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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, November 20, 1937, Image 6

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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition
THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor
WASHINGTON, D. C.
SATURDAY _November 10. 1937
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Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to
the use for republication ot all news dispatches
credited to It or not otherwise credited in this
paper and also the local news published nerem.
All rights of publication of special dispatches
herein also are reserved
Disservice to Labor.
The circumstance of a group of sit
down strikers defying their own leader
ship while continuing the blockade of
operations in a Pontiac, Michigan, auto
mobile plant might be cited to prove
many points of view. An “I told you so"
attitude, however, offers nothing con
structive in a situation that is dis
tressing both to industry and to organ
ized labor.
Admittedly, the sit-down strike is a
potent as well as illegal weapon, too easily
available to irresponsible elements. Un
fortunately, the evils of its indiscriminate
Use impose themselves upon all parties
involved—industry, organized labor and
irresponsible labor.
Ironically, the present situation might
be used by organized labor as an argu
ment against strict legal responsibility on
the part of a union for the actions of its
members. For here is a situation in
which the union, as an organization, is
opposed to the actions of its members
and attempted to dissuade them. It
could not. in fairness, be blamed for
continuance of the tie-up.
Yet it is even more obvious that re
sponsibility for the violation of existing
agreements with the automobile com
pany and for the occupation and en
forced inactivity of a piece of valuable
industrial property must be placed some
where. Since the union leadership, .in
this instance under no suspicion of being
com nan v rinminatpH rnnHomnc
strike, it is fair to assume that the
company is not to blame. The respon
sibility returns, then, to rest squarely
upon the individual strikers.
It is they who are violating the pledge
given in their name by their own chosen
leaders. And it is such violation that
makes increasingly difficult the task of
their leadership and all organized labor
in obtaining more favorable bargains
from industry.
Let the Pontiac sit-down strikers real
ize full well, therefore, the disservice
they are doing to the whole structure of
orderly employer-employe relationship.
And let labor at large be reminded that
each of its component individuals bears
a responsibility to abide by its collective
word if it would build lastingly the
process of collective bargaining.
While grave melodies expand in beauty
in honor of Christmas day, the world is
reminded more than ever of the need of
patience with the debtor, as well as
honest forbearance on the part of the
creditor. The word patience deserves a
place among our honored words.
A C. C. C. camper who criticizes the
accommodations unfavorably is not aim
ing to improve anything except the con
ditions which pride should originally
resent without waiting for reminder.
The Transit Problem.
The announcement that Representa
tive Dirksen, Republican, of Illinois has
undertaken a “one-man” investigation
to determine the equities involved in the
recent increase in street car token fares
of the Capital Transit Company should
be welcomed by all interested parties. Mr.
Dirksen has shown in the past that he
has a deep interest in matters affecting
the District. Endowed with unusual
energy and a marked capacity for fair
ness, the Illinois Representative may be
expected to conduct a thorough investi
gation and to prepare an impartial re
port of his findings.
The task he has undertaken is one of
great complexity and great importance.
It is essential that he consider the respec
tive interests of the riding public, the
transit company, its stockholders, the
Public Utilities Commission and the
competing agencies in the mass trans
portation field. If Mr. Dirksen can com
pose these conflicting points of view and
reach conclusions as to a proper rate of
fare that do justice to all concerned, he
will have made a most valuable contri
bution to the community.
Few cities are confronted with diffi
culties in the mass transportation field
that are comparable to those in the Na
tion's Capital. The street car company
has the responsibility of transporting
thousands of workers to and from the
central section of the city twice a day
during the so-called rush hours. The
efficient performance of this duty re
quires the maintenance of costly person
nel and equipment facilities which can
not be used profitably during other
periods of the day. Congested traffic on
the downtown streets hampers the oper
ation of street cars during rush hours.
The competition of private automobiles
and nearly 5,000 taxicabs has cut deeply
into the revenues of the transit company.
It to to be hoped that Mr. Dirksen w-ill
consider these factors along with his in
-T

Quiry into the control held by the North
American Company over both the transit
company and the Potomac Electric Power
Company, which sells power to the street
car system. By doing so, he will have
opportunity to familiarize himself with
all phases of the matter and will then be
in a better position to make recom
mendations for ameliorating a condition
that has been a source of grave concern
to those familiar with the problems of
mass transportation in this city.
More Ilian Trade.
London dispatches, commenting on
the announcement of Anglo-American
reciprocal tariff negotiations, suggest
what must be patent to all students of
the current international situation—that
incalculably more than trade balances
are at stake. Unmistakable significance
attaches to the hour chosen by the
Washington and London governments
for proclaiming the intention of tighten
ing the bonds of their economic inter
course.
To find ways and means of expanding
the $400,000,000-odd American export
volume to Great Britain and British sales
of $200,000,000-odd to this country—to
quote the latest annual figures avail
able—is ostensibly the primary object of
impending discussion. But there is a
more vital incentive than merely to
widen the British market for our meats,
fruits, tobacco, copper, cotton and auto
mobiles, or make our market more hos
pitable to John Bull's whisky, furs, tex
tiles and manufactured goods.
Removal of artificial trade barriers,
the breaking down of economic national
ism. is rightly regarded by Secretary
Hull as quintessential to world peace. |
But there is even deeper meaning in a
coalescing of the English-speaking na- !
tions for these purposes at this fateful !
international moment. Because of cata
clysmic events in Europe and the Far
East, particularly the menacing com- (
munity of interests among Germany, I
Italy and Japan, democratic countries, '
including America. Great Britain, France
and Czechoslovakia, are on all but for
mal notice that they have no time to
lose in girding themselves for common
defense of their most cherished institu
tions and ideals.
Statesmen in Berlin, Rome and Tokio
will not be widely astray in their calcu
lations if they discern in the plans for
closer commercial union between the
United States and the British Empire
clear indication of their readiness to
stand shoulder to shoulder with sister
free peoples against encroachment by
the allied and associated forces of anti
democracy, in whatever form of "ism"
their autocratic purpose may be clothed.
The Cherry Tree Plot.
We have lurking in our midst—within
sight of the War College—Japanese j
‘ symbols of traltorism and disloyalty,” j
according to Representative Virginia
Jenekes of Indiana.
They are those secret and silent senti- j
nels of subversiveness, tne Japanese
cherry trees. School children, blissfully
ignorant of Oriental wiles, and even
grown-ups, who too often are indifferent
to the menace of international intrigue, j
have thronged to the Tidal Basin every
spring to admire the glory of these blos
soms and sniff their elusive fragrance, j
Little did any of these good citizens j
suspect they were becoming pawns in a
carefully laid plot to spread Japanese
propaganda of one sort or another.
Others, however, have peered behind
these pink petals and unmasked their
real nature. While unsuspecting citizens
were sniffing the blooms superficially and
smelling hardly anything, the Indiana
Congresswoman needed but one fair sized
sniff to detect an odor of Nipponese
trickery.
Pull those trees up by the roots and
saw them up for firewood, Mrs. Jenekes
is quoted as demanding.
While Mrs. Jenekes is in the mood, it
might be well for her to give attention
also to some other symbols of foreign
aggression. There is the Japanese beetle,
-which commits sabotage not only on 100
per cent American plants, but, quite
illogicall.v, on Japanese cherry trees as
well. How about the Spanish mackerel,
slithering its way into our very homes?
What about the Spanish onion, for that
matter? England has not paid her war
debts—yet English walnuts are crackling
all around us. And, speaking of nuts,
with Brazil having gone totalitarian,
what about Brazil nuts?
The Extension Service.
Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, “the father of
co-operative extension work,” was hon
ored appropriately here during the an
nual meeting of the Association of Land
Grant Colleges and Universities this
week.
He left a permanent change for the
better in rural life in America. It was,
therefore, fitting that a memorial to him
should leave a permanent change in the
outlook along one of the Nation’s Capital
principal thoroughfares, Independence
avenue. It took the form of a memorial
arch linking two Department of Agri
culture buildings.
The ceremonies were under the
auspices of the national honorary exten
sion fraternity, which also dedicated a
second similar arch to James Wilson,
who,' as Secretary of Agriculture from
1897 to 1913, held a post in the cabinet
longer than any other presidential aide.
Dr. Knapp was one of those who be
lieved the best way to teach the farmer
the latest scientific methods was through
practical demonstrations. During a time
when the boll weavil was causing trouble
in Texas cotton fields, Dr. Knapp con
vinced Secretary Wilson of the practica
bility of his plan, and “farmers’ co-oper
ative demonstration work” began.
It grew rapidly in popularity and use
fulness. Through co-operation with the
land grant colleges and experiment sta
tions it has carried on steadily through
years of prosperity and depression. By
increasing the quality of farm products
it has benefited consumers as well as
growers. It branched out Into such fields
as co-operative marketing and bovine
tuberculosis eradication. While the
county agents worked with farmers, the
farm women were not forgotten, home
demonstration agents teaching them
home management, nutrition facts and
ever-sought-after facts regarding cloth
ing and furnishings. The service's activ
ities are ever broadening and now in
clude participation in such New Dealist
functions'as crop and erosion control.
Without the extension service the
farmer and his family might still be in
the horse and buggy age.
Dental Health.
President Roosevelt and Vice President
Garner recently have had occasion to
quote Shakespeare's famous observa
tion: “'There was never yet philosopher
that could endure the toothache
patiently.” Both were reported suffer
ing from troubles which only the dental
profession is prepared to correct. Their
experience provides opportunity for in
dorsement of an educational campaign
sponsored by the American Dental As
sociation for the year 1938—a drive for
dental health for American youth.
Time was when people feared dentists
as a class. General William Teeumseh
Sherman, who never flinched in battle,
is said to have been mortally afraid to
enter a dentist's office. Nothing but pain
of the most acute variety could teach
him the lesson of the need for expert at
tention for an infected molar. His pat
tern of mind was timid in that regard.
Currently, however, no such psychology
of cowardice prevails. Dentists have
eliminated torture from their practice.
Not even the least brave individual has
any legimitate excuse for panic at the
prospect of dental treatment. Modern
methods have banished the greater part
of the agony traditionally associated
with the solution of dental problems.
The American Dental Association is
stressing the importance of preventive
dentistry, especially for the young. It
aims to "educate children early in life
to appreciate healthy teeth and to care
for them from a dietary and sanitary
standpoint.” Every parent, surely, will
wish to support an ideal so manifestly
altruistic and wise.
It has been asserted by Secretary of
Agriculture Henry A. Wallace that
Thomas Jefferson desired to subject all
things to his will. He is also given credit,
however, for making his will go in
accordance with human wishes in large
degree.
" ■■ —» ^—__
It is not easy to give able old-timers
the credit to which they are entitled
for achievements, but it is at least con
ceded that George Washington under
took a very hard job of work and did it
well. No amount of congressional argu
ment can obscure this fact.
-2- T -
There are words of public expression
which meet with universal agreement.
One of these historically appreciated
utterances is the Thanksgiving procla
mation, which means so much both in
politics and prayer.
Institutions of learning continue to
hear wise words from professors, but
they are, unfortunately, sometimes in
disagreement.
Urgent measures will be considered in
Congress as they arise, without artificial
effort to impress their vitality.
Shooting Stars.
BY PHILANDER JOHNSON.
Infinitesimal Ego.
The world is a wealth of delightful im
pressions.
Today we are here and tomorrow we re
gone.
We give and we take. The demands and
concessions
Are strange, but we smile as the story
goes on.
The struggles for pelf are but minor di
gressions.
A sunset today and tomorrow a dawn
Are things in themselves prompting
humble confessions
That Fates play the game, and a man's
but a pawn.
Advanced Ideals.
“What has become of the old-time
lobbyist?"
“We don't need him any more," an
swered Senator Sorghum. “A lobbyist
was a comparatively low-salaried man.
I wouldn't think of associating with any
body less distinguished and important
than a propagandist.”
Jud Tunkins says you can't get some
thing for nothing unless you go into
business as some kind of a fortune teller.”
Aphorism.
Wise men must rule
To keep things right.
’Most any fool
Can start a fight.
Sense of Gratitude.
“You never catch any fish?”
“I don’t want to. I'm grateful to them
for giving me the pretext of a fishing trip
for a holiday."
“Politics.” said Hi Ho, the sage of
Chinatown, “makes a friendship resem
ble an umbrella which you find yourself
compelled to lend, at considerable risk of
losing it.”
Thanksgiving.
Thanksgiving? There's a smile for me
Prom selfish interest quite free;
A smile of gentle tenderness
Which makes each mortal care seem less.
My gratitude is not for wealth
Nor even for long life and health.
It’s for a smile, with welcome fraught
Which tells of loyal, loving thought.
“Solomon was de richest man,” said
Uncle Eben. “His wives was so numerous
dat holes’ had to be."
r*
Proposes Solution of
Local Transit Problem
To the Editor of The Star.
Mr. C. V. Burnside, in Saturday'*
Star, defended the Public Utilities Com
mission's decision on fares and chal
lenged its critics to "invest in stock of
the Capital Transit Co., even at the
present price of $9 per share.”
Most car riders receive wagps too small
to permit purchase of stocks at any
price, cheap or dear from the investor's
standpoint. They haven’t the money,
strange as it may seem.
However, at present prices for Capital
Transit system securities, it would be
profitable to the car and bus riders, to
the system's security holders and even to
the holding company, if the city of
Washington would acquire all the assets
of the Capital Transit Co. through
the purchase of all outstanding se
curities.
At the asked price of November 13,
the total cost of acquisition would be
$13,047,300, involving a cash outlay of
$8,613,300 and the assumption of two
bond issues totaling $4,434,000. The
annual cost of the cash outlay at
three and one-fourth per cent, the
same rate as is being paid by the Poto
mac Electric Power Co., plus interest on
assumed bonds, would amount to
$461,843.
On acquisition by the city, under
competent management, a return to the
one-dollar pass and seven-and-one-half
cent fare for all District of Columbia
hues would be immediately possible, even
after allowing for taxes, depreciation
and other operating expenses equivalent
to those paid by Capital Transit. This
is no idle boast. The saving in interest
costs, on the basis of 1936 operations,
allows for reduction in fare to seven
and-one-half uniformity through the
District with a surplus to spare.
It should be noted that 1936 de
preciation charges of approximately $1.
000.000 annually would suffice to write off
the cost of acquisition in thirteen years,
while the Capital Transit Co., under its
present bookkeeping system, will need
forty years or more.
Obviously, the new system would be
in a superior position to improve its
service and reduce fares, with financial
safety thereby earning the approval and
gratitude of the citizens of Washington.
SAMUEL LIPKOWITZ.
- — ■ * ^ ■«-- . • —
Judge Curran’s Action
Incitement to Crime
To the Editor of The Star.
The Star of the fifteenth, instant
ascribes to Edward M. Curran, Police
Court judge, the most shocking state
ment that probably ever emtnated from
any court. In discharging a woman
and her two daughters, who had been
arrested and brought before him,
charged with shoplifting in three stores,
which was apparently not denied, he
is alleged to have said, among other
things: "There are times when persons
are forced to violate the law in order
to live. I feel it would be unjust to
either send you to jail or place you on
probation." The judge knew nothing of
the background of these people, or
whether this was their first ofTense of
this nature. The item states these people
came here from Roanoke, Va , to visit
another daughter, whose husband had
just been released from a hospital, and
that they were without funds. They
must have had funds enough to come
here, and surely the daughter living here
could have provided at least the bare
necessities of life, or if not, there are
charity agencies here to whom they
might have applied. This statement of
the judge is nothing more or less than
an invitation to shoplifters to indulge
in such activities with impunity, and
will undoubtedly encourage even- form
or criminal activity within the city.
Such a statement is reprehensible and
inexcusable under any circumstances,
but particularly unfortunate at the
present time, when crime is rampant
and all moral restraints seem to have
disappeared. The logical conclusion
from the judge's statement is that ones
criminal activities are measured only
by his necessities, and if they are great
enough, murder or any other crime is
justified. The judge is apparently a
supporter of the doctrine that “neces
sity knows no law. ’,
ALEXANDER SIDNEY LANIER.
Does the President Still Say
‘We Planned It That Way?’
To the Editor of The Siar
October 23. 1935. President Roosevelt
at Charleston. S. C. said:
“Yes. we are on our wav back, not by
mere chance, not by a turn of the cycle,
we are coming back more soundly than
ever before, because we planned "it that
way, and don’t let anybody tell you dif
ferently.”
Even then our recovery was slower than
the recovery in other countries.
Now it may fairly be asked what about
the Roosevelt recession—the frightful
market slump that has wiped out over
twenty-five billions in values—more than
one-third of the national income for 1937
which Is estimated by the Bureau of Ag
ricultural Economics to be “about sixty
nine billion dollars"?
Does President Roosevelt still say:
"We planned it that way?”
I. MELDRUM.
Asks Reason for Charge on
Postpaid Mail From Canada
To the Editor of The star:
Do we not have a working agreement
wdth the Canadian government covering
parcel post as well as first-class matter?
If so, I would like to know why it is on
nearly every parcel post package, which
is prepaid according to the Canadian
postal authorities, local authorities stick
on a stamp "Parcel Post Postage Due, 15
Cents” in most cases?
Repeated requests for this informa
tion at the post office has availed noth
ing. In every case it is clearly marked
that this package was passed “Free of
Duty.” This 15-cent postage due cannot
be said to cover any penalty or customs,
as customs have passed same duty free at
point of entry into the United States,
i. e.. Buffalo. N. Y.
What does this cover, or is it just an
other Instance of clerical error as they
have claimed in other instances brought
to their attention? L. R. ELKINS.
Commends Weekly Sunday
School Lesson in Star
To the Editor of The Star:
I want to express my personal appre
ciation, as well as that naturally com
ing from the president of the Sunday
School Association, to you for printing
the comments on the Sunday school les
son each week by Dr. William T. Ellis.
M&ny of our economic and social ills
can be cured by the principles of religion,
if such become part of the lives of our
citizens. As it is religion is regarded
by our children as something aside from
normal everyday living. Such things as
your paper does every week in pre
senting church affairs as news helps
to break down this improper concept.
CHAS. E. RESSER,
President, District of Columbia Sunday
i School Association. ^
I THIS AND THAT I
BY CHARLES E. TRACEWELL.
Bluff is responsible for two very tire
some people, the would-be funny man
And the know-it-all.
The second is the strange fellow who
never hesitates about expressing his
opinion on any subject in the world every
time he meets any one.
In order for any .one to do so, it would
be necessary for him to know a great
deal about everything beneath the sun.
Required knowledge would be every
thing that is known.
It is plainly evident, of course, that
the know-it-all does not know it all, but
does that stop him?
Not in the least. He is never at loss
for a comment. Try him for yourself,
on any subject, immediately he comes
back with a positive statement.
Those who know him best hope to find
him sometime without a ready reply, but
from all past indications they are going
to be disappointed.
There is positively nothing under the
sun he is not willing to discuss.
The curious thing is that the less he
knows about any given subject, the more
positive he is about every angle of it.
Bluff, just bluff, but let no one indicate
that he knows the answer; to call such a
fellow’s bluff is to violate all of the rules
in the books for getting along with peo
ple.
+ * * *
The would-be funny man is the bore
some wight who invariably has some
cute comment to make every time he
sees you.
Whether you are happy or sad. doubled
up with merriment or writhing silently
in sorrow', makes no difference to him.
Whereas the know-it-all attempts to
bluff the world he knows into thinking
him omniscient, the would-be funny man
wants to bluff them into thinking him
pleasant
Down beneath his exterior lurks a fel
low just the reverse, one who really en
joys taking sly digs at others, but who
will not admit it even to himself.
Hence that smile on his face. The
muscles almost invariably are formed so
that the mouth looks humorous at all
times.
No one should be fooled by such an
exterior.
Since bluff is the modern creed, more
so than at any time in the past, having
been adopted by all classes of society,
especially the young, it follows plainly
enough that the humor of the would-be
funny man is really not humor at all.
* * * *
Many attempts have been made in the
past to show the fundamental springs of !
humor.
Some have hitched it up with hidden !
rancor, it has been pointed out that j
basic "fun” is shown plainly enough in ]
the raucous laughter of persons who wit- I
ness some one fall on a banana peel.
Perhaps mast persons would admit that ;
it is almost impossible to resist laughing
over such mishaps of others.
Of course, there is nothing very funny j
about it when it happens to one's self! |
So much may be admitted, hence it
seems that there is some basis for the
belief that humor, at bottom, is some
thing not very nice, or really civilized.
There are vast differences between
slap-stick fun and the refined reaches of
our best wit and humor, fortunately.
* * * *
Our would-be funny fellow is really
taking a poke at us. is he, when he makes
the same cute comment every time he
meets us?
He is.
Call his bluff, either openly or secret
ly, and he is revealed as an ‘ old meanie,”
as some say, another one of the famous
male naggers.
Nagging popularly is confined to wom
en, but the truth seems to be that the
worst of this breed always are men, and
that their nagging mostly takes the form
of making the same little comment each
and every time they meet their victim.
“Catty” remarks, according to the pop
ular mind, are confined to women, but
this idea is grossly unfair to both women
and cats.
Men indulge in them far more, always
in th£ pose of being funny.
Humor, with these, is something to
cover up an unfair attack. If the victim
resents it, he is not a “good sport.”
He must take it lying down, let the
other “get away” with his nastiness.
No wonder the would-be funny man
smiles so.
* * * *
ouch people unerringly know their
victims.
The modest person they address in
such a way as to play him up, if he re
sponds, as a braggart.
If he does not respond, of course, he
is a poor sport.
He is licked coming or going.
If there ever was anything funny or
humorous or witty in the speech of these
oafs, it would be a different story.
Their prey, no doubt, would be among
the first to hail them as really funny
men, then.
* * * *
Each individual portion of the prey of
such fellows must admit that he is partly
responsible for their existence.
If each victim could avoid showing per
sonal resentment, the secret fury, re
sentment and jealousy of the funny man
might be eased at its source.
Instead of making the same old re
mark, in the same old way, he might
speak—why, he might speak of the
weather!
The weather is always good, of course.
There are thousands of conversational
topics of all kinds, open to every earnest
seeker.
The wonder is that with such a wealth
of subjects, the would-be funny man
never has a thing to say about any of
them.
* * * »:
Many troubles—we would not say all—
are brought on through ones precious
self.
Shakespeare said it long ago.
The daily victim of the would-be funny
man should realize that, if he dislikes the
fellow's manners, or lack of them, it is
his own fault.
He ought to beat him to it. and set the
conversational subject first. He ought to
love the fool!
If he dislikes him so much that he
fails to speak up first, he must suffer the
fate which the other brings upon his
not-so-innocent head.
STARS, MEN AND ATOMS
---—___.
Notebook of Science Progress in Field,
Laboratory and Study.
BY THOMAS R. HESRY.
The rabbit is coding to the rescue of j
j man against one of his most dreaded
: diseases—pneumonia
j The part in the battle which this little
! animal has been called upon to take is
explained by Dr. Rufus Cole of the
Rockefeller Institute of Medical Re
| search in the Military Surgeon, journal ]
I of the United States Army Medical
j Corps.
During the past few years specific
serums have been prepared against most
of the strains of pneumococci, the bac
terial organisms responsible for the dis
ease. The practise has been to innoeu
late horses with the bacteria and make
use of the antibodies formed in the
animal's blood. Horses, however, ap
peared not to be susceptible to some
types of pneumonia. Moreover the
molecules of the antibodies formed in
their blood were so large that they did
not diffuse as rapidly as was desirable
j in the human blood stream.
| Rabbits have been found susceptible
to at least one type to which the horse
was resistant. Also the antibodies formed
in them are smaller so that they get
through the human system more rapidly.
! One drawback has been the small
amount of blood serum which could be
obtained from a rabbit, compared to a
horse. A technique has been worked
out now. Dr. Cole reports, by which as
much as 50 cubic centimeters of rabbit
| blood can be drawn every two weeks
| without sacrificing the animal.
The pneumococci, he reports in the
same article, must be sugar-coated to be
virulent. Each organism is surrounded
by a coating of sugar which serves as a
coat of armor, protecting it from the at
tacks of the white blood cells whose
business it is to destroy invading organ
isms. There is a slight difference in the
kind of sugar which forms the defensive
j coating of each type of pneumococcus.
The function of the antibodies appears
to be to destroy this sugar coating and
leave the bacteria defenseless against the
leucocytes. Only the specific type anti
bodies will do this*. Vast quantities of
pneumococci which are not sugar-coated
can be ingested without any harm to
animals or man.
Although pneumonia still is far from
conquered, Dr. Cole points out, a great
deal has been accomplished. In 1900 the
death rate was 180 per 1.000 cases. This
had been cut down to 77 in 1932. At the
beginning of the century half the vic
tims were infants. By 1932 this ratio had
declined to one-fourth.
Pneumonia can hardly be considered,
Dr. Cole said, as a primary disease. It
very seldom occurs unless it is preceded
by a cold or by influenza.
* * * *
I he climate of the United States seems
to have been reversed from east to west
in the past 40.000.000 years.
Dr. Roland W. Brown, Geological Sur
vey paleontologist, shows the change in
clear perspective through a systematic
study of Smithsonian Institution collec
tions of fossil plants. The type of wood
land now found in the East covered
great areas of Washington, Oregon and
Idaho during the Miocene geological
period when the world's flora was taking
on much of its present form. If a pres
ent-day Virginian could be set down in
the midst of this ancient forest he would
hardly be aware of the transition in
time unless he encountered some of the
Miocene animals.
He still could gather huckelberires in
the summer and fill baskets with persim
mons and chestnuts after the first frosts.
He would recognize the pines, hickories,
walnuts, willows, poplars, birahes,
beeches, alders, oaks, elms, sycamores,
tulip trees and maples. If his time
Odyssey took place in spring he would
find magnolias, the red bud, the laurel
and the dogwood in bljsom. The pres
ent-day westerner, however, would find
himself lost in a strange woodland.
The ancient flora of the West, Dr.
Brown reports, is in strong contrast to
that found in the same regions today.
This is due in part, he believes, to a
probable changed distribution of the
rainfall throughout th? year. Species
similar to the fossils, and with apparent
ly the same climatic requirements, now
flourish in city parks of the region, where
they are systematically watered.
Dr. Brown studied the fossils from
eleven localities and augmented the pre
viously known forms with fossils col
lected by himself in Idaho and Oregon.
He was able to add several hitherto un
known species of trees. So far as known,
he says, this old woodland contained
very few of the common fruit trees of
today. A fossil collected some years ago
was erroneously identified as a peach
stone. His comparative study shows it to
have been a variety of beech nut, and
the peach loses its supposedly ancient
American lineage.
——-» -4 ■ - ■
Removal of Those Rain
Barrels a Grave Error
To the Editor of The S’ar:
I wondered myself what was causing
the high waters here of late. The Rock
Creek-Potomac Parkway was closed be
cause of high water. Marlboro pike was
closed, also Bladensburg road near the
Peace Cross. Now I learn from The
Sunday Star that the building of Green
belt caused all these high waters.
It is hardly possible that a rainfall of
2.95 inches during fourteen hours would
cause such high water.
While nine-tenths of Greenbelt was
built on old fields and badly worn farms
still quite a number of old farmhouses
were torn down to clear the town site for
the new buildings. In tearing down
these old farmhouses numbers of rain
barrels were ruthlessly destroyed. None
of this water is now held back, but runs
on down, flooding Rock Creek-Potomac
Parkway, Marlboro pike and the road
near the Peace Cross.
The buildings at Greenbelt are located
around the rim of a watershed, drained
by a water course some six or eight feet
wide though quite shallow in most places.
This watershed around which Green
belt is built is no doubt nearly one-one
hundredth part of the watershed above
the Peace Cross. You can very readily
see that doing away with those rain bar
rels was disastrous to the Anacostia
Valley.
The article in The Sunday Star
states ‘ there were no floods here for 18
years prior to 1933, when there was severe
damage.”
Rex Tugwell came to Washington in
1933.
Doubtless Neptune in sending such a
copious rainfall desires to have an
abundance of water on hand to thin
down the molasses to a consistency suit
able to serve with our hot cakes every
morning. Really, it was a heinous crime
to build Greenbelt. Our sordid urban
life, so wonderfully organized, should not
under any circumstances be disturbed.
Alleys serve fully the child's need for
play. Lawns and flowers! Of these,
woman hath no need. Only sordid,
crowded urban life she needs, that ava
rice and greed may have their wanton
way. ZACK SPRATT.
Modern Incurables
Prom the Battle Creek Enquirer-News.
Scientists have founff that the ‘‘shock
treatment” cures 50 per cent of dementia
praecox patients. But it's not advised for
reckless drivers—their cases are too ad
vanced.
ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS
BY FREDERIC J. H.4SKIN.
A reader can get the answer to any
question oj tact by writing The Evening
Star Information Bureau, Frederic J.
Ilaskin,)director, Washington, D. C.
Please iiQofe. stamp for reply.
Q. How many feathers has a turkey?
—G. B. M.
A. It has about 3,860 feathers.
Q. Why does the brain become fa
tigued?—T. W. M.
A. Fatigue is due to poisons whirh
accumulate in the body. The blood sup
ply is not able to remove the poisons
during activity, and the brain becomes
dulled due to lack of oxygen and too
much of the fatigue toxins.
Q. For whom was the Perkins high
way in New York State named?—M. B.
A. The Perkins Memorial Drive was
named in honor of the late George W.
Perkins, who had served from 1900 to
1920 as the first president of the New
York commissioners of the Palisades In
terstate Park.
Q. How long has Peru had compulsory
social security?—C. L.
A. It was introduced by a law of Au
gust 12, 1936. In February. 1937, a law
was passed amplifying and modifying
the original act.
Q Please tell how many shells the
anti-aircraft gun can fire per minute
and how many bullets a Thompson sub
machine gun can fire per minute—H.
A. The anti-aircraft gun fires from
500 to 650 shells per minute and the
Thompson gun from 500 to 600 per min
ute.
Q Of w’hat nationality is Lui.se Rainer,
the screen star?—E. L. G.
A She is an Austrian. She was born
in Vienna. Her parents were Heinz and
Emy Rainer, non-professionals. Mi.-s
Rainer started her stage career at the
age of 16.
Q. When was the Crystal Palace in
London destroyed by fire?—E. F. H.
A. The famous Crystal Palace in Lon
don. which was built for the Exposition
of Arts and Industry of 1851, was de
stroyed by fire on November 30. 1936.
The entire structure was burned with
the exception of the crystal fountain.
Q Can any one write on a typewriter
faster than a person can talk?—J. J. F.
A. It is impossible. Occasionally
speed operators give one-minute dem
onstrations in which they write a mem
orized sentence at over 200 words a min
ute. but the words in this sentence are
two and three letter words, such as in the
following sentence: "It is the duty of a
man to do me a turn and if he can he is
to do so." However, it is possible to re
peat this sentence at over 400 words a
minute, so the talkers have a wide mar
gin over the typist.
Q Who was the last surviving soldier
of the American Revolution?—G T. C.
A Daniel F. Dakeman was the last
pensioner of the Revolutionary War. He
died 86 years after the close of the war
at the age of 109 years 8 months and 8
days, on April 5, 1869. at Freedom, N. V.
Q Where is the Island of Capri?—
J. B. C.
A It is located on the south side of
the Bay of Naples, 17 miles south of the
city of Naples. The famous Blue Grotto
is on the island.
Q. Who handled the publicity for
Bruce Barton's congressional campaign?
—W. H.
A. Fred Smith, former publicity direc -
tor of Batten. Barton. Durstine & Osborn
Inc., was in charge of Mr. Barton's cam
paign.
Q Who was the character who could
not be beaten in a wrestling match so
long as some part of him touched the
earth?—C. H. F.
A In Greek mythology Antaeus was a
gigantic wrestler (son of Earth and Sea.
Ge and Poseidon', whose strength wa
invincibie so long as he touched the
| earth, and when he was lifted from it.
' his strength renewed by touching it
again. It was Hercules who succeeded in
killing this charmed giant, by lifting him
from the earth and squeezing him to
death.
Q What is the difference between a
gourmet and a gourmand?—G. A
A. The word, gourmet, means a per.-on
who is selective in his ehoice of artieles
of food. A gourmand is one who over
eats.
Q. Was there a famous American art
ist named Millet?—C. R.
A. Francis Davis Millet was a well
known painter, illustrator and journalist.
He was vice president of the National
Academy of Design and one of the or
ganizers and secretary of the American
Academy in Rome. He executed a
number of fine mural paintings, one of
which is "The Evolution of Navigation.”
Among his canvases are "A Cozy Corner. ’
j "An Old-Time Melody," "At the Inn."
| "Between Two Fires." and a portrait of
Nicholas Murray Butler. He lost his life
| in the Titanic disaster.
Q. Are most of the people in Italy
Catholics?—F. M.
A. The census of 1931 <latest i returned
41.017,369 Catholics 199.6 per cent*;
82.481 Protestants: 47,435 Jews; atheists,
I 17.474; others, 6.032.
Q. Is Revere silver considered beauti
ful as well as valuable?—O. L. K.
A. Revere was the greatest early
American silversmith. At 19 he tonic
over his father's business. Most of the
Revere silver now in existence was either
of his manufacture or made under his
personal supervision. The design was
based on English Georgian style of the
18th century, characterized by greater
! simplicity of decoration and beauty of
proportion than is usually found in Eng
lish work. The Revere silver is equal to
the best plate of any country of that
period. The tea and coffee sets are
among the finest examples of any period
of the silversmith’s art.
Q. What city Is called the German
Florence?—E. R. M.
A. Dresden is often called German
Florence because of its situation, its art
treasures, and the educational advan
tages it offers.
Q. When were barbers’ licenses first
issued?—J. R.
A. There is no definite record. In
1461 under Edwrard IV the barbers were
incorporated as barber-surgeons and
practiced the "healing art of barbery."
Q. What is the origin of the word
dunce?—E. L.
A. Duns or dunsman was a name ap
plied by their opponents to the Scotists,
or followers of Duns Scotus, the great
schoolman. When in the 16th century
the Scotists opposed the new learning
the term duns or dunce became in the
mouths of the reformers a term of abuse,
a synonym for one incapable of scholar
A

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