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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor WASHINGTON, D. C. SATURDAY__December 4, 1937 The Evening Star Newspaper Company Main Office: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: 110 East 42iid St. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ave. " X. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban Regular Edition Evening and Sunday, t>6c per mo. or 16c per weeg The Evening Star_46c per mo. or 10c per weeg The Sunday Star_6c per copy Night Final Edition Night Final and Sunday Star_70c per month Night Final Star_65c per month Collection made at the end ol each month or each week. Orders may be sent by mail or tele phone National 5000. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance Maryland and Virginia Daily and Sunday_1 yr.. $10.00: 1 mo.. *6e Daily only-1 yr.. $0.00; 1 mo.. 60c Sunday only-1 yr.. $4.0C: 1 mo_ 40o All Other States and Canada Daily and Sunday. 1 yr„ $12.00; 1 mo.. $1.00 Daily only -1 yr„ $0.00; 1 mo„ TM Sunday only_1 yr., $5.00; 1 mo„ 60e Member of the Associated Press The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use lor republication ol all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news published nerem. All rights of publication ol special disp&lchei hpreln also arc reserved. The Price of Liberty. Keystones of political liberty are free dom of speech, of the press, of the pulpit. They are—at least they are supposed to be—guaranteed by the Constitution with in the limits of laws against libel and treason. In times past a great deal of emphasis has been laid upon them. Any move to curb any one of these freedoms or to punish or harass an indi vidual for exercising them should be closely examined. Something of the sort seems to have arisen in connection with the trade publication, Mill and Factory, the editor of which the National Labor Relations Board seeks to subpoena to explain the background of an article condemning that body and the law un der which it operates. Copies of this article, it seems, were distributed among employes of the Wierton Steel Company In an effort to discourage unionization. It may be that a Federal court will uphold the authority of the board to subpoena this editor. It may be that the Labor Relations Act provides au thority for such action. If this is indeed the case it will be well to have such authority very sharply defined. Offhand it would seem to constitute an intoler able nullification of the cherished free dom of the press in the rather broad field of relations between industry and labor. Once such power is placed in the hands of anybody it inevitably tends to become broader and broader. But, it might be said, the members of the Labor Relations Board are discreet, upright men. They will only exercise their powers in flagrant cases. But who knows what type of men will constitute this body next week or next year? That is precisely the method by which most tyrannies are established. There is no OTootoy f hroot tn TiKortir tVia c-nt* rendering of any broad, discretionary powers to any group of human beings, however upright and honest they may be. Doubtless the Mill and Factory article annoyed the members of the board. Perhaps it hobbled them in the perform ance of their duty. But the principle of freedom of the press is altogether too sacred a principle in America's gospel of liberty to be trifled with, regardless of who may be annoyed. Watch this move. Watch what the Federal court does about it. If freedom of the press is to be destroyed or restrict ed, let it not be destroyed or restricted by the people’s default of interest. Congressional Holiday. Tentative plans for an adjournment of the present special session of Congress on December 22 have been made. If the program is followed, there remain six teen working days for Congress, includ ing Saturdays. The special session has already run sixteen working days—and bo far no legislation has been enacted. Not one of the four major proposals of the President, crop control, wages and hours, reorganization or regional planning, has been carried through. The crop-control bill will take another week. Tire wages and-hours bill is not expected to come before the House until December 13. Entirely aside from the delay in the President's program, nothing has been done by Congress to encourage business or to halt the “recession” which has been under wTay for weeks, carrying in its path more and more unemployment. A very definite program might have been undertaken—with the repeal or revision of the burdensome capital gains tax and the undistributed profits tax. Aside from kind words, however, nothing has been done. The President has asked for a huge building program, to be aided by Government. He has proposed a reduc tion of the Federal expenditure on road building of more than $200,000,000—all Steps toward budget balancing. If the Congress does not care to re main on the job and put through the legislation which the President desires— and there seems little prospect of more than one or two of his recommendations going through by December 22—it might remain in session and take action on measures that would help halt the reces sion. Or is it more necessary to have a holiday? An adjournment by December 22 would give the Senators and Representatives ten days “off,” before the regular session opens January 3. Ten days is neither as wide as a church door nor as deep as a Well, but it may suffice. It would do away with a "constructive adjournment” of Congress—an adjournment a few hours or a few minutes before the new session is due to start. In these more enlightened days, when money1 is needed to balance the budget, a “constructive adjournment” plus the payment-of the mileage which members of Congress re 0 ceive for coming to and going from a session, would strike a sour note. On the other hand, if there is to be a ten-day interval between the closing of the special session and the opening of regular session, the question arises: Are not the members entitled to the pre scribed forty cents a mile to go and re turn from their homes? It is true that a member who lives on the Pacific Coast or in the deep Southwest could scarcely make the trip and remain more than a day or two at home. It is also true that many of the members have homes right here in Washington, to which they may cling during the holidays. No step has been taken yet to shake the mileage tree. But sooner or later a proposal to appropriate the necessary amount—a total of more than $225,000— is expected. Congress provides gener ously for its own traveling expenses— twenty cents a mile each way, or a total of forty cents a mile for the round trip. Once the money has been provided, each member is entitled to draw the mileage, and no questions are asked. • Of course, no member of Congress is thinking in terms of mileage when he proposes an adjournment of the special session on December 22. But what of the member who remains in Washington during the ten-day holiday, or who makes a short visit to New York instead of traveling to his faraway home? The urge to be off and away for Christmas is understandable. Equally understand able, however, is the demand that Con gress remain on the job and do some thing—if it can—to ameliorate condi tions. More Common Sense. More than passing interest is due the remarks made by Senator Thomas *-of Utah upon assuming chairmanship of the Senate Committee on Education and Labor this week. Plainly, he indicated it to be his intention to lend his influ ence as committee chairman to three important objectives. First named was the creation of a Cabinet department of education and welfare; second was the formulation of a comprehensive national labor policy; third was the perpetuation of the C. C. C. as a permanent institution. The Senator’s most interesting com ment was in connection with the second of these objectives, probably most im portant of the three. “It is unwholesome,” he said, “to have labor divided against itself and equally unwholesome to have labor and industry feel that their interests are necessarily divided. We have crudities of several kinds to iron out. Espionage is crude. Irresponsibility of any kind is crude. Even some of our legislation, being new, needs refinement. Labor must become more responsible for its group action than it is today. If the United States is to have a comprehensive national labor policy we must give further study to our problems. It is of importance that labor and industry of their own accord under stand each other better than they do today.” Truly, one of the most vexing “crudi ties” in the field of irsriiistrv and lahor has been the failure, seemingly willful in many instances, of both sides to under stand or acknowledge understanding of the other's point of view. Both have spoken frequently of the statesmanship within their own ranks, but too often their relationships have been marked by an absence of such quality on either side. It probably is not desirable that Gov ernment assume full responsibility for this relationship, its own shortcomings in economic statecraft have been dem onstrated on occasion, but it is encour aging that one in a position of Influ ence in this regard should speak under standing^ and impartially. Such ac tion is one of leadership in itself and along lines of such obvious common sense that it is difficult to see how either labor or industry can disregard the opinions thus voiced. II Duce Demurs. If there were any lingering doubt that Secretary Hull is on the right track in promoting his trade agreements policy as a constructive peace program, such misgivings would be dispelled by the day's news from Italy. Mussolini angrily deprecates the. United States’ plans to take the economic gunpowder out of international relations. He discerns in contemplated negotiations for an Anglo American commercial pact a heinous democratic plot to “strangle, asphyxiate, blockade and starve” Fascist peoples. In an article in his own Milanese newspaper, Popolo d’ltalia, which is understood to be the product of his own pen, II Duce at tacks the Washington theory that recip rocal economic arrangements among na tions pave the sanest and surest path to political peace. “Between gold and iron,” thunders the Fascist dictator, “the great Machiavelli chose iron, and we stand with him. In a supremely idiotic dilemma—butter or cannon—we have made our choice: Cannon!” While it is a wholly lopsided view to argue that the Hull trade plan in general, or the projected agreement with Great Britain in particular, menaces the economic security of any country, the American Secretary of State does not dissemble the view that the policy he so passionately espouses is designed to pro ject into the European situation a factor capable of displacing rivalry, suspicion and friction—the classic breeders of war —with mutual trust and benefits Which may minimize if not obliterate the war psychology which keeps Europe an armed camp. Secretary Hull earnestly believes that no more effective, realistic peace measure is conceivable. His anxiety to conclude a reciprocal pact with Britain is not only an earnest of his philosophy, but the expression of a conviction that the spectacle of the world’s two great est democracies and trading nations burying their differences is bound to be a contagious demonstration of the soundness and workability of the Amer ican theory. A concomitant of It la the belief that, while abolishing tariff hos tilities and the political dangers inher ent in them, trade agreements should also be the precursors of armament re duction and abandonment of territorial aggression programs. Secretary Hull has long held that appeasement of peoples non-self-sufficient with respect to food and raw materials must be the ultimate purpose of more fortunately circum stanced nations like the British, French and American democracies. Mussolini’s avowal that he prefers armed force to economic accommodation is at least fresh warning to all concerned as to what they have to expect from the new league of have-not dictatorships. - 1 ■ ■ ■ $ l ■ 1 ■ Apology. In an editorial yesterday discussing the Post Office patronage bill The Star referred to members of the Senate Finance Committee. The reference should have been to the members of the Senate Post Office Committee. The Star offers no explanation of the error. It is unexplainable. The Star does apologize for associating the members of the Sen ate Finance Committee with the Post Office bill. Those gentlemen have troubles enough of their own — taxes being what they are—without being in volved unjustly in the ramifications of the spoils system. Old railroad men are stepping forward with courage to admit that the steam engine has faults to be considered in spite of the manner in which the air plane defies rights of property and the laws governing human existence. A melancholy note marks the remains of a suicidal demonstration and no longer leaves as much real impression as a dispatch from Shanghai. Even death has been made the means of conveying new impressions of terror. The Santa Claus myth will be heard from this year with all its old appeal, but with some new and interesting devices relating to the extension of credit. If you have well founded credit now is the time to use it?. Wicked gambling houses are still in dicated to be flourishing in all languages. Gambling threatens to assert itself as a source of profit which can claim safety in defiance of morals. The initials “ H. O. L. C.” stand for “Home Owners Loan Corporation” and remain important in affairs because they continue to cite home owners who can still be found with money to pay taxes. A. F. of L. and C. I. O. are leaving a great deal to be argued in the State of Maryland with the U. S. Government itself as an attentive listener. As reports continue to come from Shanghai there is a combination indi cated of bad intentions with good marksmanship. Our language is not spoken with suffi cient readiness and skill in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The students of the world have an immense task before them. The season for grand opera is on as the enthusiasm for football fades. Foot ball by all reliable calculation claims the largest share of influence. Shooting Stars. BY PHILANDER JOHNSON. Disregarded. Santa is a dear old soul, Yet he stands alone. With togs beyond the style's control And whiskers all his own. While we enjoy his gentle sway And greet him with applause, What person would consent today To look like Santa Claus? v The worldly mode is still correct. While Sant seems merely quaint. The fashions wild we can’t neglect, To imitate a saint. Oratorical Brevity. “A man in your position must be care ful not to say too much.” “Of course,” answered Senator Sor ghum. "The ideal position for a states man is one so exalted that the longest speech he is personally obliged to make is ‘howdydo!’” Jud Tunkins says some men make themselves seem important because they can be tiresome for hours without any body’s venturing to stop them. Anticipation. On early shopping we agree. On Christmas morning, presently, Old Sant will merely call to see If thinks have passed off pleasantly. Beauty Contests. "Beauty contests are over for the present.” "They are,” answered Miss Cayenne, "unless some Eskimo fashion expert in troduces the sealskin bathing suit.” “He who speaks only the truth,” said Hi Ho, the sage of Chinatown, "must-be as cautious as a workman with high ex plosives.” Ultimate Aspiration. They peddle stuff that’s very bad And into scandal run— The man who makes us truly sad Is he who packs a gun. We’re starting many a moral storm To stop life’s rougher fun. Some day, perhaps, we will reform The man who packs a jjun. “De gifts of eloquence is valuable ’cordin’ to de size of de audience,” said Uncle Eben. “It’s easier to address a congregation dan it is to ’splain things to a traffic cop.” A lA Brotherhood of Taxicab Drivers Urges Limitation To the Editor of The BUr: It was with great interest that I read the editorial appearing in The Evening Star, November 29, headed, ‘‘Too Many Taxicabs.” As president of the Industrial Broth erhood of Taxi Drivers of Washington I wish to say that it is a definite objective of our organization to fight for a limit on the number of taxicabs to operate here in the District. Although we have ac complished very little in this matter, we have made our position clear before the congressional committees that have thus far had this matter before them. There are now two bills pertaining to the taxicab industry here in Washington, which have been before the Congress for the past seven years, bills which we all have heard much about—the taxicab limitation bill and the compulsory lia bility insurance bill. Why neither of these bills have ever been passed is a question to be studied. The position of the Industrial Brother hood of Taxi Drivers has been made very definitely clear to the committees at hearings on the two bills. What we want is this, and just this, and the Washington public we know is with us: We want a definite limit on the number of taxicabs to be licensed for operation as such in the District of Columbia, and we want a law to compel each of these taxi cabs to carry financial responsibility. But we do not want to be made to pay the high cost of financial responsibility with the doors wide open for some huge taxicab inter est to walk in and within a very short time extinguish the seventy to eighty per cent of independent owner drivers who now constitute the great majority of taxicab operators here in Washington. We want both of these bills, but we want the limitation bill first of all. It has been said that the financial respon sibility bill will limit the r.umber of taxicabs. I am sure the public does not want to starve the taxi men off the street, which would be the result of the passage of this bill. Huge taxicab interests will invade this city with from one to two thousand cabs, and very quickly squeeze out the independent owners. Now we say again to the Congress, first limit the number of taxicabs, and then we, the taxi drivers, will gladly accept the bill for compulsory liability insurance. E. ERWIN DOLLAR, President Industrial Brotherhood of Taxi Drivers. In Defense of Pavement Worms and Jay Walkers To tho Editor of The 8t»r: Several drivers, turned commentators in your estimable columns, continue to have it in for pedestrians, whom they hold in an esteem making it charity to exterminate the species. Slighting allu sion is made to the caliber mentis of the pavement worm as evidenced by his seeming lack of concern for his own con tinued welfare. The blame rests with the speed mani acs and uncurbed darlings of devil-may care who monopolize the concrete slaughterways, using them as nature never intended—with no relief in sight till oil grows scarce and expensive and the motor age goes into a deserved de cline. Many pedestrians are riders or drivers temporarily set down to breast the turgid streams to which at other times they so ably contribute. Crossing streets via the mathematical straight line, they avoid the awful ordeal of a little walking. At light crossings their avoirdupois is torpor personified; or, at any time, in fact, ex cept when “stepping on it.” grab his breaks when he sees ’em. If he acts torpid, put it down that he's not a real worm but a motor addict temporarily grounded. Crossing midblock, the pave ment worm feels at least as safe as when braving the pistol-shot picker-uppers at a light take-ofT. Five per cent of pedestrians may be the dumb apes one critic asserts. But the remaining 95 per cent are completely cowed, intent only upon negotiating the slaughter lanes in one piece. What really is needed is 200 more cops, alive to traffic control; 2,000 permits re voked annually Instead of 250; a drastic cut in the number of taxicabs; speed governors if the majority won’t conform. The dare-you-hit-me lads, among real pavement worms, are really rare. The reason is, my dear crying motorist— whose sacred rights are being so wan tonly trod upon—they don’t trust you more than they would a stick of dyna mite in a hot fire. And if they did trust you, how long would they last? I. H. LATIMER. Two Drivers Who Failed to Understand Traffic Signs To the Editor of The Star: Undoubtedly the Police Department should adopt a new parking sign system, for when a Representative in Congress can’t learn in a week's time what "No Parking” means, there must be some thing wrong. Perhaps the signs need editing or maybe they should be illus trated. Now I know why I have been "pinched” twice in the past few weeks— I didn't understand the signs. But for some reason I was unable to make the officers at the station understand that I didn’t understand, so I had to pay my fine (the cop wrote one ticket incor rectly) and promise that I would never commit such a misdemeanor again. Per haps it was because I’ve been here six years instead of one week, but after all I’m only a Government clerk. I wonder if Representative Connery’s position had any influence on the officer who excused him or if his conscience hurt him for removing the car. LOLA BOSWELL. , )lr - Unemployment Census Card Fails to Identify Aliens To the Editor of The Star: The “Unemployment Report Card” of the “National Unemployment Census” does not contain any questions In refer ence to aliens. There is reason to believe that these qutftions were intentionally omitted from the unemployment census card. From all of the reliable figures that have been obtained, this Government for more than three years has been giving employment to more than 2,000,000 aliens. They have had direct help in money and fuel. These blanks should have had the fol lowing questions: “Where were you bom?” “If not bom in the United States, are you a naturalized citizen?" CHARLES SHERMAN, r , ,,tr 1 Cites Need for Overhead Bridge on Lee Highway To the Editor of The 8t»r: A little foreright in traffic matters would solve much of the future traffic problems. For Instance: The new Lee boulevard cuts across Arlington Ridge road before it enters the Memorial Bridge. The terrain is ideally situated to allow for an over head bridge at Arlington Ridge road and tlfe cost would be small if done now. Future traffic will be bad at this point if Lee highway is completed as now planned. C. H. GREGG. D THIS AND THAT 1 L. £. ~ , f BY CHARLES E. TRACEWELL. Albums for record collections are a nuisance, but they serve two very ad mirable purposes: They keep the discs nicely, and they prevent overplaying. Overdoing is the curse of America, and in nothing is it worse than in music. We hear music hour after hour, all day and night long, in every conceivable place and in every possible way. Mechanical means of music making, brought to a peak of perfection, enables the honest music lover to do something even Beethoven could not—have it con stantly on tap, as it were, like water from a faucet. Just as the music masters of past ages had no running water, in our modem plumbing sense, so they had to play and listen to music within reason, too. Usually they met together once or twice a week, four persons, perhaps, to play quartets. Occasionally there was a grand concert, with the necessary rehearsals. But there was no constant dinning of music into their own and other people’s ears. * * * * The lover of the more serious music, as presented by the modern electrical discs and machines, now long out of the "canned music" category, will discover that nothing holds him down more than the albums. Whether he chooses to place them flat on the shelves or upright—we prefer the former—he will And that they are a great nuisance. Since these albums, in various forms, come down to us from the former age of the acoustical talking machine, it is queer that there has been no particular improvement in them. The envelope openings still are at the wrong end, the top, Instead of being at the side. Many of these albums are so clumsy in handling that one hesitates to take them from the cabinet. And that, of course, is where their great service comes in! Any one, or anything, who or which will keep us moderns from overdoing our music—or anything else—is doing us a genuine service. * * * * Another failure of many of the albums is to lie flat, when the leaves are turned over. Often the records not desired are left standing up in the air. This gives the careful collector a case of nerves, as he sees his masterpieces in danger of warping. Warping, of course, is not so serious a matter, with the newer machines to play them on. It was on the older phonographs that such records tended to play "sour.” Still, a warped record is not desirable. There is warping and warping, of course. Probably not one record in a hundred, even today, is absolutely and mathemati cally flat. It makes no difference, with elec tricity doing the work. * * * a The careful record enthusiast will de sire his discs to be as flat as humanly possible. No doubt the record makers aim at that perfection, too. Whether discs should be stacked, one on top of another, or set on edge, closely together, remains a question with many. Maybe it is significant that dealers in variably set them on edge, in their heavy green envelopes. Purchasers should alwa^p keep the thin paper jackets on their records, un less albums are used. If these contain ers are placed one on top of another, the weight Is probably enough to keep the board covers from warping. There can be little question that cardboard, even of the heaviest variety, has a tendency to curl. If records were placed face down in an album whose bottom, or back, cover, had a decided bow to It, especially of the upward sort, the records might in time become bowed. * * * * Hence It may be believed that these albums are not an unmitigated joy to the collector. The record people have experimented with them over the years, and are forever changing their physical make-up. Evidently they are not satis fied, themselves. Advent of the two and three pocket albums Is a good thing. These are light, and easier to handle. There is far less danger of a record slipping out, if one happens to grow careless. Less weight is very desirable, all things considered. A dozen twelve-inch discs make a handful; If one happens to lose sight of which end is the open end, a disc may fall out. One may wonder why a small clasp cannot be placed over the open end, so that such a catastrophe simply could not happen. ♦ * * * Albums, from the nuisance sidflf re quire a rather large space for ease of handling. Nothing less than a large table, free of other objects, will do. for when the leaves are spread the total across is between twenty-four and twenty-eight inches. If the album one desires is at the bot tom of the pile, the remainder must be lifted out. one by one, and placed some where while the one sought is retrieved. A good trick is to turn the album, so that the top, or open, end is at the right hand, so the records can be pulled out with a right-handed and therefore nat ural motion. Some albums are so hard to handle that they require, two persons. Their nuisance value is high. There is no real loss, however, since all such small troubles tend to prevent overplaying. The ease with which we may have music today must be fought against at all times. Tonal values are too fragile, being simply sound waves, intangibles— yet how mighty!—to permit brutal han dling by anybody. If we permit others to assault our ears all the time, or have no more regard for our own musical appreciation than to try to do the same to ourselves, we run a very grave risk. Overplaying music, in any way, gives even the real musician a certain sense of being ill at ease, a vague, undefined but nevertheless very real malady. This is musical overdoing. Not all per sons are alike, of course, in this more than in any other matter. But when re produced music, in particular, does not sound ‘ right,” although the same com bination has sounded exquisite before, rest assured that the old truth has been proved again: “Too much of anything is bad.” Albums help. STARS, MEN AND ATOMS Notebook of Science Progress in Field, Laboratory and Study. BY THOMAS R. HENRY. It just does not add up. Somebody, somewhere, ought to be paying us Americans a good weekly wage for undergoing whatever inconvenience there may be to living. The United States Bureau of Stand ards has been in operation for thirty years. It will celebrate its theoretical thirtieth birthday Monday and Tues day. Now not a year has gone by that the physicists of the bureau have not discovered a variety of things that have saved the American people millions and even billions. The aggregate of the sav ings during this third of a century make the astronomical deficits of the National Government small change. And yet, somehow or other, the bills come around the first of every month. ‘‘How many millions did you save today?” is a bromidic joke among Bu reau of Standards physicists and chem ists. What becomes of all those millions? But when one thinks it over a little the paradox begins to solve itself. These savings have been put into a gigantic trust fund for the future of man. And every one of us actually is getting the daily dividends on this fund in the forms of thousands of things that enrich our lives. We can have for a few pennies hundreds of commodities and experiences that the richest man in the world thirty years ago couldn’t have bought with all his millions. And today the poorest tramp wouldn’t take as a gift the rattle trap automobile for which the late An drew Carnegie paid thousands, and which, he gave willing testimonial, must represent about the limit of perfection in land transportation. Bureau of Standards researches, in col laboration with those of automotive engi neers in industry, have resulted in the savings of untold millions in the con struction of automobiles. What has be come of all these millions? They have been invested in hundreds of thousands upon hundreds of thousands of new and better automobiles, pleasure, health, longer lives—in some Instances, of course, shorter and faster lives also—and alto seiner an aaaea richness of existence of inestimable value. These savings are entered on the account book of every American. Money, after all, is only a medium of exchange. It is the things to be exchanged that constitute true wealth. And in this respect every one of us has vastly more, in a certain segment of hu man wealth, than Mr. Carnegie in his wildest dreams ever could have hoped to have. A good part of it might be con verted into a cash saving, if folks were willing to live that way. By and large, these Bureau of Stand ards researches, extending into almost every phase of the machine age civiliza tion in which we live, have given all of us vastly more to spend—a great catch' all of wealth not contained in bank vaults or underground fortresses, but open for anybody to dip in and take a handful whenever he needs it. Few more glorious roles have been played in history than that of this Gov ernrqent bureau. Actually, it is learned from the historical sketch prepared by Dr. H. D. Hubbard of the bureau staff, it was started with a staff of fourteen in 1901, a sort of nondescript group at the time. In 1904, when its staff had in creased to'flfty-two, it moved out in the woods to its present location at Connec ticut avenue and Van Ness street and the tribulations which the scientists suffered from the depredations of chiggers around the place constitute one of the bureau’s legends. But by 1907 it was ready to go, [ its buildings in order, its men making progress on fundamental researches which since then have changed the face of the world. Then it made its first appearance before the public and had its first birthday party. A sort of leap year baby—this Bureau of Standards—and entitled to change its own birthday. The institution has gone infinitely be yond its original purpose—that of testing the qualities of materials purchased for the Federal Government. It has carried out this function, and if it hadn’t the much-discussed national deficit would be vastly greater than it is now. But test ing has required researches to find out how to test. To determine the qualities of a specific product one must know all about that product—and in learning all about a lot of things the Bureau of Standards has made its everlasting mark in the world. It has weighed the earth. It has ex plored the interior of the atom. It has measured the heat of the farthest stars. It has gone down into the mysterious depths of absolute cold, where creation stands still. It has gone upward into the white fire of the sun's exterior. It has made better false teeth and better silk stockings for milady. It has explored with uncannily delicate instruments the desolate deserts of the planet Mars. It has measured the tensile strengths of blond hair and brunette hair, thereby rendering beauty parlors safe for democ racy. It has trapped the heat of the sun and changed it into electricity. It's activities have extended from beer bottles to cosmic rays, from kiddie cars to the ineffable elixer of light that pervades creation. And out of the absolute cold, the dis tant stars, the insides of atoms it h& brought back to America wealth com pared to which the wealth of the Incas was an insignificant trifle. It has made every American rich—maybe, too rich. The gold of the Indies ruined Spain. Perhaps the wealth brought out of the invisible world that surrounds us by these Bureau of Standards explorers will ruin America. Some philosophers think so. And then again it may have placed us on the threshold of a destiny so glorious that it transcends imagination. Some philosophers think that also. » Select Administrative Workers From Jobless To the Editor of The Star: Twenty per cent of the Works Progress Administration administrative forces were never on relief and are holding Jobs that they can well afford to give up and make room for many of the destitute unemployed. Take for instance the Federal theater, art and music projects in New York City and particularly those localities in other parts of New York State, and here you will find the administrative forces are non-reliefers, or those never on relief, but who have been certified for relief to re tain their Jobs. To carry cases like these on a Federal relief pay roll and let desti tute men with families walk the streets is almost beyond belief, but it is a fact. Why not slash the W. P. A. 20 per 1 cent right now, and replace with men and women who are in dire need of em ployment to keep the wolf from the door. S. ALEXSON. Too Many Masters. From the Ooih.n (Ind.) Ncwi-Democrit. A 13-year-oid San Francisco girl asked annullment of her marriage so she could return to school. Nope; love and career just won’t mix. Not Too Old to Learn. From thi Naihvilli Banner. Bernard Shaw says he is too old to make a speech. Maybe he is just old enough to know better. A. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY FREDERIC J. HASKIN. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau, Frederic J. Hatkin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply. Q. Was Maureen O’Sullivan, the movie actress, bom in this country?—W. F. A. Miss O’Sullivan was bom at Bayle, Ireland. Q. How many times were horses shot under Napoleon while he was in bat tle?—S. M. A. Nineteen horses were shot dead under him. Q. What determines whether a State shall have a Representative at large in Congress?—M. D. A. The apportionment based on the 1930 census was made by the method of major fractions. Considering a House • of Representatives with 435 members, each State has as many Representatives as the whole number of times 279,712 was contained in the total population of the State, plus an additional Representa tive if the fractional remainder wa3 greater than one-half. Q. How many ships have a tonnage of over 50,000?—J. L. A. There are five ships in the world with registered gross tonnages above 50,000. Q. Explain magnification and light in tensity.—J. F. G. A. Magnification is the ratio of the magnitude of the image to the magni tude of the object expressed in diam eters of the object. Light intensity means the quantity of light per unit*area. Q. What is an elephant-shrew?—W. H. A. It is an insect-eating mammal re sembling the rat. The popular name alludes to its peculiar, elongated nose, which looks like an elephant's trunk. The hind legs are long and out of all proportion to the fore legs and fit the animal for jumping. Elephant-shrews are confined to Africa. Q. Please tell something of the Dra conian laws in ancient Greece. A. The Draconian laws are noteworthy primarily for their cruelty. The death penalty was attached to almost all crimes, even the petty ones. This code of Draco is said to have made the first legal distinction between voluntary and involuntary homicide and to have made a murderer liable to punishment by the state. Theft was made punishable by death and debt exposed a man to the danger of slavery. The 51 ephetae or special judges were probably Draco's creation. Q. Do people often get airsick on com mercial airplanes?—C. S. A. The large airlines say that airsick ness is very rare and occurs or.ly in verv rough weather. There is much less air sickness than seasickness or carsickness. Q. Who was the fair Rosamond?—E. W. H. A. This was the common appellation of the daughter of Lord Clifford, wdio became the mistress of Henry II. A pop ular legend says she was kept by the King in a bower at Woodstock which was reached by a labyrinthine passage known, only to him. Legend also adds that in 1176 she was discovered and poi soned by Queen Eleanor. Q. Is the United States represented somewhere in France by a consul who is a Negro?—A. H. A. The consul at Calais is a colored man. Q. Please give a biography of Roger Martin du Gard. winner of the 1937 Nobel prize for literature.—L. W. A. Roger Martin du Gard is a member of the board of the French literary publi cation Les Nouvelles Litteraires. Born at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1881, he studied at the University of Paris and the Ecole des Chartes and became an archivist and paleographer. His first published work was a monograph about the Abbaye de Gumieges. In 1909 his first novel. “Devenir,” was published. Four years later “Jean Barois” came out. He began to publish the series of "Les Thibault?” in 1922. M. du Gard is married and has one daughter. He lives at 10 Rue du Dragon in Paris. Q. What is embracery?—C. J. H. A. It is an attempt to corrupt or influ ence a jury by money, promises, letters, threats or persuasions. Q. Who discovered beet sugar?—C R A. The discovery of sugar in the beet was made by a German chemist. MarE graf. as early as 1747. Little progress wa? made until 50 years later when another German chemist. Achard. succeeded in extracting sugar from the beet root on a comparatively large scale. Q. In what play is the line, “A rose by any other name would smell a? sweet?”—V. R. A. It Is from the second act of “Romec and Juliet”: “What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other nanit would smell as sweet.” Q. Who invented the method of re enacting a crime by photography?—C. H A. The method of reconstructing a crime by photography and rehearsing it in the way it was probably perpetrated was the invention of Alphonse Bertillon, although the idea is said to have been harrowed from Gaboriau., Q. How old Is Josef Hofmann, the [ pianist?—H. T. A. Josef Hoffmann will be 62 years ok. on January 20. Q. Who was the prince who led hi army from a sick bed?—W. J. A. Edward the Black Prince was so 11) that he was carried in a litter to lead hi.* army against Limoges, which he captured and burned, putting many of the Inhabi tants to death. Q. Is kiln-drying of lumber for furni ture a much shorter process than air drying?—K. W. A. Kiln drying takes from two week.! to a month, while air drying takes two years or more. Q. Where is the body of the late Pres ident Wilson buried?—M. E. H. A. It Is buried in the crypt of the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, Mount St. Albans, Washington, D. C. % Bulls and Bears From the Charleston (W. Va.) Mall. During the last two years a new high has been set for the number of interna tional conferences—and a new low foi international co-operation. Speed the Day! From the Fort Wayne News-8entlnel. Some day some radio announcer Is go- * lng to talk in a normal voice and at i normal rate of speed and every other an nouncer is going to wonder why he dU not think of it first.