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CHANGE NOT MAIN
FACTOR IN CRASHES Highway Research Expert Says Survey Scouts Popular Theory. Chance does not govern a majority of automobile crashes, as is popularly believed, H. M. Johnson of the High way Research Board told the 17th annual meeting of that group today in reporting on “Detection of Acci dent-Prone Drivers.” A study based on the accident his tories of 29,531 Connecticut drivers, •elected at random and each of them licensed for at least six years, showed that reported accidents were not dis tributed among these drivers accord ing to the laws of chance, and that the discrepancy between fact and chance-expectation cannot be attrib uted to chance. The drivers whose records were •xamined. Mr. Johnson said, had an average of .04 accidents a year, which corresponds to an average of one ac cident among 25 drivers in one year. The contribution of accideni-repeaters to the total number of mishaps was quite large, and far in excess of what the laws of chance permit. In fact, the speaker said, a group of , less than 4 per cent of the operators had 40 per cent of the fatal accidents, 36 per cent of the non-fatal. personal injury accidents and 38 per cent of the accidents which involved no per sonal injuries. Drivers younger than 21, the study revealed, had a disproportionate share of all classes of accidents. Their fatal accident rate was nearly twice the average and their non-fatal rate about on* and one-half times the average. —" ■ ■ » Shanghai < Continued From First Page.) to decide locally and would be re ferred to Paris. Some 8,000 troops, including infan try. cavalry and artillery, will partici pate in tomorrow's demonstration, with Japanese airplanes flying over head. A nigh American official expressed grave concern the parade might pro voke incidents in the foreign com munities, saying: "If the Chinese fire a shot, God knows what will happen “To hold a procession at this deli cate juncture is to invite a disaster for which International Settlement authorities cannot be responsible." Brig. Gen. John C. Beaumont, United States marine commander at Shanghai, and Maj. Gen. Telfer Smollett twice have protested against the parade. Col. Andreini, commander of the Italian Grenadiers, joined in the first protest last Monday, after the Jap anese formally notified settlement authorities of their intention to pa- : rade. The colonel, however, did not J Woosung Reported Raided. Foreign naval officers said Chinese bombers raided the Japanese airfield at Woosung. down the Whangpoo River from Shanghai. Japanese de- 1 dined to comment on the report. Twenty new twin-engined bombers arrived at Hanlcow, 300 miles up the | Yangtze River from Nanking, -and i were being tuned up by Chinese pilots, j well informed and reliable foreigners I reported. The remainder of the fleet of 300 Soviet-built craft were said ; to be either at Sian, 400 miles north i and west of Hankow, or on their way from Russia. Explaining the Japanese air victory at Nanking, the Japanese spokesman said a Japanese squadron arrived at the city just as Chinese planes were about to take off. Thirty of the Soviet-built planes rose to fight the Japanese and 10 were shot down. He said there other Chinese fell victims , of Japanese fire as they attempted to flee from the airdrome. On the Yangtze Delta battleground Japanese fought their way toward ob jectives where groups of American residents were believed to be in danger. Heavy Japanese bombers showered projectiles ahead of infantry units driving toward Nanking and Wuhu, Yangtze River port 60 miles southwest of the almost-deserted Chinese cap ital. Another Japanese column was aimed at Mankchow, Chekiang Prov ince seaport to the south. Dr. R. E. Brown of Ann Arbor, Mich., forw’arded to Japanese au thorities the appeal of 24 Americans and several other foreigners that a neutral zone be established at Wuhu. Japanese authorities refused today to grant the plea for a neutral zone at Nanking. Through Father Jas quinot, French priest who obtained establishment of a Shanghai safety zone during warfare there, the Jap anese informed the committee that:' "The Japanese Army can not assume responsibility in the event that Chinese forces misbehave toward civilians or property in Nanking, but as far as consistent with military necessity the Japanese Army will endeavor to re spect the residential area outlined by Nanking’s international group.” The committee continued organiza tion of the residential area they had asked to be set aside as a refuge for the 250,000 civilians remaining here. SKIRMISHES ARE FOUGHT ON TWO SPANISH FRONTS By the Associated Press. HENDAYE, Franco-Spanish Fron tier, Dec. 2.—Spanish troops, govem r-1 ■ ment and insurgent, fought a series of localized, indecisive battles today on the Aragon and Teruel fronts. Reports from both sides said the skir mishing resulted in little change in positions. Artillerymen Joined in the fray. Government sources declared the insurgent-held town of Sabinanigo, in Northern Aragon, had been in darkness the last two nights, leading to a belief that the Electric power plant supplying a large area of the Oallego River Valley had been dam aged by Catalan gunners. Earlier government reports said Insurgents on the Toledo front, south west of Madrid, had lost heavily In five futile attacks on government positions. MRS. COVINGTON RITES Funeral services for Mrs. Virginia Covington, 28, who died Tuesday at San Antonio, Tex., will be held at 10 a m. Saturday in Fort Myer Chapel. Burial will be In Arlington National Cemetery. Mrs. Covington was the wife of First Lt. John C. Covington, stationed at Kelly Field, Tex., and the daughter of Col. E. R. W. McCabe, assistant chief of staff of the military intelll genee section of the War Department general staff here. | —-*■ An Englishman can come aero* whole sentences occasionally in Amer< lean papers which are completely uifc Intelligible to him. $4 I jB^QM880& /the best\ I Georges Cod and Maine 1 ■ potatoes, blended, seasoned I 1 and flavor-sealed in processed K I cans. The original, quality I I product. Just shape and fry. I \ CDEC with label of any Gor- m ■A rnsS ton product, mw, 40 M J\ paye. color-illustrated recipe / V book. Send to Gorton-Pew J X Fisheries, Gloucester, ^ Massachusetts. p.. a_-_.^a_^ A. A A Aw V A A Torn to TEA 1 McCormick's Mib. 1 BANQUETTEA pkf ZDC **'■*T3c | World-Famous w n>. H«b. 1 UPTON S TEA.pkf Z3C pk‘ *T3C I Orange Pekoe and Pekoe vA |b. a Q 1> lb. ^ ^ - WilkllMTEA. 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