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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, September 23, 1937, Image 12

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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition.
WASHINGTON. D. C.
THURSDAY..September 23, 1837
THEODORE W. NOYES . Editor
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Uncle Sam Saves “Face.”
In that popular crook play. "Raffles.”
the burglarious hero, in an attempt to
keep up his flagging courage, whistles
this homely philosophy: "Money lost,
little lost: honor lost, much lost; pluck
lost, Ell lost!” Out in the Far East,
since time immemorial, they have para
phrased that bit of introspection in
terms something like these: "Trade lost,
little lost: life lost, much lost; ‘face’
lost, all lost!” In substance, "face” in
the Orient means prestige, or influence
or self-respect—or all three. When
"face'' is forfeited by ones own act or
under any circumstances the status of
the person, statesman, nation or gov
ernment bereft of it, no matter what
the cause, suffers almost irreparable
loss. East of Suez there is none so poor
as thenceforth to do reverence to the
loser of "face.”
Uncle Sam has saved "face” at
Nanking in the nick of time. The
scuttling of the United States Embassy
on Tuesday—whether of Ambassador
Johnson's own volition, acting under
general State Department instructions
regarding the safety of our representa
tives abroad in times of danger, or
whether specifically ordered from Wash
lngfon. is immaterial—was a humiliating
performance. The action having been
taken virtually at Japanese demand,
there could have been, in Oriental eves,
no greater possible loss of “face” by a
great power. American prestige, in a
lightning flash, was gone with the wind
—gone, in the estimation of our owm
nationals everywhere in the East; gone
in the opinion of the Chinese govern
ment and people, and gone, as far as im
perious and imperial Japan was con
cerned. For the mighty republic of the
golden West permanently to knuckle
under to the would-be overlords of the
East would have been craven beyond
belief.
The American people learn today,
with almost inexpressible gratification,
that they have, after all, been spared
such ignominy. Ambassador Johnson,
with the assent, if not the actual "au
thority” of the State Department, has
returned to the Embassy with his staff.
They will continue to conduct the United
States’ business there, whether the
Japanese air force carries out its pro
gram of murder over Nanking or not.
The Stars and Stripes will float where
they have a right to fly, instead of over
an Embassy skulking in safety thirty
miles up the Yangtze in a gunboat. As
soon as matters of great urgency are
attended to, some explanation of even
the temporary loss of American "face”
at Nanking will be in order. Memories
of these things linger with peoples who,
elephant-like, never forget.
While Tokio's aircraft was yesterday
raining death and destruction on Nan
king, spreading havoc and misery on a
scale that staggered the sensibilities, the
United States submitted a formal pro
test to Japan, branding her action as
"unwarranted and contrary to prin
ciples of law and of humanity.” The
Invaders of China are put sternly on
notice that they will be held to strict
accountability for any damage suffered
by Americans as a result of air fright
fulness. Along with this admonition
Japan is informed that the United
States “objects both to such jeopar
dizing of the lives of its nation
als and of non-compatants gener
ally.” Nor can Washington accept the
arrogant suggestion that its officials
and nationals now residing at Nanking
"should withdraw from the areas in
which they are lawfully carrying on
their legitimate activities.”
Whether the Japanese, in the thick
and fury of their reckless adventure in
China, are any longer amenable to such
purposeful remonstrances is problemati
cal. If they are not, let them know that
Secretary Hull's note but mildly reflects
the rising resentment of the American
people over the Island Empire's pre
tensions and depredations. Its states
men and military leaders err if they
think this country's patience is inex
haustible or that its diplomatic rela
tions with Japan will indefinitely be
confined to notes of protest.
Initials are still used to designate au
thority and services expected. Even
the old K. K. K. comes back again with
reminders of dues if not of obligations.
Dr. Mann Returning.
News of the safe arrival of Dr. William
M. Mann at Halifax, Nova Scotia, has
been received in Washington with en
thusiasm. The good ship Silverash in
which he is a passenger also has on
board approximately fifteen hundred
specimens of the wild life of sixteen
different countries obtained during seven
months of travel round the world. Bills
of lading list seventy-four crates of ani
mals, one hundred and twelve crates of
birds, thirty crates of reptiles and about
a score of hoofed creatures, including
four giraffes, an African buffalo, a blue
sheep from China, a goat antelope and
a barking deer. The collection repre
sents a distinctively valuable expansion
of the National Zoological Park.
And, naturally enough, each accession
is a story. For example, Harry, a seven
month-old tiger, has been the particular
charge of Mrs. Mann, who nursed him
through an illness with all the tenderness
that she would have shown toward an
infant child. Again, a pair of black
leopards symbolize the generous co
operation of the Maharajah of Johore,
with whom the director conferred with
the assistance of Dutch and Malayan
translators. The birds have been the
responsibility of Malcom Davis, the
snakes that of Roy Jenier.
Unloaded at New York, the Silverash's
cargo will be brought to the Capital by
truck. Within a fortnight the new in
habitants should be comfortably estab
lished at the Zoo, available to be in
spected by crowds of people who will
appreciate the opportunity. Science and
education have been served by the expe
dition, and the public owes a debt of
gratitude to the Smithsonian Institution
and the National Geographic Society for
their sponsorship of it. The major credit
for its management is due to Dr. Mann,
and Washington welcomes him home
with pleasure enhanced by recognition
of his success.
■■ ■ ■ ■ > t " ■
“Impertinence.'’
Attorney General Cummings in his
statement to the press yesterday, in
which he declared that the Department
of Justice had made no investigation of
Mr. Justice Black prior to the sending of
his name to the Senate, made use of an
expression that while adequate in denial
yet calls for some analysis. He said:
"Where a man has been eminent in
public life and associated for years with
the members of the Senate it would be
an act of impertinence to investigate
his private life.”
Passing the question of whether in
this case there is any difference between
the private and public life of a pros
pective justice in respect to qualification
or fitness, the Attorney General's use of
the word "impertinence” opens a vista
of inquiry. The word has two meanings
and as bearing upon this immediate
matter they are divergent. Impertinence
in one sense means rudeness, contrary
to good manners or breeding, pre
sumptuous or rude. But in another
sense, and that which unquestionably
hears upon the immediate matter of a
possible inquiry into the qualifications
and fitness of an appointee to office, is
something quite different. In law an
impertinence is something irrelevent,
immaterial or unimportant. The Stand
ard Dictionary cites Story's "Equity
Pleading” with this definition: "Im
pertinence is the introduction of any '
matters into a bill, answer, or other
pleading or proceeding in a suit which
are not properly before the court for
decision, at any particular stage of the
suit.”
It would surely have been pertinent
to the matter of Mr. Black's qualifica
ti.An f nv f Vi a HArhiAn .-: . 4 . 1.. __
--- t' v/* u.njuvtavv, JUOUUO '
of the Supreme Court to ascertain
whether he had at any time had an
affiliation that would render him in
competent to sit in judgment with even
justice on all questions that might be
brought before him for determination.
The fact that he had been elected to
the Senate by the people of Alabama
did not itself answer such a question, for
indeed a potential disqualification of
that character to a judicial service might
have been in fact politically a qualifica
tion for the office to which he was
elected.
It does not follow that an inquiry
made prior to appointment would have
disclosed this potential disqualification.
To be sure there was no particular
ground for that research in anything
that had been advanced in public dis
cussion. The simple fact is that the
possibility of Mr. Black's appointment
had not been bruited and the nomina
tion was a complete surprise to the
country. The Attorney General would
have been more satisfying in his state
ment if he had merely said that there
was no occasion to question Senator
Black as to his fitness. But if there had
been occasion there would have been no
impertinence in asking him if he had at
any time been so affiliated as to cause
doubt to arise as to his impartiality in
dealing with questions of law as a mem
ber of the highest tribunal. That wotlld
indeed have been a pertinent inquiry,
regardless of the immediate standing of
the prospective nominee and of the
esteem in which he was held by the
people of his own State, or by his
colleagues in the Senate.
Whatever Lindbergh's future plans
may be they evidently include a stead
fast silence as to his personal inten
tions.
Mr. Hilles Steps Out.
Charles Dewey Hilles, almost the last
of a group of old guard Republican
leaders and certainly its most distin
guished member for a decade, is retiring
from the Republican National Com
mittee. Mr. Hilles is retiring voluntarily.
His letter of resignation, handed to
Chairman Murray of the New York State
Republican Committee, is a model. He
casts no stones at his enemies, although
they have not failed on many occasions
to demand his resignation “for the good
of the Republican party.”
Mr. Hilles has never denied that he
was conservative or that he belonged to
the conservative wing of the Republican
party. It probably has been his opinion,
as it is the opinion of others in that
group, that more sound^progress can be
made through conservative action than
through radical measures.
His colleagues in the councils of the
Republican party organization have for
years leaned heavily upon Mr. Hilles and
his judgment. He has shown himself
resourceful and restrained, though some
L
times inexorable. In the eyes of Re
publican progressives, Mr. Hilles has
been the very mirror of conservatism.
They found him, however, always where
they expected to find him and when he
made an agreement, he stuck to it.
No other member of the party’s na
tional organization has been the target
for more brickbats, hurled by the pro
gressives, than has Mr. Hilles. To them
he has personified control by the "in
terests,” by the privileged and the
wealthy. The brickbats, however heavy,
never included personal reflections upon
the New York committeeman. Even by
his enemies he has been placed upon a
pedestal.
The retirement of Mr. Hilles from the
G. O. P. National Committee, more than
the retirement of any other member,
gives the impression that a new picture
is being unrolled, that a new group is
coming into control after a score or
more of years. Not long ago J. Henry
Roraback of Connecticut, member of
the national committee, died. He with
Hilles were the very personification of
old guardism to the progressives in the
party.
Possibly Mr. Hilles was tired of being
assailed. Perhaps he, himself, has come
to believe that if the G. O. P. is to be
revived successfully it must present a
new front to the country, with a changed
personnel in the national committee.
The reason he gave, however, is that he
has served a long time and that now
he desires to give his attention more
fully to his own personal business.
Mr. Hilles’ successor, no matter how
progressive he may be or how far re
moved from the charges that have been
made against the retiring committee
man, will have to go far either to be as
effective or to be as highly regarded by
his colleagues as has Mr. Hilles.
The American Federation of Labor
has requested an address from President
Roosevelt at the convention in Denver
on October 4. Mr. John Lewis may
not be there in person, but thanks
to the wonders of radio, he may be
depended on as an attentive listener.
What Secretary Hul! says about the
future of Europe is worthy of deep at
tention. It was not easy for this na
tion to establish its world relationship
150 years ago. The task equally im
portant today may be even greater.
When a warring nation notifies for
eign representatives that it is time to
move it speaks with a voice of au
thority. Diplomatic courtesies are for
gotten when a question of physical sur
vival arises.
There are moments when a leader in
New York events is compelled to forget
his local prestige and recognize the re
sponsibility he may be called upon to i
meet in connection with the ideals and '
otaiiutuuo Ui *» glCttb 1 irtLiUIl.
Japan will find opposition not only
from China, but from members of its
own responsible citizenship ready to
claim the rewards of industry instead of
the immediate benefits of ruthless con
quest.
A question remains unanswered.
Diplomacy would like to know to whom
the Mediterranean submarine belongs
that calls but refuses to leave an address. !

Shooting Stars.
BY PHILANDER JOHNSON
Choice.
I do not choose to climb into
An aeroplane and speed,
While rising in the public view
Toward fame I do not need.
I do not choose the streets to walk,
Defying ‘'Go'’ and "Stop.”
I do not.choose to bandy talk
With any traffic cop.
While I should hate to hesitate
To help this world to move,
I do not choose to imitate
The things I can't approve.
As we behold the chance increased
To gain, or else to lose,
It's man's privilege, at least.
To choose, or not to choose.
Impatience.
‘‘Are you impatient to get back to
Washington, D. C.?”
“No," answered Senator Sorghum.
“What I want is to persuade my con
stituents to grow impatient to see me
again helping to save the country.”
Jud Tunkins says riches have wings,
but they don't always have a scientific
pilot when they fly.
Social Oratory.
And many a man who says his choice
Is to uplift humanity
Is simply one who lifts his voice
With a musician’s vanity.
The Difficulty.
“What’s the difficulty about farm
relief?"
“The fact,” answered Former Corn
tossel, “that most financiers don't know
any more about farming than farmers
know about finance.”
“They who make great dreams come
true,” said Hi Ho, the sage of China
town, “are careful not to oversleep them
selves.”
Valueless Accumulation.
The theories that men have found
Create in thought a wondrous store;
And yet we still go groping 'round,
Just as the household we explore.
As time flies on, with rapid ease,
It leaves us an abundant stock
Of plain and ornamental keys
Which do not fit any lock.
“No workln’ men watches de clock
any more'.” said Unci* Eben. “Day ell
, curiae wrist watches."
* .\
Greed for Gain Must Not
Again Entangle America
To the Editor of The SUr:
When we consider the inflammatory
quality of power-crazed minds such as
now dominates the Japanese nation, the
President's recent decision to limit the
export of war materials to Asiatic waters
can only call for commendation. It is a
timely step to prevent the repetition of
what now goes on in the Mediterranean
Sea.
For over a year the European nations,
and the United States, too, have enjoyed
the profits resulting from the sale of war
supplies to Spain. But the sudden de
cision of the European powers to estab
lish a war-time patrol of the Mediter
ranean Sea leaves our nation in the
peculiar position of enjoying huge profits
in the traffic in arms without incurring
the expense and risk of a naval patrol
such as is now jointly established by
Britain and France.
Now we know that war is imminent in
Europe and that the conquest of Spain
is the first step aimed at the dismember
ment of the British Empire. And if we
known this and hope to share only in
the profits in war without sharing its
horrors then we are stalking blindly into
a trap.
We must forego our profits if we would
escape the entanglements that must
surely lead us to the brink of war. This
is not a case of saving democracy again.
It is merely a war of expansion and of
colonial conquest. And of such we are
through. We are yielding our colonies
rather than adding to them. Britain can
do no less.
In 1917 we saw the final result of what
men called armed neutrality. We sent
our ships on the high seas and in mili
tary zones with a warning to belligerents
that neutral rights were sacred. These
sacred neutral rights we later saw were
the rights to trade with the most pow
erful nation, such as could demonstrate
the success of a blockade. Our vessels,
becoming the target of seizure and of
submarines, finally led us to commit
ourselves to a policy entirely satisfactory
to England and France. We must not
repeat our mistake. Armed neutrality
does not pay. And it is to be doubted if
the establishment of a successful Asiatic
blockade entirely establishes a prior
claim upon the goods of a neutral. If a
blockade is successful it is so only by
means of force and it remains to be seen
if we cannot likewise deny the victor
our trade as well as the victim.
Our President has taken the first step
in good faith. Our greed for gain must
not entangle us again.
J. L. TURNER.
On a Day When Dr. Mary
Walker Lost an Umbrella
To the Editor of The Star: •
Some 20 years ago a big meeting came
off in the ball room of the Willard Hotel.
It had something to do with peace or
women’s rights or both. After the pan
demonium was over the houseman on
duty (myself) got busy straightening out
the mess.
While in the midst of my labors in
the center of the room I noticed a little
old gentleman, dressed in frock coat and
silk hat come toward me from one of
the entrances. Walking to meet him
and ask his business I changed my mind
about the apparition. It was a woman.
Drawing still closer I recognized her. She
was our old friend. Dr. Mary Walker.
And she didn't masquerade in that out
fit. either. This privilege was accorded
to her by a special act of Congress.
The old lady was in an awful stew.
She had left her umbrella. Well, we
looked around, but nothing doing. One
of the peace delegates had. no doubt.
walked off with it SllcnArt inrr mn cUa
continued to grumble. I gave her my
name, also called up the main office. I
then advised her to get in touch with
the hotel on the following morning. In
the meantime the house officer, the man
aging director himself and most every
body about the place would become
active in the cause of the lost umbrella.
Still muttering to herself she left.
Dr Mary Walker died not long after
this mishap, and we'll assume that this
loss did not contribute to her demise.
She was eccentric, but withal a woman of
great distinction—physician, nurse and
spy during the Civil War. inventor,
writer and champion of many causes.
The old lady, may be, was also inclined
to be a bit stingy. She might have
checked that rain absorber. Nominally
there is no charge, but a donation is ex
pected—from 10 cents up.
Standing on your constitutional rights
you may escape that tribute. But in
that case a "dirty look” may be vour
punishment or else the word “stiff” '11
be hissed after you. This'll evaporate
against your back, and, like a boomer
ang, it’ll find its way to the checking
counter where it came from No harm
done. It’s all in fun And besides, you
are the price of a bottle of beer to the
good. At least she claimed so.
FRED VETTER.
Passing the Buck Will Be
Fall and Winter Sport
To thp Editor of Th* Star:
Passing the buck for the appointment
of the now immortal Hugo is likely to
be our great Fall and Winter sport. But
one aspect of this ghastly comedy is not
receiving the attention it deserves. I
refer to the frenetic nostalgia that as
sails every Congress as it nears the end
of its labors. For months it dawdles
along as if it had an eternity of time;
then suddenly the hills of home begin
to call and matters of great pith and
moment are rushed through with the
indecent haste of a sausage grinder.
When the north wing of the Capitol is
completely taken over by the wives of
past and future Senators we may rea
sonably expect such heart-flutterings
to interfere at times with the public
business. But in those who like to call
themselves statesmen it is inexcusable.
When Mr. Burke promised two wit
nesses to prove the charge of Klan affili
ation brought against Mr. Black by
Dr. Copeland, the earnest plea of Mr.
Tydings for a further investigation
should have been heeded by any body
of sane men. Justice and prudence both
demanded it. Yet the two Nestors of
the Senate demurred. Having made up
their minds to vote against the nominee
they were impatient of futile delay.
Does anyone doubt that a month earlier
they would have been more hopeful?
It was a case of the Supreme Court
vs. the Peaks of Otter—and the Peaks
of Otter won! R. D. MILLER.
Objects to Star Comment
On Performance of Gigli
To the Editor of The St»r:
Harry MacArthur, in reviewing Ben
ianino Gigli's debut in the picture
“Forever Yours,” states that "Senor
Gigli, for all his voice, cuts no romantic
figure * * *.”
The question thereupon arises as to
whether romance of any kind is pos
sible without a Robert Taylor profile.
Pro bono publico, it is well that "For
ever Ycurs” was not a Hollywood pro
duction, for otherwise Senor Gigli
would no doubt have been forced to re
duce or to have sung off stage while
some beardless pretty boy supplied the
romance which Mr. MacArthur deems to
ha so necessary.
ORFXSUB A. ORAXAM.
i
An amateur photographer missed a
wonderful shot the other morning by
not having his camera loaded.
During the night an enterprising
spider had spun a web between an over
hanging branch of a locust and the tip
of an althea bush.
At exactly 7:20 a.m. a ray of sun darted
through the trees and fell upon the web.
No flash bulb could have lighted the
subject so perfectly.
The illumination was right from every
possible viewpoint.
The only trouble with it was that it
was constantly on the move.
The web was about six inches across,
every strand lighted until it seemed
made of wire.
The effect was so fine that it held the
eye for a full minute of admiration.
* ★ * *
“Why, that would make a fine pic
ture!”
Perhaps that is the difference be
tween an amateur and a professional.
The latter would see the picture at
the first glance. At least, he should. It
is his business.
The amateur has no such necessity.
This particular one stoo«J frozen in
admiration for too long a time.
When he went to get his camera, he
saw that it was not loaded.
It did not take him long to open a
box of film, take off the tinfoil and
insert the roll, but the time consumed
was too long for his picture.
When he got back, the sun had left
that particular spot.
Without it, at that time, with an
average camera, there was no chance of
getting a successful photograph.
* * * *
Two needs might be deducted—a more
costly camera, with a better lens, or a
constantly loaded camera.
Certainly the latter is the cheapest.
The modern urge for smaller and bet
ter cameras will have to be resisted by
many of us, who will feel that more
care and intelligence will permit as good
pictures with old equipment.
In this better care and more intelli
gent handling of such cameras as we
own there is real need for film in place.
On the shelf, or in a desk drawer, is not
so good, yet that is where-many a film
reposes while the moment for the best
shot passes.
* * * *
There are constantly arising situa
tions, natural poses of children and pets
and scenes which remain only a little
while, in which a ready camera is the
essence of things hoped for—a good
negative, in other words, with fine prints
following.
If the camera Ls loaded, it may be
focused and the shutter snapped in a
few seconds, whereas if it is necessary
to thread a film into place the picture
often vanishes before it can be done.
Hurry, in such matters, tends to snarl
things.
One's hands become "all fingers” then,
as the old saying has it.
The film and its heavy black paper
\
can become woefully entangled with the
best will in the world.
It is best to have this all attended to
in advance.
The film need not be rolled completely
around—in fact, it is better that it be
not, but that it is all ready to be rolled.
This will mean that there is still
plenty of paper ardund it.
A few twists of the key and the first
negative surface is in position. This
will not take enough time to slow up
any taking.
The camera, when so loaded, is best
kept in its case.
* * * *
These measures are applicable to the
great average amateur, the man or
woman, boy or girl, who takes pictures
only now and then.
There will be many days pass between
one batch of negatives and the next.
Every one knows how this is.
One starts out on a picture-taking
expedition.
Several rolls of film are used. They
are sent, in most cases, to the finishers.
The negative and finished prints come
back.
There is happy anticipation in open
ing the envelope, in seeing what one
got, in deploring the poor shots and
felicitating one’s self upon the good ones.
This is* photography, as known to most
persons.
It is not professional, and it is not
meant to be, but just good fun.
* * * *
Often such amateurs take surprisingly
good pictures, however.
With modern film, and the wide
latitude they permit, the strict amateur
often takes good photographs which
make fine enlargements.
He cannot get these pictures, how
ever. if he finds himself without a film
at the critical moment.
Rolls today will last for many months
in good condition, and take as good pic
tures at the end of their period as at the
beginning.
The latitude is amazing. Interior time
exposures may range, with an ordinary
camera, from eight to fourteen seconds,
with all negatives giving good results.
Many years of scientific work have
gone into giving these results, which are
not based on the belief that the amateur
is a fool, but that he has neither the
equipment nor desire to fool around with
very critical lenses or films.
What he is after is an average good
| photograph, which may be secured with
i most of the medium priced cameras on
! the market today. It is still the belief
' of many amateurs that it is better to
! have such equipment, and take more
| pictures, than to own such an expensive
camera that one is afraid to use it.
Every now and then an occasion will
arise in which the amateur wishes he
had a camera, or. if he has an unloaded
one. that he had kept it loaded. It Is
always best to keep the box in which the
I film comes, because it has stamped on
j it the date on which it theoretically
' runs out.
STARS, MEN AND ATOMS
Notebook of Science Progress in Field,
Laboratory and Study.
BY THOMAS R. HENRY.
Seventy or eighty million years ago
Nature started a momentous experiment.
She evolved a group of warm-blooded
animals which gave birth to living young
at a considerably developed stage,
j nursed and cared for them during the
helplessness of infancy and after a
fashion educated them.
These animals were primarily insect
eaters—at least their teeth were best
fitted for this sort of diet. They were
, "insectivores,” an order represented to
: day by such lowly, secretive creatures as
the shrews, moles and voles. These have
j stuck closest to the ancestral ways. They
* are like the branch of an ancient family
which has remained for countless genera
tions on the old home farm while the
collateral lines have been wandering over
the earth and establishing homes for
themselves in all countries. They retain
best the family tradition.
The scattered bones of this ancient
order of animals are stressed by Dr.
George Gaylord Simpson of the Amer
ican Museum of Natural History in his
monumental report on the mammals of
the Crazy Mountains area, in Montana,
just issued by the Smithsonian Institu
tion. These creatures lived about 70,
000.000 years ago. just prior to the time
when the ancestors of most extant warm
blooded creatures made their appearance*
on earth.
Other lines of mammals—the fruit eat
ers, the flesh eaters and the grass eaters
—branched off from the insectivores and
specialized in their own ways. They
populated every conceivable niche of
nature open to them and developed wavs
of life suitable to survival in these I
niches. The insect eaters stayed put, re- ;
taining the old customs but improving
on them to meet changing conditions.
They had started the line which was to
lead eventually to the great apes and
man.
The insectivores of the paleocene. Dr. j
; Simpson believes, either are ancestral
directly -to the modern creatures of the
same order, or belong to closely related i
lines. This family has changed little in I
70.000,000 years, relative to the very great j
changes in other mammalian orders.
They are, says Dr. Simpson, "the most
primitive of all living placentak,mam
mals.”
The insectivores make their first ap
pearance in the Cretaceous geological
period preceding the time of the Crazy
Mountain area formations. From them.
Dr. Simpson believes, arose all the orders
of mammals in which the young are
carried inside the bodies of the mothers
until they are completely developed. Thus
they are distinct from the marsupials
whose young are born in a very imma
ture condition and develop in the
pouches of the mothers, and the mopo
tremes who lay and hatch eggs like birds
or reptiles.
Man himself, according to this con
ception, may be considered as remotely
derived from the earliest insectivores.
Through millions of generation the va
rious stocks diverged more and more
from the insectivore ancestry. But the
Crazy Mountain creatures are still rela
tively close to the beginning. All the
placentals among them have suggestive
insectivore characters. In fact, Dr.
Simpson says, if no intermediate steps
were known between then and the pres
ent all might be classified in this general
stock.
Among these Crazy Mountain animals
are found representatives of one offshoot
from the primitive insectivore stocjj
destined to lead eventually to the cats,
dogs, bears, seals, minks, otters, etc.—in
other words to the great order of carni
vores or meat eaters. This group of
mammals were becoming adapted, like
some of the great reptiles which still lin
gered, to prey upon their fellow creatures.
One of these primitive carnivores rep
resented In the collection is the elaeno
i
don. In some respects it resembled a
bear, but, Dr. Simpson stresses, can by
no means be considered ancestral to the
true bears, which were derived from the
dogs millions of years later. It repre
sented a movement in a bear-ward di
rection from the general carnivore stock.
The line of claenodon became extinct in
the next geological period. Here also
are found fragments of the flesh-eating
creatures, from close relatives of which
arose the minks, weasels, etc.
In these Crazy Mountain beds may
also be found traces of the earliest be
ginnings of the great family of animals
now represented by horses, cattle, deer,
bison, etc. "Nothing," Dr. Simpson says
in another publication, “makes the
enormous time which has elapsed more
real and impressive than the fact that
the carnivores and ungulates, so obvi
ously and greatly distinct now. were
almost indistinguishable in the lower
paleocene.”
“Quo Warranto” Action
W ould Settle Black Case
To the Editor of The Star:
There has been much speculation over
the appointment of Senator Black to
the Supreme Court. Suggestions have
been offered as to some possible relief
with a view of testing the validity of
the appointment and of his eligibility
to act as a member of the high court.
It is the peak of folly to say that a
litigant could object to the justice taking
part in the decision of his case. The
logic of this is that any litigant could
object to any particular justice acting
in his proceedings or passing upon his
case.
senator Black was named for the ex
alted position by the President. The
nomination was approved' by a Senate
willing to truckle to the lash of a master,
aided by the excuse of “senatorial
courtesy.” Accordingly Mr. Justice Black
is now a member of the Supreme Court
and that, court unlike the two houses of
Congress, is not the judge of the "elec
tions, returns, or qualifications" of its
members. . It is inconceivable that the
court inherently has the power apart
from any external proceedings to pass
upon the regularity, eligibility, or valid
ity of the appointment of one of its
members.
It seems equally true that there can
be no collateral attack on an appoint
ment duly made in the prescribed
manner.
Impeachment is always a remedy for
improper conduct of an officer, but such
proceedings must be for improper con
duct “in office.”
There is remedy available to open the
entire controversy and have all the ques
tions settled; this can be done by a pro
ceeding in "quo warranto.” This is a
writ calling upon a person to show how
or why. or by what warrant he exercises
a public office. Every question of the
legality, eligibility, or regularity of Mr.
Black's appointment would be open for
review and settlement. The writ would
tender for decision the more important
question of whether or not there was a
vacancy on the Supreme Bench. This
is the important point id the entire con
troversy and one that should be settled
without delay. Other appointments may
follow soon and the same question arise.
Some very distinguished persons argue
with legal logic that no vacancy did
actually exist and there was none to be
filled. If this view should prove to be
correct the court would be composed
of members appointed without authority
of law. In this manner solely; it is be
lieved, that all controverted questions
could be raised and settled, and in proper
proceedings in the various courts the
questions could reach the highest couft
for final * determination and settlement.
J. W. THOMSON.
ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS
BY FREDERIC J. HASKfN.
_ %
A reader can get the answer to any
question of fact by writing The Evening
Star Information Bureau. Frederic J.
Haskin, director, Washington, D. C.
Please inclose stamp for reply.
Q Has England a society formed of
friends and admirers of the Duke of
Windsor?—s. E.
A. There is an organization called the
Octavians which has been formed among
admirers of the former King Edward
VIII.
Q. Do motion picture actors still suffer
from the affliction known as Klieg eyes?
—M. L. R.
A. While there are still some cases,
newer lights which have replaced the
old arc'lights are not so hard on the
eyes.
Q. How many cities in France have
subways?—T. J.
A. Paris is the only one. Plans are
now projected for a subway in Mar
seille, which will be built in the near
future.
Q. Who officiated at the marriage of
Miss Constance Morrow and Aubrey
Morgan?—W. J.
A. The ceremony was performed by
the Rev. Henry F. Huse. pastor of the
North Haven Baptist Church in Maine.
Q. Who discovered vitamins?—C. R. M.
A. Credit for first recognizing the
place of vitamins in nutrition is gen
erally accorded to F. Gowland Hopkins
of Cambridge University, England.
Q Who originated the former comic
strip called Foxy Grandpa?—W. J.
A. Foxy Grandpa was originated b'.’
Carl E. Schultze for the New York
Herald in 1900. The famous comic strip
has been revived by the artist and will
appear in a modernized version.
Q. What is the origin of the acre?—
E. H.
A. Originally it was the area a yoke
of oxen could plow in a day.
Q At what age are men most pro
ficient in sports?—H. K.
According to a statement of Prof.
Harvey C. Lehman of Ohio University
made at a meeting of the American
Psychological Association, the best ba>e
ball players are from 25 to 29 years old:
the best hockey players from 24 to 23
inclusive. Professional golfers in the
championship class are at their best
from ages 30 to 34 Amateur golfers
excel from 25 to 29. Outdoor tennis
championships are won most frequently
by players from 25 to 30 inclusive Auto
mobile racers win most frequently from
25 to 29 years old.
Q. What States require health cer
tificates for dogs brought into the State?
—H W
A. Alabama. Arizona. Florida. Idaho,
Illinois. Minnesota. North Dakota,
Oregon. Rhode Island. Texas. Washing
ton. Wisconsin and Montana require
health certificates.
Q What is the earliest Americana?—
J. H.
A. The Columbus Letter (1493). a two
leaf news sheet announcing to the
Spanish court the discovery of the
islands of the Indies, is the earliest
known printing about America.
Q How much cotton can a person pick
in a day?—R. S.
A. A fast and experienced picker can
pick 400 pounds of cotton a day but the
average picker is doing well to gather
200 pounds.
Q. What is the source of the expres
! sion. "He who makes two blades of grass
! grow where only one grew before"?—
B. B. P.
A. It apparently originated in the
"Zend-Avesta.” the sacred writings of the
ancient Persians. It became a proverb
as follows: "Whoever makes two blades
of grass grow on a spot where only one
grew before, w'ould deserve better of
mankind and do more essential service
to his country than the whole race of
politicians put together.”
Q. What was John Drinkwater's last
novel?—H. L.
A. "Robinson of England” is the last
novel completed by the author before
his death.
Q How many States have Democratic
i Governors?—K. D.
A. There are 33 Democratic Governors.
; seven Republican, one Farmer-Labor, one
Progressive and one Independent.
Q. Do any women trade on the New
York Stock Exchange?—E. L. D.
A. Women do trade in stocks, but it
is done through agents. A woman may
not have a seat on the exchange.
Q. When did the American Bible
! Society move into its new building?—
A. R.
A. The move was made, July 20-23.
| 1936. The new building at Park avenue
i and Fifty-seventh street was formally
dedicated on Sunday, November 15, 1936.
_
Q. How does the amount of money
j spent by American tourists abroad com
j pare with that spent by foreign tourists
in this country?—W R. B.
A. Tourist expenditures abroad bv
Americans amounted to $497,000,000 in
] 1036. in that year foreign tourists in
: this country spent $125,000,000.
Word Booklet for
School Children
There is hardly anything to be learned
in school that is more important to us,
all our lives, than how to talk and write
correctly and skillfully. Our Washing
ton Information Bureau offers an
authoritative booklet on words. It deals
with more than 3.000 words we mispro
nounce, misspell, or misuse. It will start
you on the road to correct speech and
proper writing. This booklet will be
helpful in your school work. Send for
your copy today. Inclose 10 cents to
cover cost and handling.
USE THIS ORDER BLANK.
The Washington Evening Star
Information Bureau,
Frederic J. Haskin, Director,
Washington. D. C.
I Inclose herewith TEN CENTS in
coin (carefully wrapped) for a copy
of the WORD BOOKLET.
_
Name.
Street or Rural Route.
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