
your column—so very human, so satisfy
ing to a simple soul like yours very re
spectfully, M. F. H.’’
BY M. F. H.
Jack Squirrel said “It’s mighty fine
That you have asked me here to dine.
The Winter has been hard and cold,
And nuts I hid beneath the mold
To keep me till another Fall
I cannot And at all, at all.
“But something I would like to know,
As I rush here through all the snow
And climb up to your feeding board,
So kindly spread with generous hoard
Of grains and crumbs and other things
Best suited to the beasts with wings,
Who flap and flutter, chirp and peck,
And sometimes pick me on the neck
And try to chase me far away,
Although I say ‘I’ve come to stay.’
“The thing that I would like to know,
As scampering here and there I go:
When you some guests invite to dine,
Why think you not how tastes incline,
And have two tables—one with grain
For birds who from strong foods abstain;
But for us squirrels, who like our meat,
Have nuts—yes, nuts—for us to eat?’’
* * * *
Bird feeders add a great deal to the
pleasure of catering to the wants of the
wild birds. Most of them are simply
elaborated grain hoppers—that is, a con
tainer of some sort is cut inside by a
slanting board which causes the grains
to keep flowing out a narrow opening
into a trough. As the birds pat—usually
from a perch or rail—the food keeps
flowing out until all is gone.
The point about these feeders is that
they keep the grain and seed dry in all
sorts of weather, and this, in such a
Winter as we are experiencing, is a
mighty fine thing. No matter how sim
ple or elaborate the feeding device, the
birds, and especially the squirrels, will
see to it that large quantities of grain
are spilled on the ground beneath them.
They all love to eat from the earth.
The best and kindest thing to do about
a mockingbird that drives all the other
birds away is to find out what kinds of
foods it prefers and then deliberately
leave these out of the daily handout, If
As for the squirrels, no doubt the
rhymed suggestion above is the best.
The squirrels out our way come every
morning, about 7 o'clock, and usurp the
feeders for at least an hour, during which
time the birds must peck as best they
Fortunately, our squirrels usually leave
during the course of the morning and
thereafter are to be seen only spasmod
ically at the feeding stations. Most of
these small problems, which loom large
in bird feeding, can be solved by observa
tion and common sense in equal parts,
with two parts of patience thrown in.
Notebook of Science Progress in Field,
Laboratory and Study.
Five victims of serious heart ailments
who supposedly were doomed to spend
the rest of their lives in bed at Gallinger
Hospital have been restored practically
to their normal activities by surgery, It
was reported at a faculty symposium of
the George Washington University
School of Medicine by Drs. Paul F.
Dickens and Charles S. White.
The operation consisted in complete
removal of the thyroid gland, thus slow
ing down the body metabolism and the
rate of heart beat. Thus the loads on
the weakened hearts were reduced, and
the victims enabled to carry on the
moderate activities necessary for earning.
their own livings.
These patients all had passed from
35 to 40 months bedridden in the hos
pital at the time of the operations. They
had every expectation of spending their
lives there. They had suffered repeated
attacks of heart failure which were
likely to be brought on by exertions of
any sort. About the only relief that
could be afforded them was by admin
istrations of digitalis which were valu
able only for the emergencies and
brought about no improvement in the
There have been no bad physical or
mental effects of the thyroid operation
to date, the two physicians reported. The
thyroid gland, an organ of internal
secretion, pours into the blood stream a
minute amount of hormone, thyroxin,
which has very potent effects—but the
lack of it can be overcome by adminis
tration of thyroxin, in prescribed dos
ages, by the patients themselves.
In this way it practically is possible
to regulate the body metabolism, and
hence the load placed on the heart, by
the conditions of the heart itself. It
is by no means impossible that in the
course of time a diseased heart will come
back to normal—in which case adequate
thyroxin administration can restore the
activities of the individual to normal.
There is, presumably, no effect on the
length of life. Thus, the records show,
the first' man who was given thyroxin
to take the place of the secretion of a
removed thyroid died in 1919 at 74,
after being in this condition since 1891.
The operation, Drs. Dickens and
White stress, is not original here, but
stUl is a quite rare surgical procedure.
It was first performed experimentally on
dogs as early as 1859 and in 1883 was
successful with a human being. It was
rarely resorted to, however, until 1930,
when it was revived and the technique
perfected by Boston surgeons.
* * * *
Smithsonian Institution paleontol
ogists are putting the finishing touches
on a restoration of the skeleton of the
giant “clawed horse” of nearly 40,000,000
years ago.
The bones, obtained from a Nebraska
quarry, have been joined together piece
by piece, after much study, until the
. result Is believed to be a fair repre
sentation of the actual animal. This is
one of the half dozen attempted restora
tions In America and Europe.
The creature, known scientifically as
Moropus elatus, was one of the most
fantastic of the creatures that lived in
North America during the Miocene pe
riod. It was somewhat larger than a
plow homo of today, hut in appearance
probably was more like the rare okapi
of African jungles than any other liv
ing creature. It had a long neck, high
forequarters, a short, downward-sloping
back and long, stout legs. How It ever
was able to get its mouth to the ground
to drink puzzles the paleontologists.
From the structure of its body this must
have been very difficult.
It belonged to the general group of
lower Miocene vegetation eaters from
which evolved the horse, the rhinoceros,
the tapirs, and the extinct titanotheres.
It was closer to the horse than to any
of the others, but yet was an entirely
distinct animal. It cannot be consid
ered either as an extinct horse, or as
in the direct line of horse ancestry.
A distinctive feature of the animal
consisted of the heavy, sharp, curved
claws—about 3 inches long—which it had
instead of hoofs on all four feet. These
presumably were used as weapons of
defense or offense. They hardly could
have been used to grub in the soil for
food. The moropus is believed to have
lived in swampy forests and to. have
fed chiefly on leaves and twigs, like the
present-day okapi. It was the largest
and probably the most fearsome creature
of its time. Its companions in the Mio
cene forests were all members of a
mammalian fauna which has been ex
tinct for millions of years. The most
conspicuous creatures, aside from the
clawed horse itself, were a giant pig
and a dwarf rhinoceros.
The restoration has been made by
Thomas Home, under the supervision
of Dr. C. W. Gilmore, curator of verte
brate paleontology.
* * * *
A corrprenensive pnysicai picture oi
the American Indian as he was before
the infiltration of alien blood had con
fused his anatomical characters, has just
been issued by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, cu
rator of physical anthropology of the
Smithsonian Institution. This consti
tutes basic data on the aboriginal Amer
ican race—or important segments of it
—to which Dr. Hrdlicka has devoted
nearly 40 years of study. It deals with
the complex of peoples whose forefathers
inhabited much of the Southwestern
United States and Northern Mexico,
at the time of the first white explora
tions and who had b^iilt up there one
of the most remarkable of the aboriginal
New World cultures, known broadly as
that of the Pueblos.
Dr. Hrdlicka found that the Pueblos
were a mixed lot from far back. The
figures show distinct evidence of both
a long-headed and broad-headed Indian
component. There were distinct differ
ences from the white race in nearly all
the mean measurements. These depend
largely on hereditary factors, but also
are due somewhat to the effects of dif
ferent environments and ways of life.
He found, however, striking similarities
in the two races in the morphological
laws that regulate development of
“These basic similarities," he says,
“speak convincingly on the one hand for
the unity of the human species and on
the other hand for the not-too-far-back
separations of the white race and of that
which gave eventually the American
By Frederic J. Haikin.
A reader can get the answer to any
question of fact by writing The Evening
Star Information Bureau, Frederic j.
Haskin, Director, Washington, D. C.
Pleasl inclose stamps for reply.
Q, How much does it cost the Federal
Government to collect each $100 in taxes?
—G. D. H. '
A. The figure varies from year to year.
In 1935 it cost $1.54 for each $100, ex
cluding processing taxes.
Q. When did Mordecal Ezekiel first
become identified with the Department
of Agriculture?—J. S.
A. In 1922, when he was but 23 years
old. He soon became an expert in sta
tistical analysis and in the study of the /
relation of farm production to demand. , V
n liru.l t. unlnmrO f T
A. His official salary is 8,000 lire a
month, about $660. He also has a small i
drawing account at the treasury.
Q. Was Mme. Stavisky ever actually in
jail?—H. D.
A. She spent 14 months in prison
awaiting trial. She was released on bail
in May, 1935.
Q. Has Soviet Russia a radio city?
—E. R.
A. A radio studio center similar to
Radio City, New York, is under con
struction. at Moscow. It is to be a 22
story skyscraper with 29 broadcasting
studios, and will house a radio theater
seating 2,000.
Q. Do many people have electric wash
ing machines who do not have electric
ironing machines?—N. S.
A. Electrical Merchandising says that
at the close of 1935 there were 10,346,432
washing machines in use in American •
homes and ironing machines totaled 1.
031,802. This leaves more than 9,000,000
homes using the washers, but not the
mechanical ironers.
Q. What was the original surname of
Ford Madox Ford?—T. M.
A. His name was Ford Madox Hueffer.
He changed his name legally in 1919.
Q. Please define bureaucracy.—E. G.
A. This is government by an elaborate
system of administrative departments
and officials, the lower functionaries sub
ordinate in all matters to the higher.
A bureaucracy generally tends to become
unwieldy and laborious in its operation,
through the absence of discretion in any
but the higher officials. This produces
red tape or oversystematization. Bu- «
reaucracy may exhibit also a tendency to
disregard individual rights and to en
gage in arbitrary acts. Its most fre
quently charged defects are its rigidity, ’
conservatism and spirit of routine.
Q. Were corduroy roads so named for
the material or was the material named
after the roads?—W. M.
A. The material was named first. The
ribbed condition of primitive roads
caused them to be called corduroy roads.
Q. Was John Davey, the tree surgeon,
born in this country?—L. K.
A. He was bom in Somersetshire.
England, in 1846 and learned floriculture
and landscape architecture in Torqua:
England. In 1873 he came to the United
Q. Where is Castle Gate?—D. M. R
A. It is the entrance to Price River
Canyon, in Central Utah, about 115 miles
southeast of Salt Lake City. The gate
like passage is formed by two immense
pinnacles of sandstone, 450 to 500 feet
in height. These rise sheer from the
narrow canyon bed, barely leaving room
for the railway and the river to pass.
The castellated form and striking colora
tion of this rocky portal make it a fea
ture of unusual interest.
Q. Please give the origin of the glove
industry in this country.—J. B.
A. The leather glove industry is said
to have been first introduced in the
United States by Sir William Johnson,
who, in 1760. settled several families of
Scotch glove makers on his lands near
the site of Gloversville, N. Y.
Q. When does wheat harvesting begin
and end in this country?—N. K. S.
A. The harvest of Winter wheat begins
in Central Texas usually about May 25
and reaches Central Oklahoma about
June 5. In this section the army of
transient harvest hands begins to as
semble, and reaches its maximum size
in Central Kansas, where the harvest
usually begins about June 15. By July
1 harvest has begun in Central Nebraska
The harvest of Spring wheat begins in
Eastern Nebraska and Western Iowa
usually about July 15, or at the time the
Winter wheat harvest ends. By August
1 wheat harvest has usually begun
throughout practically all of South Da
kota and Southern Minnesota, and by
August 11 it has nearly reached the
Canadian line.
Q. Will tourist camps be erected on
the Pan-American Highway to Mexico?
—H. L.
A. A chain of motor camps and tour
ist hotels will be built by a company, of
which former President of Mexico Rubio
is the head. The Mexican government is
also building shelters and small camps
which will supplement the larger ones.
The first of these is to be opened in
Q. What is the maiden name of Mrs.
Huey Long?—E. F.
A. Senator Long was Rose McConnell
of Greensburg, Ind. ;
Q. How old Is ti£ boxwood at Wake
field, birthplace of Washington?—G. S.
A. The boxwood hea'bes are said to be
more than a hundred y-ars old. They
were originally planted b> Sarah Tayloe
Washington at her home, Campbellton, ^
about six miles from WakefleA
. _*\
Nearing a Solution.
From the Ashtabula (Ohio) 8tar-Beacon.
A group of medical men offer the opin
ion that man is the weaker sex. This
helps to straighten out what happened
in the Garden of Eden.
A Rhyme at Twilight
Gertrude Brooke Hamilton
First Job.
Betty always has her way,
So she’s gone to work.
Pretty little Betty girl
In the downtown murk.
Buckling on her dainty boots
For the snow and slush,
Giving me a good-by kiss
In the morning rush.
At the week end with her pay
She is proud as Punches. I —
As her Dad I'd rather far
Buy my kid her lunches. • ■

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