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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, November 20, 1937, Image 15

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- I :--1 FEATURES i
Books—Art—Music News of Churches
_ ___ 3_^^^WITH SUHDAY MOMWC EJ1TI0K '▼VrA' _____
WASHINGTON, 1). C.. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1937. ~ P\ C’ F R~t
Facilities Now Provided for Throngs of
Enthusiasts Lured to Areas by All
Sorts of Pastimes.
By Mary Jane Moore.
AMERICANS today are more
winter-sports conscious than
ever before, and they are
learning that the grandest ski
, slopes, snow vistas, ice skating rinks,
and toboggan slides lie within our
national parks and forests. Here
recreation facilities belong to all peo
ple of the United States almost as
if they existed in their own back
yards. though on a considerably larger
Of the country's 26 national parks,
all but three are open the year round
to some extent, and winter sports may
be enjoyed in many of them In
some, the snow lasts well into the
summer, permittting ski racing as
la'e as July 4. Nearly all of tire na
tional forests now have some winter
* sports use.
Acadia National Pant. Maine, the
only national park where sea and
.. mountains meet, has no regular winter
schedule, but it. oilers visiias ol winter
loveliness perhaps unsurpassed in all
of New England, the eastern center
of winter sports. The park offers na
tural skating rinks, framed by growing
Christmas trees, and nearly 2<i square
miles for hikers on snowshoes.
Mount Rainier National Park. Wash
ington. and Yosemit?, Sequoia and
• General Grant Parks, California, its
fellows of the high Sierra, and Rocky
Mountain National Park. Colorado,
afford gentle slopes for ski novices who
need to build up courage as well as 1
experience. and tricky. intricate
courses which challenge even chain- I
pions. Mount Rainier has been the i
scene of national championships held j
as preliminaries to the Olympic
Crater Lake National Park in Oregon
•nd Lassen Volcanic National Park
tn California are increasing in winter
■ popularity, and are the scenes of snow
festivals when weather conditions
permit access to the parks. The road
to Manzanita Lake in Lassen is being
kept open, and accommodations are j
pinvided for the large number of
visitors to try the new snow course
In the Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, North Carolina and
Tennessee, and Shenandoah National
Park. Virginia, there is an increased
, Interest in winter sports, and some
preliminary consideration of develop- j
ment, although the snow does not j
have such great staying qualities there
1 as in the northern parks.
There are natural skiing areas in
Morristown National Historical Park,
New Jersey. Even in Yellowstone,
which officially closes for the winter, ,
thp park personnel has splendid fa
cilities for skating ana skiing. And
a recent report from semi-tropical
Hawaii tells of an intrepid ranger and
hi' son who found snow high on a !
volcanic slope within the Hawaii Na
tional Park, and went skiing.
1 spt-Hiwug, tilt* 1 e aic
surprisingly few artificial ski slides
or toboggan slides In our national
parks. The National Park Service has
adopted a definite policy of stressing
the winter beauties of its parks and
of opening them to all sports lovers
on an informal basis, which will pro
vide equal opportunity for enjoyment !
to amateur and professional. It j
’ opposes erection of any equipment that j
might mar the scenic value and ter- j
rain of the parks. In most of the
Western parks there is plenty of snow 1
to form natural toboggan slides, and ;
the mountain slopes provide natural j
ski jumps and runs.
Although skiing seems to be far and
•way the most popular sport, there are
so many other things to do in national
parks in winter time that visitors find
it hard to crowd them all in without
setting back the clock.
Skating is especially popular. Then
there’s ski-joring, which means riding
* on skis while holding tightly to the
lengthened bridle of a well-trained
but speedy horse—really it is land
surf-board riding with a steed replac
■. lng a motor boat for power. A thrill
ing new sport is slalom running, which
means dangerous and fast down-hill
skiing with sharp turns. Other recrea
tions found in most of the Western
parks are sleighing, tobogganing, snow
balling, and toasting oneself before
• great log fire to thaw out after many
hours spent playing in the snow.
The parks also have their own
unique sport, developed, so the story
goes, by a former director of the Na
tional Park Service. It is called ’’ash
canning1’ and today is one of the most
popular diversions in Yosemite. Mount
Rainier and Sequoia. Equipment fcr
It consists of an ash can lid, minus
the handle, a burlap bag for a cushion,
•nd courage. The brave sportsman
or sportswoman who sits in the lid
Is given a push at the top of a mildly
sloping toboggan slide, and goes
, whirling around and around and down
to the bottom—or perhaps head over
heels into a mighty snowdrift.
■YOSEMITE has long been popular
1 as a winter paradise, and here,
with the Wawona road, completed in
1933, opening up a 35-mile drive to
the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees and
* leading to the Chinquapin and Badger
Flat snowfields, park officials were
confronted wuth record-breaking
crowds. On the floor of the Yosemite
' Valley every conceivable recreation is
provided with the exception of long
distance skiing. Snow day is a big
j^vent with its proclamation of a wintet^
king and queen, and the annual
Bracebridge dinner, with guests cos
tumed as characters in the Christmas
dinner of Washington Irving's "Sketch
Book" is another.
At Glacier Point, more than 3 000
feet above the valley and some 7.000
feet above sea level, there are ideal
skiing fields that rank with the best
in this country or abroad. The famous
Ash Can Alley is particularly popular
and other winter games high in favor
include slalom and downhill races,
toasting on a four-track toboggan
slide, speed skating race* on the
largest rink in the West, hockey
matches, and crass-country ski racing
Teams from West Coast colleges and
athletic clubs compete here annually.
New ski trails connect Monrow Meadow
and Badger Pass skiing fields and the
ski house at Badger Pass lias been
enlarged and improved.
Yosemite offers unexpected luxury
in providing two brands of climate,
side by side. The south side of the
valley, shaded by towering cliffs, is
many degrees cooler than the opposite
.‘lde. where floods of sunshine make
the temperature mild enough for mid
dav exercises without wraps.
Mount. Rainier National Park, only
a tew hours from the wild Puget Sound
country, has a carnival of winter sports
covering a season beginning December
1 and extending through May 1. which
draws thousands of enthusiasts every
season. Within this park, at Long
nnre Springs, there is a toboggan slide
1.200 feet long, and besides it a short
"ash can" slide.
Paradise Valley, with snowy ex
panse of unobstructed hills and vales
and steep inclines, is an ideal terrain
for skiing and was the scene of the j
national championship and Olympic j
trials. The Silver Ski course here
extends from Camp Muir at the 10.000- 1
He flies through the air!—Yes, and with the greatest of ease, too, on winged skis.
— ■ ___
A ski thrill, near the summit of Mount Washington, as a skier makes a fast turn on wind-packed snow. _A. P. Photo.
foot level on the mountain slope* to
the valley and involve* almost five
miles of skiing and turning and a
vertical drop of a mile.
The highway to the valley is usually
kept open all winter as far as Narada
Falls, about a mile and a half distant.
That last fragment of the journey,
usually trudged on foot or on sit is, is ;
being kept open as a one-way road
all the wav to the valley, and famous
Paradise Inn is snowbound except for
Its high dormer windows until spring
Motorists leave their tars at Narada
Falls, where There is parking space for
a thousand autos, and travel the rest
of the way in stages.
J^OR many years Rocky Mountain
National Park has attracted trav
elers who love to combine invigorating
j exercise with magnificent scenery.
Cross-country events staged at Rocky
j Mountain are world-famous, and some
i of the best-known athletes have com
peted in the park's skiing contests.
The bundle races on skns are hectic
and amusing. The contestant skis
New Fight Against Slums, Blighted Areas and Lack of
Homes Conducted With Realization of Causes of
Failures in Other Campaigns.
By Paul P. Walsh.
HE triple-threat to the Nation's
progress — inadequate housing
—faces a final offensive which
may take it out of play. A
direct danger to the prosperity of la
bor. of industry and of finance, the
housing situation has resisted costly,
energetic efforts of this trinity of
American business and of several na
tional administrations to correct the
situation in the past decade. Present
odds, however, favor the United States
Housing Authority in its fight against
slums, blighted areas and an insuffi
ciency of homes.
Two principal factors now encour
age those who realize the seriousness
of the housing problem. First, the
absolute necessity that the critical sit
uation be relieved. Second, the realis
tic approach to the problem by the
newly created housing agency.
Informed opinion holds that unless
the housing situation is solved within
a reasonable time, this country can
expect little improvement in economic
conditions. A revival in housing con
struction offers the greatest impetus
to re-employment, to stimulation of
business, to stabilization of the Na
tion's private financial structure.
Without this impetus we undoubtedly
face the specter of increased relief
rolls, decreased manufacturing and
consumption, a backslide into another
depression. None appreciates this
more than the officials and advisers
in the United States Housing Au
thority; they realize they cannot af
ford to fail.
JN UNDERTAKING the task of re
housing America, these men reveal
themselves, not as visionaries, but as
level-headed pragmatists. They view
the problem as a dollars-and-cents
proposition and intend to proceed ac
cordingly. with little sentiment, cer
tainly with no maudlin sentiment.
Previous approaches to the complex
question of slum clearance have been
motivated in the main by social con
siderations. Emphasis has been placed
on the moral regression influenced by
poor housing as evidenced by the high
percentage of juvenile delinquency and
adult crime, and on the physical dete
rioration of slum dwellers as reflected
in high death rates.
Such social aims must be heeded in
any plan designed to relieve housing
congestion in cities. But they do not
constitute the sole problem. Rather,
social considerations are inherent in
any public or semi-public enterprise,
whether it be slum clearance, factory
management or any other large ven
ture involving hundreds of thousands
of humans. The popular and domi
nating concept in national housing
rehabilitation now is practical—to
tackle the job as a business proposi
tion. Success along this line auto
matically solves the social or human
The new Housing Authority con
ceives the housing problem as one
w hich affects not only the unfortunate
orcupants of slums or blighted dis
tricts, but all the people. Evidence
accumulated over the years proves in
disputably that a blighted section, ft
run-down residential area, in any city,
S costs every taxpayer in that city
money; further, that it imperil* the
wealth of citizens in other cities. For
a blighted area increases municipal
service costs out of all proportion to
the population therein; police, fire
and hospitalization expenses are inor
dinately high in such districts. Exces
sive municipal service charges directly
result in higher taxes. 70 per cent of
which taxes are paid by home owners
in the average American city.
^^CCORDING to the New York City
Housing Authority there were 1,139
(Ires among 352.968 run-down apart
ments and tenements and only 393
fires among 216.370 modern apart
ments in 1929. The same authority re
ports that 477 new cases of tuberculosis
were reported per 100.000 residents in
the slums of Brooklyn, while the rate
for the entire borough was only 123;
in Harlem tuberculosis is three times
as prevalent as in the rest of New York
Cleveland reports that in one slum
district, which covers but three-fourths
of 1 per cent of the total city area and
which houses 2'2 per cent of the popu
lation. 21 per cent of the murders were
committed. 1212 per cent of tubercular
deaths occurred and 6.8 per cent of
boy delinquencies were reported. The
slum district referred to pays $225,035
taxes, based on maximum collections,
while jt costs the city $1,366,000 for
municipal services—an outright cash
loss of $1,131,000 a year.
A breakdown of Cleveland's figures
reveal that the per capita fire preven
tion costs throughout the city average
$3.12 annually, but in the slum district
it rises to $18.27; police protection on
a city-wide basis is $4.37 per capita,
but in the slums it is $11.50.
Practically every city in America
will show’ similar economic losses due
to blighted area*.
Of perhaps equal importance to the
business man and home owner is the
destructive effect of slums on property
values generally. Since a big slice of
our national wealth is represented by
real estate it follows that any condi
tion such as a bfghted residentia dis
trict, which Impairs property valua
tion, thereby decreases national as
well as personal wealth.
Finally, since municipal credit de
pends chiefly on the city’s property
valuations, any reduction in real estate
values directly weakens the city’s credit
and jeopardizes its municipal bonds.
And the collapse of the municipal bond
market, as has been proven in the last
decade, hurts individuals, not only in
the particular city, but throughout the
country because those bonds represent
a large share of the Nation’s savings
as deposited in insurance companies
and other great fiscal agencies which
buy up those municipal obligations.
That is the hard-headed, rational
interpretation of the housing problem
entertained by the men who will lead
the current war on slums. From that
viewpoint the situation will be ap
proached with probably a better
chance of success than any anti-slum
efforts of the past. A
''J'HE keystone to the new housing
program is the city itself. Hous
ing rehabilitation will be a local issue,
determined upon and carried through ,
by the respective cities with the Fed
eral Government acting only in a
financial and supervisory capacity. It
is significant that of the many New :
Deal agencies active in promoting
housing relief—Federal Housing Ad
ministration. Home Owners' Loan ■
Corp, Resettlement Administration, j
P W. A s housing division among
others—those bureaus which were pri
marily financial in character (F. H. A.
and H O. L. C.l proved more than
moderately successful while those
which concerned themselves with so
cial problems and actual construction
ias Resettlement and P. W. A.) were
In promoting a Nation-wide housing
plan the United States Housing
Authority enjoys several advantages
over other Federal agencies which I
attempted to solve the riddle of good
and adequate housing for the low
income groups. It has the benefit of
its predecessors’ experience. It has the
good will and support of the United
States Chamber of Commerce, the
confidence of industry and business,
the whole-hearted co-operation of the
United States Conference of Mayors
iw-hich reflects the majority opinion
of city governments) and the powerful
backing of the American Federation of
Housing Authorities, the leader in the
Nation-wide movement for elimination
of city slums. But, most important,
it has for a working base what is gen
erally conceded to be the best national
housing law in the world—the Wag
ner-Steagall Act.
That law. which authorized estab
lishment of the Housing Authority,
had a stormy trip through Congress.
Political factionalism delayed its en
actment for three years: it survived
numerous attempts to kill it. mutilate
it or nullify its provisions. After minor
modifications it passed as Senator
Wagner originally introduced it only
after other administration programs
proved futile.
rJ'HE Wagner-Steagall Act makes
Federal money and credit avail
able to solvent cities through their
municipal housing authorities. That
Federal aid may amount to as much
as 100 per cent of the total cost of a
municipal housing project whether it
be slum clearance, rehabilitation of
blighted residential districts, or low
rent housing. The amount of finan
cial assistance to any particular project
is in the discretion of .the housing
administrator. Numerous factors will
be considered in determining the per
centage of cost to be borne by the
Federal Government. The principal
consideration will be the urgency of
the project need. While 100 per cent
financing will be rare, situations which
will require it are conceivable. For
instance, in a city ravaged by floods
where thousands are homeless and
where the city, because of flood damage
and incidental expenses, is unable to
contribute any part of the housing
coat, humane considerations Will be
paramount when the United States
Housing Authority acts on the local
authority's application.
The financial assistance offered by
the Wagner-Steagall Act is classified
under the headings of: First, loans;
second, loans and annual contribu
tions; third, capital grants.
Loan* may ba a* high^i 100 per
rent of the total cost, repayable over
a period not to exceed 60 years at the
going Federal rate of interest plus
one-half of 1 per cent.
A loan may be accompanied by
annual contributions. In this case
the loan cannot exceed 90 per cent
of the cast and the annual contribu
tions must be used for payment of
interest or principal on the loan.
Capital grants may not exceed 25
per cent of the total cost of any pro
ject. although an additional 15 per
cent grant for labor may be authorized
by the President. When a capital
grant is made the local authority must
contribute cash. land, services, or tax
exemption amounting to 20 per cent
of the cost.
rJpHE determination as to whether or
not a particular city should have
a housing project of any or all types
contemplated by the act is within the
discretion of the city itself. It doesn't
have to promote a housing project.
The United States Housing Authority
will not attempt to influence local
officials in what is primarily a local
problem. The authority comes into
the picture only when the city's au
thorized housing agency applies for
Federal aid or when Washington offi
cials are invited to advise municipal
authorities. There will be no attempt
made to infringe on local rights.
After application is made for Gov
ernment assistance the United States
Housing Authority will exercise its
prerogatives as a fiscal agent of Gov
ernment funds and as the responsible
agency to effectuate the provisions of
the Wagner-Steagall Act. The author
ity will ask to be shown that the proj
ect contemplated is meritorious within
the meaning of the law, that the city
is able and ready to assume its share
of the financial burden, that if it is
a low-rent housing project that the
constructions costs will be reasonable
enough to insure the feasibility of low
rents, that the project will be able
to carry itself, that construction
standards are adequate and that liv
ing conditions will be satisfactory.
The law demands, first of all. ameli
oration of social conditions. Its in
tent is to eliminate sub-standard
housing and furnish decent living
quarters for slum dwellers. No ap
proval will be granted any local pro
ject unless there is a guarantee that
the persons dehoused by slum clear
ance or other development will be oc
commodated elsewhere in modern,
habitable homes.
In the interpretation of this stipula
tion officials of the new Housing Au
thority demonstrate a practicality and
reasonableness at variance with the
theories advanced and practiced by
officials of former Federal low-cost
housing agencies.
Under the new setup conditions of
slum dwellers will be improved, within
reason. They will be furnished ade
quate, decent housing—within reason.
They will be assured modern con
veniences in well constructed homes;
they will have air and sunlight, run
ning water and indoor toilets, heat.
But they will not be given the super
fluous costly frills required in low
cost housing projects undertaken by
other Government agencies in the
past few years. Air conditioning,
cross-ventilation, landscaping and the
innumerable similar luxuries to be
found only in the mast modem or
expensive private homes—and which
were demanded by Resettlement and
Offensive Aimed at Destruction of Dangers to Pros
perity of Labor, of Industry, of Finance, and
Realistic Approach Made.
P W. A for the homes of the very !
poor—are out,
’'J''HIS common-sense attitude of ;
Housing Authority officials should j
prove a major contribution to the diffi- j
cult problem of keeping construction
casts down. High building cast was j
an Important cause of the failure of
I other agencies to achieve their ob
jective of furnishing housing to the
lowest income groups.
The average cost per room on P. W
A. s 51 housing projects, for instance, :
was *1.490 exclusive of land acquisi
J tion and landscaping expenses. The
casts varied, of course, with the
different types of projects and con
structions, and with the location. In
the South casts naturally were lower
than in the North, and in small cities
they were below those in large cities.
Of the 51 projects totaling 76.145
j rooms, only four projects with a total
jof 3.681 rooms, averaged less than
the thousand dollar per room maxi
mum set by the new Housing Au
thority. The figure was surpassed in
47 of the 51 projects. In four of them,
totaling 5.169 rooms, the cost per room
was over $1,800 each. Naturally such
j costs necessitated a rental base higher
than could be reached by the un
fortunates for which the projects were
originally planned. The average rental I
I on these 51 P. W. A. projects is *5.58
per room without heat and utilities
such as gas or .electricity. When these
essentials are included the rent aver- i
age jumps to *7.25 a room.
Even the Alley Dwelling Authority I
of the District of Columbia, whose !
very name indicates that its respon- I
sibility is to furnish homes for the
lowest-income groups, shows startling
per room casts in its low-rent apart
ment projects. Exclusive of land and
overhead, the room cast of one. a 31
unit apartment house, is $1,294; on
the other, a 24-unit building, the room
cost is $1,217. The rents range $8.75
to $15 a room per month, with heat, i
but without utilities.
The Alley Dwelling Authority makes i
a better showing in its detached-homes
projects, of which it has two. The I
costs per room on these are *910 and
*1.099. exclusive of land and overhead,
with rents from *6.25 to $7.50.
On the other hand, three detached
houses projects, initiated by private
enterprise, according to figures of the
Federal Housing Administration,
which insured the projects, show an
average cost per room of but *716 and
an average rental of only $6.17. Like
wise, on 15 privately financed low-rent
apartment and group-houses projects,
insured by F. H. A., the average room
cost is lower than P. W. A.'s or the
Alley Dwelling Authority's, at $1,158.
The average rental is $13.67, including
'T'HE United States Housing Au
thority, in striving to keep costs
down to the SI.000 maximum per
room, has recourse to three principal
methods: The use of prefabricated
building materials, cheaper labor, im
proved design
Prefabrication Is still pretty much
in the experimental stage. Moreover,
even If the use of prefabricated mate
rials were to prove as economical and
efficient as construction on the job.
such a policy would seem to conflict
with the spirit of the Wagner-Steagall
Act, which endeavors to spur local em
ployment of labor, thus reducing relief
It would be politically inexpedient
as well a.s contrary to more advanced
business policy to attempt to cut
wages, particularly to cut them so
drastically as to effect a one-third sav
ing In construction costs There re
mains then but to effect this economv
bv improved design, by more intelli
gent planning
Apparently this is the Housing Au
thority's ambition. They will try to
accomplish it by economical design
ing. by the use of building materials
mast cheaply available to the various
projects, and by cheaper construction.
Cheap construction does not mean
necessarily poor construction; rather,
non-wasteful construction adapted to
the specific need.
For instance, a satisfactory low
rent project for displaced slum dwellers
would be. say, a 3-story building con
structed of any satisfactory materials
available nparest the site of construc
tion. soundly but economically erected,
semi-fireproof and equipped with rea
sonable facilities to insure health and
comfort of the occupants. There
seems to be no need for costly,
impressive ultra-modern apartment
houses, with tiled baths and the like,
surrounded by country club-like
grounds and flower gardens publicly
maintained. The difference between
(hem. it is contended, is the difference
between sense and nonsense, between
a solvent and a bankrupt project, be
tween a successful and unsuccessful
housing program.
j jeukn i k ai_»iz,a tion contemplat
ed in the Authority's plan will
tend to bring about and maintain low
cost. levels. Swire loral officials will
be responsible in every project, the
citizenery will doubtless keep a clase
watch on the progress of the work,
with the result of a quick and sharp
public criticism of any bungling or
waste. The townspeople themselves
will be the alert inspectors on the job.
Economy, therefore, and efficiency will
be politically necessary even if the
local housing officials entertain other
ideas. In the Southeast, where lumber
is a major industry, a local housing
authority which attempted to erect
brick structures where wood serves the
purpose or to use prefabricated steel
window frames in all likelihood would
be unable to withstand the public up
roar raised against it. In a,similar
situation, when the highly centralized
P. W. A. Housing Division committed
similar errors, the local criticism had
little effect on the responsible men in
Local responsibility likewise will re
sult in designing arid planning which
will result in housing types and con
struction best adapted to the locality,
which again means greater economy.
To install a central heating plant in
a multiple apartment building in a
climate which requires use of a furnace
tfiee HOUBINGT Page B-3j
Skiing, Skating, Tobogganing and Hiking
on Snowshoes Are Among Great
Attractions for Tourists.
down the slide to a choice of mysterious
bundles at the bottom, seizes one.
makes off up the hill again, dons the
contents, no matter what, and clad in
this burlesque costume, is off to the
races again. Roads leading to natural
ski courses and skating areas in this
park will be open all season.
Sequoia National Park held its first
winter sports carnival in 1934 and
has been growing in winter popularity
ever since. As many as 4.000 people
have entered this park on a single day
for recreation purposes. A new ice
rink at Lodgepole Camp, providing
50.000 square feet of smooth, glittering
surface, is the center of attractions,
and a new toboggan slide has been
built by C C. C boys.
A daring adventurer. Otto Steiner
of the German-Austrian Alpine Asso
ciation, was successful not so long ago
in scaling Mount Whitney, the highest
peak in continental United States.
Skiing to within 100 feet of the sum
mit that reaches 14.496 feet above sea
level, he made the two-mile journey
in five days. Overhanging banks of
snow shipped by high winds kept him
from reaching the very top.
Gen. Grant National Park, on the
western slope of the Sierra Nevada
and about 1 ;t miles above sea level,
also offers a variety of winter sports
on an informal basis.
In Lassen National Park there Is
skiing on the great white mountain
side of a once flaming volcano, silent
for only 20 years, and still strange and
awe-inspiring, with its steaming hot
pools sending smoke to hover over the
snow which reaches depths of 9 and
10 feet, and which lasts, packed and
hard, well into the summer. At Crater
Lake snow-encrusted trees circle the
blue water.
Cabin and hotel facilities of varying
prices and comfort are maintained in
1 winter sports areas in nations! parks,
| and are designed to meet all tastes and
pocketbooks The National Park
Sprvire forbids charging fpes for any
special events within the parks.
r|''HE C C C boys stationed at camps
In National and State parks, under
the supervision of the National Park
Service, have done much to improve
and inereas.e winter sports faculties
They have provided a network of
splendid ski trails and winter areas
throughout New England States parks
and developed a winter sports center
for the Southwest in Hyde Park State
Park, near Santa Fe N. Mex . pro
viding toboggan slides and ski runs.
They have spent thousands of days in
! this work in our national parks, so
| that winter visitors may spend then
| recreation moments in invigorating
| sport.
The snowbound isolation of national
! forest areas likewise is being invaded
by winter sports enthusiasts in large
; numbers Fishing rods, rifles and
| canoes have been exchanged for skis,
snowshoes and dog sleds in winter
; spoils areas provided as part of the
Forest Service's huge program fot
1 recreational development in the na
tional forests.
’ During the past five or six years.
; winter sports have spread through the
national forests like an epidemic,"
i officers of the Forest Service explain
"Nearly all the national forests in the
country now have some winter sports
when sufficient snow makes skiing
possible "
The White Mountain National For
est in New Hampshire, it was stated.
; is the outstanding traditional winter
spoi ls area in the East The Nicolet
National Forest of Wisconsin recently
, opened a large recreational area for
winter sports use. while the Pike and
i Roosevelt Forests in Colorado. Saw*
| tooth surrounding Ketchum in Idaho.
Mount Hood in Oregon. Mount Baker,
Olympic and Snoqualmie in Washing
j ton. and the Tahoe. Eldorado and An
i seles National Forests in California
j are among those having outstanding
I winter developments. Even the na
tional forests of New Mexico provide
extensive winter sports at the higher
While skiing is the prinripal attrac
tion. snowshoeing along isolated forest
trails is gaining in importance. Many
of the summer trails used by forest
rangers and hikers are available, and
special trails are frequently marked
for the winter sportsman. Skating is
possible in a number of national for
ests. Dog sledding is increasing in
popularity. Tobogganing has become
one of the chief sports, and in some
of the Western forests these long slefis
■shoot at high speed past tall pines on
| toboggan slides canstructed of heavy
! timbers,
Plparinff tho troilc nrmi>)inr.
automobile parking areas, and con
| strutting sanitary facilities have been
I the prinripa! activities of the Forest
Service in developing recreational fa
| cilities at winter sport areas Warming
| shelters are being provided In several
areas. In some rases, more elaborate
' structures, such as the new Timberline
Lodge in the Mount Hood Forest, are
considered necessary. Just below thp
bowl of Turkerman Ravine in the
White Mountain National Forest a
building is now available to supply
facilities m this popular winter sports
'JpHE present recreation program of
the Forest Service points toward
increased facilities for the winter
sports enthusiasts. Additional shelters
and facilities for warming coffee and
cooking meals are planned in many of
the national forests. The need for
further accommodations is seen from
the fact that frequently crowds of
tourists travel from the larger cities
on Saturday afternoon and attempt to
spend the night in small warming
houses now available. Also entire
families hate become enthusiasts, and
small tots on miniature skis slide un
certainly down the more gentle slopes.
An outstanding problem, according
to the Forest Service, is to plow park
ing places for the hundreds of auto
mobiles that rrowd into the larger
areas on week ends When important
tournaments are held, the parking sit
uation is acute.
The object of improving winter
sports areas in the national forests,
as explained by Federal foresters, is
to provide recreation for the general
i public, for the amateur sportsmen,
and for every-day people, rather thsn
for the experts. The construction of
ski jumps for professional use is not
contemplated, although in some of
the national forests sites have been
made available under permit to ski
clubs or organizations for the con
struction of such facilities. In sevpral
forests, such as the Superior in Min
nesota. natural jumps are available,
and Tuckerman Ravine in the While
Mountain Forest provides .an excellent
site where championship slalom and
downhill races are held.
Although national forests receiving
the most extensive use are located
near large cities, it is reported that
dozens of smaller towns throughout
the Northern Rockies and Pacific Coast
region have individual areas for their
winter sports. In many sections of
the country special "snow trains" take
enthusiasts to winter sports areas.
The plowing and sanding of impro\ed
roads is considered a tremendous fac
tor in making the snow-covered slope*
more accessible.

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