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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, October 19, 1937, Image 10

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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition
THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor
WASHINGTON, D. C.
TUESDAY..October 19, 1937
The Evening Star Newspaper Company
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Peace—At Any Cost.
Europe's frantic efforts to prevent the
Spanish war—or rather the Italo
German-Franco-Russian war in Spain—
from flaming into a general conflagra
tion enter upon a fresh stage in London
today. It would be a severe draft upon
the world's credulity to suggest that it is
the final stage, for the patience and
devices of statesmanship in London,
Paris and Rome seem to know no end.
The cloud of futility which has
blanketed their latter-day machinations
has at least a silver lining—peace has
not been broken.
Compromise and cowardice, bluff and
bluster—all the arts and artifices of
diplomatic resourcefulness, including
military and naval mobilizations—have
reared their heads during the past two
months of menace and maneuver, yet
the clash for supremacy on the Spanish
peninsula has so far failed to engulf the
rest of Europe in blood. If Americans,
an Atlantic's protective width from the
chicanery and turmoil “over there," will
pause to consider that gleaming fact,
our judgment of Europe's shifting strug
gle may be less harsh.
Deeply determined as Britain and
France are to get Mussolini's “volun
teers” out of Spain-the bone of con
tention in the revived discussions of the
non-intervention Committee — London
and Paris are actually far more con
cerned in preventing their demands on
Italy from provoking a European conflict.
That is why they have again swallowed
humble pie at Rome’s hands. They are
confronted even now by more of II Duce's
truculence — his proposal of “equal”
withdrawal of alien troops from bpain,
man for man, from both sides, which
would leave the loyalists without a
single foreign soldier, while the Italians
alone would still have a formidable
army in Franco's ranks. The maximum
strength of foreign combatants in the
government’s service is estimated at
15,000. Italian personnel with the in
surgents is variously fixed at between
60.000 and 100,000, with 80,000 as prob
ably nearest the exact figure. Yet even
the possibility of compromise on the
withdrawal issue, which Mussolini could
Interpret as another victory over the
democratic powers, cannot be excluded,
for it would unquestionably strike Anglo
French statesmen in their present mood,
prestige-shattering anew as it might be,
as preferable to war. That borne in
mind, the key to much of recent pusil
lanimity in Downing Street and the
Quai d'Orsay will be apparent.
Britain is invincibly determined that
the Spanish republic's fate shall not
plunge her into war. The Chamberlain
government appears no less constrained
not to let even the preservation of
China's independence breach British
peace. Present-hour London statesman
ship is girding its military, economic
and financial power sleeplessly, exclu
sively against the day when the Fascist
dictatorships will directly challenge it.
No intermediate sideshow like Spain or
China is likely to deflect John Bull
from that overshadowing purpose.
France, minus assurance of Britain's
readiness to oppose Hitler and Mussolini
now, will hardly venture to do so on her
own account, even with Russia in sup
port. It is a situation made to order
for Berlin and Rome. While it persists
Europe's tragi-comic quest for peace,
despite the humiliations and ridicule it
heaps upon distracted democratic gov
ernments, seems destined to continue.
As long as it keeps the guns from going
off and the bombs from falling, who
shall say, after all. that the game is not
jvorth the candle?
Wall Street’s Tail Spin.
Various causes are attributed to the
■udden and severe decline in the stock
market yesterday. Chief among these is
the announcement of a marked drop in
steel production, which is traditionally
a barometer of business conditions.
Furthermore, the reaction to the deci
sions by the Supreme Court, rendered
yesterday, was adverse, particularly to
those relating to the seizure of telegrams
and the rulings of the National Labor
Relations Board. Again, the “war news”
was none too favorable as respects inter
national conditions. Whether the sharp
downward movement, involving a turn
over of more than three and a quarter
million shares, the largest since the third
of March last, was a natural reaction or
was the result of a definite “bear” drive
Is not clear. Nor is it for the moment :
Important, save as there may be ground
for recovery if the latter hypothesis is
correct. There is little evidence of any
recent unwarranted upward swing due to
speculative activity. Had the market
been lately manipulated to unwarranted
heights yesterday’s sharp slump could
have been regarded as a return toward
normal and sound price levels, even
k
though it carried, in many cases, below
that point.
One possible factor in the current
sharp decline is the President’s predic
tion of a net deficit of $695,000,000 for the
current fiscal year, an increase of $277,
000,000 over the estimate which he made
in April and $732,000,000 more than he
forecast in January. These successively
higher figures have undoubtedly had
their effect in lowering the fiscal morale
of the country. That they should have
reacted unfavorably upon the stock
market is altogether logical. It has been
accepted that the steady increase in
the deficit must bring about a sharp
chang6 of public policy and this means
a curtailment of Government spending.
That in turn means a considerable busi
ness readjustment, and it is within the
possibilities that this prospect has had
an influence in the virtual demoraliza
tion of the securities market, as attested
by yesterday's violent reaction.
The Wire-Seizures Decision.
Refusal by the Supreme Court to re
view a decision by a lower court uphold
ing the right of the Securities Commis
sion to subpoena telegrams of concerns
under investigation, announced yester
day without an accompanying review
of the case, leaves the matter in a some
what unsatisfactory' status. The court,
in merely declaring the action taken by
the court below to be in accord with the
law, holds by its ruling that the com
mission was within its rights in requir
ing the production of telegrams sent and
received by persons suspected of obtain
ing money and property by means of
false and fraudulent representations in
connection with the issuance, offer and
sale in interstate commerce of worth
less securities.
This action by the Securities Commis
sion. the Supreme Court now holds, by
its refusal to review, to have been a legal
and legitimate procedure, in its pursuit
of fraudulent transactions. It would
have been more satisfactory if it had
gone into the merits of the matter in
some detail. As it stands it must be
assumed that the ruling is based upon
a liberal interpretation of Article 4 of
the so-called Bill of Rights, comprising
the first ten amendments to the Con
stitution, which were adopted by the
First Congress September 25. 1789, and
were ratified by eleven of the States be
tween November 20, 1789, and December
15. 1791.
That article reads: ‘ The right of the
people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers and effects, against un
reasonable searches and seizures, shall
not be violated, and no warrants shall
issue, but upon probable cause, sup
ported by oath or affirmation, and par
ticularly describing the place to be
searched and the persons or things to
be seized."
When the Bill of Rights was proposed
and ratified and thus became part of
the Constitution, there was no telegraph.
There were no railroads. There were
of course no telephones. The framers
of article ten were therefore unaware
of the possibilities of facilities for com
munication that in later years were to
hfln/vrvio o fflotnra cif Mio li fo tVia
people.
The single word “unreasonable” in
article ten has been held to be a negative
warrant for the action of the Securities
Commission in its search for proof of
fraud. Its action was held by the lower
courts to be reasonable, in that it was
in the interest of public honesty and as
a protection of the people against fraud
and spoliation.
Assuredly if there is fraud in the
marketing of securities it should be
punished and its repetition prevented.
That is undoubtedly in the general
public interest. And by the same token
if the sole purpose of the seizure was to
correct that abuse and by the setting of
an example through prosecution and
punishment to end it, the public welfare
was served.
It was, however, contended by the
interests and concerns affected that the
seizure was in the nature of a “fishing
expedition,” a wholesale round-up of
materials in the hope, of catching vio
lators of the law against fraudulent
practices. It was that contention which
challenged the reasonableness of the
searches and seizures. Now both the
lower courts and the highest court have
ruled that the searches and seizures
were not unreasonable, the former
specifically and the latter by plain im
plication.
This action by the Supreme Court is
not to be taken as a warrant for whole
sale, dragnet seizures, as a justification
of a censorship over the correspondence
of the people, for business or for private
purposes. Were such seizures the sub
ject of the litigation the result of an
appeal to the law would doubtless have
been otherwise. For it is not to be
questioned that the Supreme Court, in
line with previous judgments, would
have read article four of the Bill of
Rights as a protection of the citizen
against intrusive inquisition into the
private affairs of the people.
Motorman Hero.
K. M. Saylor, motorman in charge of
the operation of one of nobody knows
how many hundreds of trolley cars,
never intended to be a hero. All that
he covenanted to do was to guide the
steel leviathan assigned to him. He
could not guess that a brake bar would
crack and that he would find himself
powerless to halt his monster in a wild
dash through late-afternoon traffic on
Fifteenth street. Only when the mishap
had occurred and the car finally had
encountered an effective obstacle in the
form of another common carrier at F
street did he have opportunity to con
sider the chance by which fame suddenly
comes unsought
Human experience, of course, is full of
such incidents. Indeed, they are the
rule. Almost every life contains at least
one moment when courage is demanded
and fortitude required. Mr. Saylor
might be a motorman for a quarter of
a century without being obliged to face I
1
any emergency; then, inevitably, des
tiny—or the law of averages!—would
point a finger at him. But he could not
fail. Some power which mortals do not
understand gives them the spiritual capi
tal they need for their ordeals. It also
provides them with the strength of mind
and heart necessary for the systematic
performance of routine duty.
Mr. Saylor wants no praise. He “kept
his head" in a crisis because it was
instinctive for him so to do. Nine per
sons were hurt in the crash, but there
were no fatal casualties. The motorman
will have the satisfaction of knowing
that he did not prove himself unworthy
of his trust, and his employers and the
public will not be remiss in their
appreciation.
One of the remarkable things about
President Roosevelt is the fact that he
should find foot ball interesting with
so many other new languages being
spoken at the same time. One of the
admirable qualities of sport is the ability
of each to develop a dialect of its own,
leaving the charm of pure English
diction in the hands of the world states
men.
Almost every male citizen at some
time in his life thinks of himself as
possessing possibilities as a great detec
tive. Toward any who believes he has
such gifts, Mr. J. Edgar Hoover is par
ticularly generous in placing facilities
at his command for practice. Every
citizen has been invited to have his
finger prints on record.
It is intimated that Mr. Green would
have liked to settle labor troubles with
out compelling those interested to learn
new sets of initials, but there is still
much to be learned and calculations in
volving strange terms must be under
stood.
■— ■ ■ ■ t ^^ -4 ■
Monte Carlo continues to be men
tioned as a great gambling center, but
it has developed competition in so many
parts of the world that it may be ex
cused for avoiding this particular line
of discussion.
Complaint is now being made that Mr.
Tugwell was allowed to interest himself
in the molasses industry before he could
make it clear how residents of Greenbelt
were to figure as taxpayers.
In making this year's plans for the
holidays, it may as well be remembered
that Asia has never interested itself to
an important degree in the Santa Claus
myth.
It is estimated that nearly 60.000 per
sons saw Harvard play the Navy to an
even foot ball score. Nothing to nothing
and nobody killed should inspire imita
tion in the field of valor.
Radio has been making increasing de
mands on a public that has learned to
expect not only truth, but a manner of
studious eloquence in its presentation.
■ ■ -■ —» *
Both China and Japan are invited to
show* statistics to indicate the precise
point at which a national quarrel ceases
and an actual war begins.
Shooting Stars.
BY PHILANDER J0HN80N.
Varying the Monotony.
I tried to frame a winsome lay
To make ’em shout “Encore!”
The wise old person paused to say,
“We’ve heard all that before.”
Philosophies that seem sublime
Or tragedies that roar
Along the corridors of time—
We’ve heard ’em all before.
So to the foot ball game I went
And watched the varying score
And heard some things in great content
I hadn’t heard before.
Dilemma.
“Why don't you publish your auto
biography?”
“It wouldn’t be interesting enough if
I didn’t tell the truth,” answered Senator
Sorghum, “and too interesting if I did.”
Jud Tunkins says a man who loves
his work is frequently too willing to be
kind and give it a holiday.
Synonyms.
The poet twists his rhymes anew,
He weeps or says, “Ha, ha!"
His words, I here confide to "you,
Are synonyms for “Blah!”
Relief.
“What I want,” said Farmer Corn
tossel, “is farm relief."
“What kind of relief?"
“Political jobs for all my wife’s rela
tions.”
“Our ancestors,” said Hi Ho, the sage
of Chinatown, “command admiration
for many wise words they said, even
when doing foolish things.”
Lay of the Habitual Debtor.
We toil this life to make or mar
With merit or with bluff.
Old friend bookkeeper sits afar
And figures on the stuff.
“We would all be happier,” said Uncle
Eben, “if it was as easy to remember
a kindness as it is to recall an injury. ’
Japanese Kindness.
From the Macon Telegraph.
The Japanese are aware that torpedo
ing Chinese fishing boats and killing the
men, women and children in them can’t
win the war Sensitive, easily affected
little people that they are, their aim
is to protect the fish.
Visiting Kinfolk.
From tha Kalamazoo Gazette. ’
The most astonishing news of the
week, to many an American householder
whose domicile has been cluttered by
kinfolk all Summer, was that item about
Edward, Duke of Windsor, getting sore
because his relatives wouldn’t visit him.
k
_ 1
THE POLITICAL
MILL
BY G. GOULD LINCOLN.
Former Gov. Alf M. Landon of Kansas,
the Republican nominee for President
last year, is about to stage his first talk
to the American people since the close
of the 1936 campaign. He will speak
over a Nation-wide hook-up tonight.
It is not without significance or in
terest that the latest Republican Presi
dent, Herbert Hoover, Is to take the
people into his confidence on things Re
publican—and also to discuss the New
Deal—in national radio speech on Tues
day, October 26, one week from today.
He is to address the State Republican
Club in Boston and what he says will
go out over the air.
* * * *
Within a week, therefore, the two
most recent Republican candidates for
President will give their views on present
day issues. Mr. Hoover agreed to make
his speech some time ago. Mr. Landon
also has had in mind a statement to the
people, and he determined quickly on
Sunday to go on the air without further
delay.
How far the views of these gentlemen
will coincide, it is impossible to say until
their speeches have been presented. It
has been hinted in some quarters that
Mr. Hoover's address will contain a
statement of considerable political sig
nificance. It may be, it is said, he will
make some statement regarding his own
future political plans, and that he may
say he is not to be a candidate again
for public office.
Whether either of them will discuss
the question of a national conference
of Republicans to be held next Spring
is not now definitely known. Perhaps
neither will do so. That is a matter
with which the Republican National
Committee will wrestle at its meeting
November 5 in Chicago. Hoover has
been an ardent advocate of such a na
tional conference. Landon has made no
statement about it, although he has let
it be known he would only favor a con
ference at which all the elements and
groups of the Republican party are
represented. If he wishes to state his
position on this projected conference,
he will, of course, have ample opportu
nity to do so, either in his radio address
or in a separate public statement.
Ever since the proposal for a national
conference of Republicans was ad
vanced, the proponents of the confer
ence plan have insisted that they were
for the fullest kind of representation.
That goes for Mr. Hoover as well as for
Mr. Landon. The objectors, those who
oppose the conference, take the position
that it w-ill not be possible to have a full
representation, and that it would be ex
ceedingly difficult to elect or choose dele
gates to such a conference. They have
interpreted Mr. Landon’s reticence as
hostility to the whole idea. And cer
tainly Mr. Landon has not come out
whole-heartedly for the plan so far, as
has Mr. Hoover.
* * * *
There is a great deal of support, how
ever, for the national conference idea.
Men and women of prominence in the
party in many parts of the country are
for it. The matter has gone quite far,
in a quiet w-ay. If the Republican Na
tional Committee acts favorably on the
conference plan, and sets machinery in
motion, it is likely that the great ma
jority of Republican leaders will fall in
line A leader of a group, holding aloof,
would scarcely be in an enviable posi
tion with the rank and file of the party.
Whatever the attitude of Mr. Landon
himself, some of his friends apparently
are intent upon Landon’s keeping aloof
from Herbert Hoover and at the same
time are jealous of Hoover and such in
fluence as he yet possesses in the party.
This is not a particularly favorable con
dition for harmony or for team work
among the Republicans. Both Landon
and Hoover may be helpful in rebuild
ing the G. O. P. Senator Borah and
some of his followers, regarded as
liberals, would like to see both Hoover
and Landon take themselves out of the
spotlight—and out of the picture entirely,
for that matter.
* * * *
A lot of Republicans have been en
deavoring, ever since the defeat of Mr.
Hoover in 1932, to keep away from the
former President, believing that a de
feated candidate, a President at the time
of the stock market crash and the be
ginning of the depression, would be ex
ceedingly unpopular with the voters. Mr.
Hoover, however, is a man of great
ability and has a faculty of clear state
ment of issues, which he has demon
strated again and again. Mr. Landon,
like Mr. Hoover, was defeated at the
polls, and the defeat of one was about
as drastic as that of the other.
The Republican party in recent years
has not been noted for a large number,
or even a considerable number, of out
standing public speakers. There is one
man, who recently left the more or less
cloistered position of university presi
dent. who is likely to be heard more and
more. He is Dr. Glenn Frank. Dr. Frank
spoke last week before the Washington
Board of Trade. Any one who heard his
address on that occasion will admit he
has the gift. He is logical, he has the
ability of turning off phrases that catch
attention, he has the voice. He is no
longer the president of the University
of Wisconsin. He was ousted from that
position by the La Follette progressives,
and particularly by Gov. Phillip La
Follette.
While Dr. Frank was still at the uni
versity he was suspected of having politi
cal ambitions. He has been mentioned
in the past as a possibility for the Re
publican presidential nomination. What
his future political plans are, if he has
any, has not been announced. It has
been suggested, however, in some quar
ters that if he should be selected by the
anti-La Follette group in Wisconsin to
make the race for governor of the
Badger State next year and should do
well, he would loom large on the horizon
for 1940. If he should actually carry
the State, he would be almost a natural
for the presidential nomination later.
* * * *
Dr. Frank is one of those who believes
that much may be done at a national
conference of Republicans. He does not
believe that the Republican party should
leave every thing to chance and in the
national convention of 1940 write a catch
all platform. The party must stand for
something—and not for everything. Dr.
Frank himself took the New Dealers
for a “ride" in his address here without
mentioning them by name. Any perma
nent policy of government which looks
to curtailment of production with higher
prices of goods to consumers will not, in
his opinion, ever bring to the American
people “the abundant life.” As a tem
porary measure, he admitted that cur
tailment of production might be help
ful, in the case of surplus crops, but
only as a temporary and emergency
measure, he insisted.
Large production and large consump
tion at lower prices has a saner sound
than smaller production at higher
prices, with the probability that con
sumption will be considerably less. The
higher prices charged today for many
commodities already are giving the
politicians something to think about
including the legislators.
THIS AND THAT I
BY CHARLES E. TRACEWELL.
Watching that fresh new grass come
up in the lawn is one of the greatest
pleasures of the gardening year.
Watching it, not in spring, but right
now, following seed sown a month ago.
It wasn’t so many years ago that no
body thought of grass in the fall.
Why, grass was something to sow in
early March, so that by the time the
April rains came along, the fresh green
blades would be up and a-rearin’ to go.
Slowly, year by year, grew an appre
ciation of autumn as a mighty fine time
to brighten up an old lawn, in particular.
Many front yards, and back yards, too,
for that matter, went into the winter
looking very brown, even gray, as the
life blood seemed to go out of the grass
which had done duty for so long.
It never seemed to occur to most house
holders that anything could be done
about it.
* * + *
All this time the subject was being
given extensive study by Government
experiment stations across the country.
In time it came to be recognized, and
proved by these experts, that much could
be done toward rejuvenating a frayed
lawn at the very time it looked in the
worst condition.
Twas a satisfactory idea, and the best
part of it was that it could be proved
right at home.
The only trouble was that most folks
wouldn’t go to the trouble!
Folks didn't much care to work around
pver a lawn when the leaves were falling
from the trees. They wanted to rake
up leaves and bum ’em; they saw no
pleasure in trying to build up the lawn.
* * * *
Yet the autumn seemed to be a very
fine time for doing just that thing, judg
ing from results secured so far.
True, it had been a fine, warm season,
to this w’riting. so that all the grass
planter had to do was keep the ground
wet.
That, of course, was where many fell
dowm with more than the proverbial
bang; those who skimped upon using
the hose found that the seedlings did
not do well.
Spring, in a normal year, provided
plenty of W'ater without much bother,
so that as far as the grass is concerned
there is no need for extra effort.
The one drawback to autumn planting
is that often the days are very dry.
Such weather, even when mild, is not
good for newly sprouted grass.
Hence the use of the hose, at least
every other day, was essential.
Several good rains, one of them almost
too heavy, helped out immensely; by
mid-October the planter felt himself
rewarded.
* * * *
There is nothing prettier in a garden
than a good lawn.
This has been said so many times,
surely there is no harm in saying it
again.
It is encouraging for the gardener to
feel that his grass is going into the
winter good and green, with that fresh
look which makes grass so pleasing to
the eye.
Green is that fresh look. It is the
fresh color of spring right here in the
fall, and it has an effect all the more
stimulating Because of the time. For
many of us had become used to the idea
that the lawn in cold weather was to be
brown, or even gray, rather than green.
It comes almost as a revelation to
realize that grass may be green at
this time.
* * * *
Those interested in feeding the wild
birds which winter here will discover
that these creatures look better with a
fine green background.
This season they may try a new
wrinkle.
It is to keep the sunflower seed, fa
vorite of cardinals and many others,
separate from the general mixture used
for the songsters.
The idea is to prevent the creatures
from shoveling through the mixture to
get at the sunflower seeds.
Squirrels, uninvited guests at many a
feeding station, are particularly obnoxious
on this account.
They dig through the mixture with
their paws, in search of the plump sun
flower seeds, and so rake out more than
half of the others upon the ground.
Little will go to waste, of course, be
cause most birds like nothing better than
to eat on the good earth, but there can
be little question that feeding w'ould be
more economical, in the main, and cer
tainly more tidy if this practice of search
ing for favorites could be stopped.
* * * *
Even the small birds, such as the tit
mice, like nothing better than sunflower
seeds.
It is a good idea to rig up two feeders
close together, and in the smaller put
several handfuls of the seed from the
favorite sunflower, thus keeping it apart
from the rest of the free lunch.
This also would serve the good purpose
of spreading out the feeding activities.
There is little gainsaying that bird
watching, if too concentrated, is trying
on the human eye.
If the birds are spread out, in a yard,
by the use of several stations, it will
compel the eyes to look around, here
and there, rather than at one point.
It will be found helpful also to put
one feeder rather close to the house, and
another at some distance, so the eye
which insists on looking close will be
compelled at times to look off into the
distance. This habit has the okay of
eminent specialists.
* * * *
Green growing grass in fall and winter
ought to prove more attractive to birds,
and we believe it is, generally speaking.
The birds, of course, do not prefer it
for esthetic reasons; they find it more
edible, we feel sure.
In the cold months the birds which
stav with us often suffer from lack of
water, and the moisture in green grass
might prove helpful to them, they are
such brave little beggars, making the
best of the world as they find it. and
able to utilize so many things which
otherwise would go to waste, in a sense,
although certainly nothing really goes to
waste, in another.
Do not worry because the trampling
feet of the birds in time will rub the
fresh green grass down to bare earth.
If it is your first season with bird
feeding, you will think the grass is
ruined, but this is not the case; the
songsters do not injure the roots in
any way, and in spring, when feeding
is discontinued, the grass will grow up
again, with even more vigor than ever.
--- |
STARS, MEN AND ATOMS
Notebook of Science Progress in Field,
Laboratory and Study.
BY THOMAS R. HENRY.
Watch out, come Halloween, for the |
Wihtigos.
They are probably the world's most |
gruesome demons—giants as big as tall j
spruce trees who wear coats of stone, !
come out of the dark North with the
first blasts of W’inter, and whose favorite
food is human flesh.
Rev. Dr. John M. Cooper, professor of
anthropology at the Catholic University
of America, found the fear of these
nightmarish creatures still very real
among the primitive Tetes de Boule
Indians along the St. Maurice River in
Quebec where he spent the Summer.
Even the most sophisticated Tetes de
Boule—those who have been away to
white schools and laugh at some of the
ancient superstitions of their race—still
talk fearsomely of the Wihtigos whom
they believe to be lurking in the forests.
The Tetes de Boule have fallen upon
hard times of late. Hunting has been
poor and food scarce. The Wihtigos are
especially active in time of famine. About
75 years ago, according to the legendary
of the tribe, was the last great fight
between a man and a Wihtigo. The
man, through the aid of his familiar
spirits, was victorious. The demon was
slain with a great spruce tree. Then the
spirits predicted that if the tree failed
to grow again the monsters would remain
in the North. If it sprouted from the
stump and became a large tree they
’would return. Informed Tetes de Boule
know the exact tree. It has attained its
full growth.
These demons cover their bodies com
pletely with spruce gum. Then they
roll over and over in the sand until
they are encased in an invulnerable
armor of sandstone. There is only one
point which a Wihtigo cannot reach—
the small of his back.
That is the salvation of the unfortu
nate fellow attacked by one, if he has
the proper familiar spirits to aid him.
These supernatural beings are known as
powagans and always remain invisible.
They are creatures of the clouds and sky
where there is an infinite supply of
them. One obtains a personal powagan
bv fasting for nine days. A careful check
must be kept on the time and the fast
broken exactly at the end of this period.
Otherwise the faster himself will be
come a Wihtigo and start eating his
neighbors. After feasting for a few days,
however, he can start another nine-day
fast and secure himself another powagan.
In this way he can recruit as large a
company of spiritual helpers as he deems
essential to protect himself against any
night-prowling, stone-coated, canabal
istic monsters.
Since the last great battle, the Tetes
de Boule believe, the Wihtigos themselves
have fallen upon evil days. They are so
fond of flesh that they have started to
eat themselves, especially their own lips.
The common picture in the Indian mind
is of a creature with uncovered teeth.
The Wihtigo concept is common among
all Northeastern tribes and is believed
to be derived from folk memories of
cannibalism in ancient days. This came
with the bitterly cold weather. This
brought ice. Cannibalism was symbol
ized as an ice-clad monster. The words
for “ice" and “stone" in several languages
are very similar. As the original symbols
became lost the demons survived as
“stone coats.” The Tetes de Boule idea
of rolling in the sand is an effort to
explain how a man might acquire a coat
of stone.
If the Wihtigo seems a little too grue
some for a playful, non-alcoholic Amer
ican Halloween, Dr. Cooper found eome
f
other supernatural concepts among the
Tetes de Boule which might serve better.
There is. for example, the great bear.
Mist&maskwa, who is the king of all the
bears of the northern woodland. He j
leaves tracks in the snow as large as
those of an elephant and has been in
terpreted as a possible folk memory of
days when the hairy mammoth was still
alive. Hunters have followed these
tracks. They always lead to the top of
the mountain where there is a pool.
They are seen entering the pool, never
leaving. No Indian has actually seen
the great bear himself.
Then there is the spy caribou, a
dwarf white animal about the size of a
collie dog. who lurks about the villages
and informs the herd whenever a hunt
ing party sets out. Otherwise, say the
Indians, how is one to explain the elu
siveness of the caribou whenever hunt
ers are after them. They must be fore
warned. It is a long time since any
body has seen the white dwarf.
Each species an animal has its giant
prototype, believed to be a creature of
flesh and blood. That these great beasts
are never seen, caught in traps, or killed
is due to their extreme cleverness.

The Salmon Marched On.
Prom the Portland Oregon Journal.
There was a dam that marched across
the Columbia River at Bonneville. It
marched with its gates and piers and
power house.
There were salmon that marched up
the Columbia River from the great
Pacific Ocean. The lusty Chinook, the
slender but dynamic steelhead and the
small but flashing blueback were in the
line of march.
ing at right angles, compelled the United
States engineers to become traffic offi
cers. The order issued was that the
march of the dam must stop, to let
the march of the salmon go on and up.
For the march of the salmon is the
march of the years. If they parade on
to the spawning streams, their finny
kind will populate the waters in time
to come and swim from the ocean into
cans that travel around the world.
In a little while the salmon will have
passed by. Then the march of the
dam can go on again. There will be
no loss.
And the public might well stand
beside the Army engineers and watch
the salmon. For the fishways at Bonne
ville, even In their temporary condition,
are being used by the fish whenever
construction doesn’t prevent. The safety
of a $10,000,000 annual Oregon industry
Is wrapped up in the decisions at Bonne
ville.
“Democracies.”
Prom the Pond Du L*c Commonwealth.
Hitler and Mussolini at least per
sonally agreed that Nazi Germany and
Fascist Italy are the world’s "greatest
democracies.”
Husband's Best Book.
From the Knoxville Journal.
A woman isn't satisfied if her hus
band’s life is an open book—unless it is
a check book.
Peace in the Yellowstone.
From the Miami Daily News.
It must have been quite a relief to
the President to find that none of the
Yellowstone Park geysers was spouting
off about the Supreme Court.
ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS
BY FREDERIC J. HA SKIN.
A reader can get the answer to any
question of fact by writing The Evening
Star Information Bureau, Frederic J.
Haskin, Director, Washington, D. C.
Please inclose stamp for reply.
Q. How is motion picture film de
veloped?—C. N. .
A. The exposed film of moving pictures
Is developed in exactly the same way as
ordinary camera film, except that it is
wound on a wooden frame for conven
ience in handling, and it remains on this
frame as it is dipped in one solution after
another. It may then be wound on a
large rotating, cylindrical frame for dry
ing. This is done with fans in a dust
proof room.
Q. How many words comprise a news
paper vocabulary?—W. H.
A. Following a survey of the most
commonly used words in newspaper
editing, conducted by the Language Re
search Committee of New York Uni
versity, it was estimated that the vocab
ulary ranges from 10.000 to 60.000 words.
Q. Was Carl Akeley, the naturalist and
sculptor, an inventor?—J. H.
A. He invented the cement gun and
the camera called by his name.
Q. Who succeeded the late Dr. William
A. White as superintendent of St. Eliza
beth's Hospital?—T. R.
A. Dr. Winfred Overholser of Wellesley
Hills. Mass., succeeds him. St. Eliza
beths Is one of the world's largest insti
tutions for the care of fhe mentally in
capacitated. It is a Government hos
pital, administered undor the Depart
ment of the Interior.
Q. Where did Chippendale and his con
temporaries get the mahogany of which
their furniture was made?—T. E.
A. The lumber came from Cuba and
Santo Domingo.
Q. What was Washington's reply when
in 1782 members of the Continental
Army suggested to him that he be made
King?—D. H.
A. His reply was: ‘‘I view your sug
gestion with abhorrence. You could not
find a person to whom your proposal is
more disagreeable. If you have any
regard for your country or respect for
me, banish such thoughts from your
mind and never again communicate a
sentiment of like nature.”
Q. Does the heat in a room affect the
wearing quality of rugs?—W. R.
A. The Shopping Guide says that la^k
of moisture during periods of artificial
heat is the greatest single cause of rug
wear. Proper moisture content of the
air should be carefully maintained.
Q. How does the tobacco industry rank
in the United States?—E. J. H.
A. The tobacco industry ranks seventh
in value of product.
Q. Was Edward A. Filene a Jew?
—A. H.
A. He was born of Jewish parent- in
Salem, Mass., was always interested in
Jewish causes, and was a contributor to
many Jewish philanthropies. His life
long interest. however, was social better
ment in its broadest sense.
Q. How much water is used for a bath,
and how much to flush a toilet?—W. S.
A. A bath requires about thirty gallons,
and flushing a toilet from four to six
gallons. ’
Q. What city consumes the most coal?
—E. L. F.
A. Chicago leads any other city in
the United States and probably any in
the world in the consumption of coal.
This is due in part to the fact that it i
the railroad center of the world.
Q What is the aim of the American
Eugenics Society?—B. K.
A. The society was incorporated in
1926 with the purpose of altering the dis
tribution of births so that those parents
who best provide essentials necessary for
development of intelligence and charac
ter will have the major portion of the
country's children.
Q. What distress signal was used be
fore SOS was adopted?—E. H.
A. The call previous to that time had
been CQD. .
Q, Who was instrumental in founding
the American Society for the Prevention
of Cruelty to Animals’—C. F.
A. The society was founded by Henry’
Bergh, who. when secretary of the Amer
ican Legation in Russia, became incensed
over the ill treatment of animals on the
streets and decided to start an anti
cruelty organization in America.
Q. Why is pokeweed so called?—F M. L.
A. The name comes from the Indian
word pocan, applied to any dye plant.
Q. When did parents have to purchase
children's school books in the District
of Columbia?—L. C. C.
A. The parents of children who at
tended public schools before 1891 pur
chased all of the textbooks used by them
in the first eight grades as well as in
high school. In 1891 legislation was
passed by Congress to purchase school
books for children in the first eight
grades. In 1930 further legislation was
passed to purchase textbooks for stu
dents in junior and senior high schools.
Q. Was Bram Stoker the real name of
the author of “Dracula"?—E. W. H.
A. The author's full name was Abra
ham Stoker. _
Q. At what rate of speed would a
person have to be going to skid both
wheels of his automobile for a distance
of 20 feet before he can bring it to a
stop?—R. H. S.
A. The National Bureau of Standard
says that a braking distance of 20 fee:,
indicates: <1> For a vehicle with 2-wheel
brakes an initial speed of 13 to 15 mile*
per hour; (2) for a vehicle with 4
wheel brakes an initial speed of 18 to 22
miles per hour. This assumes that the
stop is made on a dry, hard-surfaced
road. If the surface is loose gravel or
is wet the initial speed would be much
less.
Q. Why is Mussolini's wife referred to
as donna?—W. H.
A. She is entitled to the appellation
of donna because her husband is a
wearer of the Collar of the Annunziata.
and this distinction gives both husband
and wife the rank of a cousin of the
King of Italy.
Q. What causes tomatoes to crack be
fore they are fully ripe?—W. A. A
A. Tomatoes crack because of weather
conditions. Too much moisture is a
common cause. Some varieties are much
more subject to cracking than others.
Q. How large is the giant spider crab
of Japan?—A. D.
A. It may be 11 feet from tip to tip
of its claws. The body of the spider
crab may be 18 inches long and 12
inches wide.
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