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W. P. A. JOB SURVEY
Hopkins Says First Report Will Be Reatfy in Two Months. The first report on the findings of the W. P. A.'s comprehensive study of the effects of changing industrial technology on the volume of employ ment and unemployment will be made public within the next two months, Administrator Harry L,. Hopkins an nounced yesterday. A progress report. Hopkins said, •hows that in the last 14 months the project, a W. P. A. research effort, has surveyed 650 manufacturing plants, more than a dozen industries, and touching every State in the Union. An unusual feature of the project Is that investigators are going into the industrial centers to obtain first hand case histories of workers and former workers. Year’s Work Summarized. Hopkins' announcement was ac companied by a 42-page report sum marizing the first year’s work of the project, which is being directed by David Weintraub. Because the study delves so com prehensively Into the causes and ef fects of the mechanization of indus try. its findings are expected to be come a focal point in discussions of what the Government's plans must be With relation to the unemployed. "There Is no question.” Mr.. Hop kins said, "that changing industrial methods have an important 7ect on both the volume of producti and the volume of employment. This project is going into the question from dozens of angles. It is measur ing the amount of work a man does under modern methods 1 compar ing it with what he did in previous years. It is studying changes in kind* of machinery, raw materials, hours of vork, occupations and ages of work ers atid the relation between actual output of plants and their full pro duction capacity. Problem Is Complex. "This problem is infinitely complex. The project is attempting to present • tremendous fund of information which can be used as the basis for in telligent conclusions by Congress and by numerous Federal agencies which are attempting to solve various phases of this riddle. • * • ‘ Not only Congress but many Gov ernment agencies. Including the De partments of Agriculture, Commerce. Interior and Labor, the Social Se curity Board and ourselves have great need of such Information. "Here are only a few of the ques tions which need answering: At what age is a man useless to modern in dustry? What can be done about stranded populations in areas from which industry has moved away? In what degree ran changed in occupa tion result in jobs for the jobless, where is this possible and to what ex tent? "It is our hope that the findings of this project will be helpful, not only to public agencies but to the man agements of the industries surveyed and to students of the country's eco nomic problems.” (Copyright, 1937, by Now York Hortld Tribune.) Judiciary J fContinued From rirgt Page ) be corrected by appointing new Justices." N’ew Dealers Pleased. The administration forces were Jubilant over the Wisconsin Governor's attack on opponents of the court en largement plan. The youthful leader of the Wisconsin Progressives, as the administration views it, still retains a hold on the Farmer-Labor groups In the Middle West who followed his father, the late Senator Robert M. La Follette. His espousal of the Presi dent's court plan, administration lead ers professed to believe, would go a long way toward offsetting the defec tion of Senator Burton K. Wheeler of Montana and would tend to keep in line Senators Lynn J. Frazier and Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota, Sena tor Henrik Shipstead of Minnesota end William j. Bulow of South Dakota. Senators Nye and Frazier have come out against the court enlargement plan and opponents have been count ing on Senators Shipstead and Bulow, thus far uncommitted, to join their side. Senator Shipstead. however, is ill and probably will not be able to attend to his duties in the Senate for from six to eight weeks. While the uproar about the court continued, the Supreme Court justices prepared for their first decision day tomorrow. They have under consider ation rulings in two cases Involving the constitutionality of the Wagner labor relations act and of a Wash ington State law imposing minimum wage standards. Also they have for consideration a request for a rehear ing of the New York unemployment act, on which the court split four to four early in the present session. The opponents of the Supreme Court bill said that within the next few days other Senators would leave the non-committed group and declare their opposition to the measure. They insisted that if the bill is brought into the Senate in its present form, as it relates to the Supreme Court, they would be able to muster a majority 8gainst it. So far as any compromise Is concerned, particularly if it pro poses to add additional Justices to the court, they expressed confidence also they would be able to defeat it, even if they are compelled to go to a fili buster. They much prefer to win the fight, however, on a straight-out vote. Proposal Held "Legal.’* Senator-elect Smathers, In hi* state ment. said: "The President’s proposal to reform the Federal judiciary, to pump new blood—youth—into the personnel of the Supreme Court, has my whole hearted support,” He insisted that the President's proposal is "legal and constitutional.” "The only cry we hear,” he contin ued, "is that the President’s motives are improper. During the last four years every piece of progressive, humanitarian legislation proposed by the President and enacted into law for the benefit of the masses has been assailed by the same crowd with the same cry that the President’s motives were not what they should be. I will take my seat in the United States Senate in time to support the Presi dent’s Federal judiciary reform pro posal to the limit of my energy and ability. "I ran on the same ticket with President Roosevelt, with campaign pledges to support the liberal and progressive policies of the President, to represent the people' and not ’the a Children Cheer Cuba’s “Strong Man” Col. Fulgencio Batista, one-time Cuban army sergeant, receives the applause of school children who made the trip from rural sections to Havana to thank him for the plan to give underprivileged children primary educations. The Cuban “strong man” engineered a coup d'etat while he was a non-commissioned officer in the army. —A. P. Photo. interests' in the Senate. Without a liberal and progressive interpretation of these policies, the American elec torate will have been deceived.” Smathers said most of the thousands of letters coming to him "from those who hold the stock of the vested cor porate interest. denouncing and maligning the President” lead him to believe that the proposal is in the interests of the people. Those who make the most noise, he said, against retiring Supreme Court Justices at ! 70 would not think of hiring a man i over 40 years of age In the entire ! set-up of their industries. ‘‘When the average man reaches the age of 70, "Smathers continued.” he moves, lives, acts and conceives In the past. He is happy and at his best in j talking of yesterdays. With all due 1 respect to the Supreme Court and the . integrity of Its members, I believe that' the infusion of some new members J possessing youth, men who have been able to chajige with the changing times, men who possess the faculty of thinking and acting in terms of to day and tomorrow , men who are con scious of the social and economic evils and whirlpools of today, men who have ! seen the horrors of the coal pits, the , sweat shops, the slums, the sweltering dust storm fields and the flooded val leys, will not only benefit the court by giving It ft proper balance, but will save the country from social and economic disaster.'’ Tlie New Jersey Senator-elect said the country has come to believe in a more human theory of Government; that it now recognizes "that a man’s job is a property right." He concluded with a declaration that thd Nation will be best served by adding new and younger members of the Supreme Court. Senator Donahev. in his first pro nouncement on the court issue, said: "This controversy vitally affects the judiciary, a co-ordinate branch of the Government, and should be referred to the people—the source of all polit ical power." Reports that President Roosevelt was contemplating a swing around the country to speak In support of his court bill, and to stir up the people, were discounted yesterday at the White House. The President, it was said, has no such present intention. Any blanketing of the President's "fireside" talk with the people via the radio on the night of March 9 by the publicity given the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings on that day or vice versa has been prevented by the j change of date for the opening of the : Senate hearings. They will begin on j March 10. instead of on March 9. as originally proposed by the committee. The explanation given by Senator Ashurst, chairman of the committee, for the change in date is that it was impossible io obtain the big marble caucus room in the Senate Office Building, where the hearings are to be hi Id on March 9. but that It was pos sible to get the room on the following day. The President has not revealed the j QTFPHFN (ome Hnmf oiLrnLii fa Toor Mrt|her CHECK COSTS . 'ONLY 5 CENTS*** z o i— < a 0 <L a o 0 Id U z < a 3 u> Z » t/v 0 a. Id O J < £ Id O Id U. £ id O z Id z « and, you'll find all these advantages in a "POPULAR" CHECKING ACCOUNT*. 1* Carry any balance you like. 2■ No monthly charges regardless of balance. 3. Account may be opened with as little as $5. 4. Costs less than money orders. 5. Total cost 5? per check. 6. All conveniences of the usual checking account. 7. Write as many checks as you wish. 8. Damaged checks replaced without cost. 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Senator Ashurst said yesterday that a large nu'iber of requests have been received from persons who wish to be heard on the/ court bill, He said that he was entirely willing to give those who uked a chance to be heard as long as they were “coherent" and the testimony they gave was “cumulative.” He suggested that an hour and a half a day would be sufficient time for the hearings. The first witnesses he said probably would be Attorney Gen eral Cummings and Assistant Attorney General Robert H. Jackson, both of whom will speak in support of the President’s bill. Favors Hearing All. Senator Van Nuys of Indiana, op posing the bill and a member of the committee, said he was in favor hear ing all those who wished to come be fore the committee to talk on it. He added that he thought the committee would find It necessary to sit more than an hour and a half a day. He will demand that opponents of the bill be given opportunity to speak on the same day that supporters o» the meas ure are heard by the committee. It Is expected that the opposition to the bill will arrange a slate of witnesses who wish to be heard against the measure. This work probably will be taken over by Senator Van Nuys and Senator Burke of Nebraska. The bill authorizing the voluntary retirement on full pay of justices of the Supreme Court who have reached 70 years of age and have had 10 years' service on the Federal bench, which as passed both houses of Con gress, will be sent to the President for his approval tomorrow. It is ex pected he will sign the bill, for in his message on the judiciary to Con gress he said he favored giving the justices this retirement right. Whether any of the six Justices who have passed 70 years of age will avail themselves of the retirement privilege at this time Is not definitely known. They are Chief Justice Hughes, 74; Associate Justices Bran dels, 80; Van Devanter, 77; McRey nolds, 75; Sutherland, 74, and Butler, 70. Senator Ashurst said yesterday he had no Intimation what their course would be. “Ever since I have been chairman of the Judiciary Committee,” said Ashurst, “the only topics I have dis cussed with justices of the Supreme Court are the weather and art. I have never heard of any Justices who contemplate retiring.” Senator Pope in his radio address insisted that • historically, there is no doubt that the makers of the Consti tution never Intended to give to the Supreme Court power to declare an act ol Congress unconstitutional. The constitutional convention on June 5 and 6, July 21 and August 15, rejected proposals of James Madison and James WiLson to give the Judiciary the right to pass on the constitutionality of acts of Congress. Never did they receive the votes of more than three States.” When Chief Justice Marshall de clared the right of the Supreme Court to pass upon the constitutionality of law in the case of Marbury vs. Madi son, Senator Pope said, there was im mediate protest from Thomas Jeffer son, who declared it an attempt to “force upon the Nation a dangerous doctrine, one which would place us under the despotism of an oligarchy.” Pope said that during the first 75 years under the Constitution, only two laws were declared invalid, during the next 60 years, up to 1924, 53 acts ; [ were declared unconstitutional, and in J the last 12 years. 23 acts "were stricken I down, 12 of which have occurred in the last two years." “Before Jefferson was elected,” Pope continued, “Adams packed the court with Federalist Judges. Jefferson tried to unpack it. Before Lincoln was elected slavery Democrats packed the court and Lincoln protested. Before Roosevelt was elected. Harding, Cool ldge and Hoover packed the court with Judges, the majority of whom are set upon destroying New Deal legislation. Roosevelt Is trying to prevent that de struction. “What are those who desire to Im prove the conditions of the farmer and the laborer to do? Are they to cease their efforts or shall they try to find some way to preserve the recovery pro gram? After four years, during which social legislation has fallen like domi noes under the judicial touch, the last resort seems to be the President’s ef fort to unpack the Supreme Court, to replace some of its disciples of reac tionary economics with liberal-minded Judges just as the people have re placed reactionaries In the legislative and executive branches.” WOMEN WILL DEBATE NEW ECONOMIC ORDER Three Matched With Men for Diicussion Wednesday of Their Place in Change. A Senator, a Representative and a newspaper man will match wits Wednesday with a panel of three women from the local National Asso ciation of University Women on the question. “Under the New Economic Order. Where Do Women Get Off or Get On?’’ at the National Association of University Women Club, 1834 I street, at 7 p.m The men will be Senator Joseph O'Mahoney of Wyoming, Representa tive Emanuel Celler of New York and Raymond Clapper. The women par ticipating will be Miss Annette Young man of the Washington "Poet,. Mrs. Robert Oleson. formerly on the faculty at Cincinnati University, and Miss Marie L. Obenauer, joint chairman of the Board of Governors ottfreHome Owners' Protective Enterprise':-' Discussion, which will be informal, will be directed by Miss Obenauer. ' *“ ’ School Dance Tonight. 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