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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, October 31, 1937, Image 4

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ENGLAND FAVORS
JAPAN M IATION
Persuasion of Tokio Will Be
Britain’s Goal at
Brussels.
By SIR ARTHUR WILLERT.
LONDON, Oct. 30 (N.A.N.A.).—
Persuasion rather than coercion as a
means of stopping the ’Par Eastern
War will be the British policy at the
Nine-Power Conference at Brussels.
Japan's piratical brutality will
probably send some countries these
in a mood to demand economic sanc
tions, but it is unlikely that the in
structions given Anthony Eden, the
British foreign secretary, will allow
him to encourage such demands. It
is expected, on the contrary, that the
British delegation will suggest media
tion as the most feasible line of ap
proach.
This is not because there is any
disposition here to underestimate the
gravity of the issues at stake in China.
Still less is it due to sympathy with
Japan. Pro-Japanese feeling here,
which impeded Anglo-American co
operation during the Manchurian
crisis, has been killed, partly by
Japan's destruction of the Washing
ton treaty for limitation of naval
armaments, and, partly, by her pres
ent action.
European Situation Rules.
The British attitude is dictated by
the European situation. It has never
varied since the Japanese started their
offensive last summer. It is based
on the belief that to be overextended
is as bad for a nation in time of dip
lomatic stress as it is for an individual
in time of financial stress. The great
danger of the moment Is outbreak of
another world war in Europe. It Is.
therefore, Britain’s duty to herself
and to the world to concentrate upon
prevention of war in Europe, and it
is feared that diplomacy unsupported
by effective force in these daj's of
lawless aggression is useless.
Eden's supporters explain his fail
ure over Ethiopian sanctions, and, to
some extent, the failure of Spanish
non-intervention, by arguing that it
would have been different had the
British armament program reached
in 1935 and 1936 the stage at which
It will be in 1938. Now that progress
is being made with that program
they feel that, if Britain is to be a
factor for paace in Europe, she must
keep the results of her armament at
Aiuuie.
In the same way, it is believed here
that any effort to coerce Japan by
sanctions or other means would be
worse than futile unless backed by
force. British experts who have been
preparing plans for the conference
made an exhaustive study of the
feasability of economic pressure upon
Japan. Obviously, Japan is very vul
nerable in that respect. Oil sanctions
would probably stop her fighting in
China as successfully as it is now
known they would have stopped Italy
in Ethiopia. But it is one thing to
propose sanctions and another thing
to apply them.
Weaker Countries Periled.
The harder sanctions would hit
Japan, the more likely would Japan
be to hit bark. Even if she did not
openly attack British and American
Interests in the Far East, there would
be the question of the security of
weaker countries which would be in
volved in sanctions. ‘Site Japanese
might., for instance, try to seize the
oil and rubber producing possessions
of Holland in Asiatic waters. Japan
has the third biggest navy in the
world. Are the United States and
Great Britain, owners of the two big
gest navies, prepared to fight to
protect Holland and perhaps other
small countries, even if they were
not called upon to use force to make
a blockade effective or to protect their
own interests?
That, as London sees it. is what
the question of economic pressure
comes down to. Are the United States
and Britain prepared to fight what
might be a serious war for the in
tegrity of China? The British an
swer, if only for the reasons mentioned
BUUVe. IS ill lilt* IltTf.atiVc.
London would, of course, be pre
pared to support the United States in
a coercive policy if Washington under
took to bear the brunt of it. But
that again is not believed to be prac
tical politics. It is not believed Amer
ican public opinion is any more ready
than British public opinion to fight to
save China from the Japanese.
Conference May Be Premature.
Hence the stress which is being laid
here upon the probability that the
Brussels conference will confine itself
to an effort at mediation. Not that
there is much confidence that even
this more modest goal will be reached
for the present. It is feared that
the League of Nations, in suggesting
the conference at this early date, may
be found to have acted prematurely.
Sooner or later the Japanese may
be ready for mediation. In spite of
their recent successes they axe still
far from overthrowing the Chiang
Kai-shek government, and they are
IvAnaMl.. X . . * 1-- X_ -1_:_4;_-X
China, which is considered here to be
the ultimate aim of the militarists
who control their policy.
Nor is there any certainty that
China is ready for compromise. Ac
cording to information reaching Lon
don, Japanese pressure is consolidat
ing the country to a remarkable de
gree. Even the "red” areas in the
center are said to be concentrating,
not on Communism, but on co-opera
tion With Nanking against the in
vaders. The Brussels meeting has not
in fact so far aroused high expecta
tions in London.
(Copyright, 1937, by the North Americar
Newspaper Alliance.* Inc.)
SURPLUS PROFITS TAX
HELD BRAKE TO HIRING
Cross-section Questionnaire As
Berts Lifting Would Permit
\ Plant Expansions.
By the Associated Press.
NEW YORK, Oct. 30.—The Nationa
Association of Manufacturers declare!
today a poll of a representative cross
section of manufacturing in the Unite!
States by the association indicate!
employment in the manufacturim
companies "is being seriously affectei
by the surplus profits tax.”
In their replies to a questionnaire
the association said, one-quarter o
the manufacturers "stated definite!
that if the tax was lifted and the;
were thus allowed to devote taxes t
plant expansions and purchase of ne\
machinery, they were 'positive' mor
employment would be required.”
Another quarter indicated that i
the tax were lifted their demands t
the labor market would probably in
crease, the association stated.
A
Japanese Cremate War Dead „
. ii ..... " ..—
Amid the awful rums of Woosung these Japanese soldiers cremate one of their dead. Few
pictures 0/ Japanese dead have come out of the war area, as they beluvejodte ^Twirephoto
People's Mandate Deputies
Asked to Emphasize
Treaty Sanctity.
By the Associated Press.
HYDE PARK, N. Y., Oct. 30
President Roosevelt urged "flying
deputies’’ of the Peoples Mandate Com
mittee today to emphasize on a 17,000
mile all-America peace flight that
treaties are not scraps of paper, but
are meant to be kept.
The President expressed the belief
that progress in the Americas toward
peace during the last four years has
had a very great effect in other parts
of the world. He said the effect had
been perhaps greater than would be
realized from reading of the bellig
erent attitude of some other countries.
The people all over the world are
beginning to say to themselves, the
President asserted, that in the Western
Hemisphere there is the most inter
esting thing that has ever happened—
a whole continent has abolished war
and has provided the machinery so
any question between nations may be
peaceably settled.
The Americas also, he said, have
set an example to the rest of the world
in treaty adherence.
Seek Publicity for Treaties.
Mr. Roosevelt received the Peoples
Mandate group a few hours before
four representatives of the organiza
tion set out to urge republics in Latin
America to ratify the anti-war and
commercial treaties that came from
the 1936 Buenos Aires conference.
They also hope to give such publicity
to the treaties as to promote popular
sentiment for ratification and ad
herence.
The Buenos Aires conference was
called and attended b., Mr. Roosevelt.
Since its adjournment nearly a year
TT.U.J Ot.±_-m_3_ _t .
Domingo and Nicaragua have ratified
the various treaties proposed. Vene
zuela has ratified some of them. Six
teen American nations have not yet
acted.
The deputies, who left here to start
their southward flight from Newark
tonight, are Mrs. Burton W. Musser
of Salt Lake City, only woman mem
ber of the United States delegation to
the Buenos Aires conference; Mrs.
Ana del Pulgar de Burke of Wash
ington, D. C„ a native Chilean; Mrs.
Enoch Wesley Frost of Texarkana,
Ark., and Mrs. Rebecca Hourwich
Reyher of New York City.
Presented by Dr. Woolley.
They were introduced to the Presi
dent by Dr. Mary E. Woolley, presi
dent emeritus of Mount Holyoke Col
lege and chairman of the Mandate
Committee.
A large delegation of members of
the committee, including several men,
met the flying deputies here and were
present for the interview with the
President.
Mr. Roosevelt said he was working
with the Maritime Commission to in
augurate a steamship line down the
east coast of South Africa, so travel
between this and the Latin American
^countries would be speedier and more
'comfortable than present facilities.
He said he thought that next year
there would be such a new steam
ship service.
Deals With American Situation.
Dr. Woolley, who talked to newsmen
after the delegation’s visit with the
President, said the People’s Mandate
organization was devoting itself to the
American situation now but hoped
to extend its work to the rest of the
world.
The flying deputies will reach Miami
tomorrow, accompanied by Miss Jac
queline Cochran, the flyer. From
Miami the deputies will fly to Ha
vana.
After meeting the peace deputa
tion the President; was visited by
Harry L. Hopkins, the Works Progress
administrator.
Secretary of the Treasury Morgen
thau went to his farm at nearby
Fishkill this morning after staying
overnight at the Roosevelt home. Mor
genthau and Undersecretary Magill
worked with the President on the
oudget last night. White House aides
said there would be no statement from
the President or Morgenthau at this
time on that conference. Daniel W.
Bell, the budget director, will advise
with Mr. Roosevelt on the budget Mon
day.
N “
Use of Naval and Air Bases
Is Sought to Protect
Empire Links.
Bv JOSEPH DRISCOLL.
LONDON, Oct. 30.—Looking ahead
to the collapse of the Non-Interven
tion Committee and the eventual tri
umph of Gen. Francisco Franco’s revo
lution in Spain, the British govern
ment engaged this week in important
conversations with the government of
Portugal with a view to making use of
the Portuguese naval and air bases to
protect the British post at Gibraltar
and the British Imperial highway
through the Mediterranean to the
Suez Canal.
Portugal is Britain’s oldest ally and
the British think the time has come
to call upon her to fulfill her obliga
tions. Their treaty of friendship and
military assistance dates back to the
14th century, when Portugal was
a great naval power and cut more
of a figure in the world than she does
today. Even so, Britain thinks Por
tugal may yet prove of value in keep
ing the Mediterranean open and
checking the Italianization of Spain
and the Balearic Islands.
Feel Communications Periled.
Prior to the outbreak of Franco's
rebellion, Britain enjoyed dominant
influence in Snain and Portugal and
| never feared for the safety of her im
perial lifeline through the Mediter
ranean. Now, with Premier Benito
Mussolini and Chancellor Adolf Hit
ler gaining a foothold in Spain, Span
ish Morocco and the Balearic*, the
British (and the French, too), feel
that their Mediterranean communica
tions are jeopardized.
In the event of a general Mediter
ranean war the British fleet if bound
for Spanish ports would have all the
more occasion to put in at Portugal
to find harbor, so the British govern
ment has initiated conversations at
this juncture to ascertain to what ex
tent they may expect co-operation
from Portugal.
The conversations are being car
ried on in London between the for
eign office and the Portugese Em
bassy. If sufficient warmth of friend
ship rekindles then a “good will” mis
sion of diplomatic and military experts
will be dispatched to Lisbon to work
out the practical details of adapting
a 14th century alliance to the present
problems.
News Embarrassed Whitehall.
Whitehall was embarrassed at the
leakage of the news that Britain and
Portugal were having talks with a
view to discovering means of closer re
lations and contacts between the two
defense services. The obvious mean
ing which informed observers read
Into the news was that the British
were anticipating collapse of the non
intervention system and further
France victory, and that the British
knew that Mussolini’s position in the
Western Mediterranean was becoming
more and more a menace to the British
Empire than ever before.
With this theory, the British have
noted the policy of their supposed
allies, the Portuguese, during the
Spanish civil war, that policy being
one of marked sympathy toward Italy,
Germany and France, even at the risk
of alienating Britain and France.
(Copyright. 1937, by New York
Tribune, Inc)
Premier Negrin Flees There
From Valencia to Set
Up Headquarters.
By the Associated Press.
MADRID, Oct. 30.—Barcelona be
came the capital of Spain today when
Premier Juan Negrin flew there from
Valencia to set up new headquarters.
Most of the ministers will begin
work in Barcelona next week. It will
take several weeks, however, for a
complete transfer of the government,
and during that time government af
fairs will be conducted from both
cities.
The foreign office was expected to
move over the week end and the for
eign missions were to follow shortly.
President Manuel Azana was expect
ed to move soon.
Valencia will continue an impor
tant city of government Spain, how
ever, for it must furnish supplies to
beleaguered Madrid as well as the
central and southern fronts.
Meanwhile, steady but unspectacu
lar fighting west of Madrid was slowly
endangering insurgent occupation of
University City and more distant
heights commanding the city from
the south and west.
Rebels Reported Trapped.
HENDAYE. Franco-Spanish Fron
tier, Oct. 30 (/P).—Spanish government
communiques tonight said a group of
insurgents had been isolated atop a
hill south of Madrid, with government
machine guns sweeping all approaches.
The sharp engagement took place
at Cuesta de la Reina, 20 miles from
Madrid.
British Ship Reported Sunk.
VALENCIA, Oct. 30 OP).—'The north
ern coastal defense tonight notified
the Spanish ministry of defense that
the British freighter. Jean Weems,
was sunk this morning in the Med
iterannean Sea by insurgent air
planes, which dropped 15 bombs.
The vessel was 16 miles off the
port of Gerona, en route from Mar
seille to Barcelona with a cargo of
wheat and condensed milk when the
bombing occurred, the English cap
tain said.
-..
PARTY SPURS ENROLLING
VIENNA, Oct. 30 (,P).—The Father
land Front was enrolling new mem
bers by the thousands tonight and of
ficials estimated the party would have
a membership of 2,400,000 by Novem
ber 1, the deadline for registration.
Party leaders said the new total
membership would make the Austrian
Fatherland Front much stronger in
proportion to population than the Naz
party in Germany or the Communist
party in Russia.
WITH 4-YEAR PLAN
Schacht Attempt to Resign
Forces Fuehrer to Make
Vita! Decision.
By SONIA TOMARA.
BERLIN, Oct. 30—One year after
the beginning of the four-year plan
which should liberate Germany from
imports of foreign raw materials,
Chancellor Adolf Hitler and his as
sistants in the economic field are faced
with a turning point in their line of
action. The crisis in Germany’s econ
omy has been precipitated by the state
ment Dr. Hjalmar Schacht made in
Bertln in the middle of the week to
the effect that he was through with the
ministry of economics and had given
his resignation to Der Fuehrer.
(Associated Press dispatches from
Berlin yesterday indicated that
Reichsfuehrer Hitler would not
accept Dr. Schacht’s resignation
and would require him to continue
as minister for economics.)
Dr. Schacht has indeed been through
since last August when he Informed
Chancellor Hitler that he could not
be responsible any longer for a policy
of which he completely disapproved.
Hitler then did not accept his resigna
tion. Dr. Schacht, however, has re
fused since that time to go to the
ministry of economics and has con
fined his activity to the Reichsbank,
of which he is president.
Valued Schaeht's Reputation.
Hitler, who disliked to make dras
tic decisions in inner politics, wanted
to keep Schacht as nominal head of
economics because of his reputation
abroad and let Col. Gen. Wilhelm Her
man Goering make the general staff
colonels go ahead with the four-year
plan which Dr. Schacht considers to
be ruinous for Germany’s economy.
The situation has now come to a
point where such co-operation is ex
tremely difficult. At this stake of
the four-year plan, when sums calcu
lated to be about 8.000,000,000 marks
have been sunk into new plants for
ersatz goods mat snouia replace ior
eign imports, when the equipment of
mines that can yield only a very poor
grade of iron at a high cost has been
carried far ahead, it is hardly possible
for Hitler to go back to a regime of
more normal economy on which
Schacht insists.
Not only Col. Gen. Goering but the
men organizing Germany's military
forces, meaning the whole power of
the Reichswehr, which for Hitler is vir
tually identical with Germany, are be
hind the four-year plan, and what it
is doing at any cost. These men
probably realize that the four-year
plan lowers the standard of living of
the German people, but the Nazi creed
demands sacrifices for the country’s
good. The example of Russia during
the five-year plan there has shown
that the endurance of peoples can go
; far.
Healthier Classes Hit.
Germans are disciplined and indus
trious and their leaders know they
can bear much more before they are
through. But this time it is the
wealthier class of Germans which is
bound to pay to make Germany self
sufficient. Dr. Schacht so far has de
fended private interests. From now
on all economic experts agree these
interests more and more will be neg
lected by the state. Funds will be
drawn from the big industries which
will have to contribute to Goering’s
enterprises—which Schacht is reported
to consider irrational and extrava
! gant.
It should not be thought that the
four-year plan has been unsuccessful.
On the contrary, reports from impar
tial sources indicate that the results
achieved over one year are very satis
factory. The Germans have done
wonders with synthetic rubber, whose
cost first was four times the cost of
the natural product. Production is
gradually being made cheaper and the
quality of artificial rubber for tires is
excellent. It is believed to be some
10 per cent better than natural rub
ber. Synthetic oil is said to supply
over 25 per cent of the general need
Shocks Nazis
PLACES JEWISH WREATH ON
SOLDIERS* TOMB.
1SAD0R GENNETT,
Amedican Legionnaire from
New York visiting Berlin,
placed a wreath bearing the
name of a Bronx (N. Y.)
branch of the Jewish War Vet
erans Association on the me
morial to Germany’s war dead
on Unter den Linden. Military
authorities, who had provided
him with a guard of honor for
the ceremony, detained him
for three hours, questioning
him about his religion and
antecedents. Then, at a loss
what to do about the matter,
they allowed him to go his
way. and did not molest the
wreath.
and it* mixture with German by-prod
ucts and Rumanian oil may permit
Germany to do completely without
American oil.
Textile Progress Unusual.
Progress with textiles is reported to
be unusual. Thus the results of the
first year show that Germany may
become self-sufficient.
But Schacht asks at what price. He
and some other economists argue that
it will be only a temporary self-suf
ficiency^ because the supply of some
German raw materials which serve
to make synthetic goods will be ex
hausted in a comparatively short
time.
The iron mines which Goering has
opened at a great cost are said to con
tain ore for only a few years. In the
view' of the more conservative econ
omists who see Germany's position
over a period of years, the four-yeai
plan is to make this country.happiei
for the future. But the policy ol
"wehrmacht" (defensive might) is
supposed to prepare Germany for the
emergency of war. and directs to thii
purpose all the resources of the coun
try. Apparently, in the opinion of the
German general staff, the possibility
that Germany might do without wai
is negligible and can be overlooked.
(Copyright, 1937. by the North Amencar
Newspaper Alliance, Inc.)
, •
Natives Being Listed.
More than 2.000,000 natives of Soutl
Africa are being listed in a kind ol
‘ domesday book " Johannesburg com
pilers say it will give the number ol
blacks and the sex distributions it
each municipality, the number em
ployed in each occupation and ful
particulars regarding all land ownec
by natives in cities.
fCHAPMAN |
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Pennsylvania J
ANTHRACITE
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NEW CABINET FOR PERU
Gen. Ernesto Montagne Succeeds
Himself as Premier.
LIMA, Peru, Oct. 30 A new
cabinet, headed by General Ernesto
Montagne, was sworn in today re
placing the ministry which resigned
last night.
Montagne, who succeeded himself as
premier, submitted the new list of
ministers to President General Oscar
Raimundo Benavides this morning.
The list included three ministers from
the retiring cabinet and five new
ones, some of whom were civilians.
The cld cabinet was composed en
tirely of army and navy men.
i "■■■■mi in
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