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State Socialism Administered
By Despotic Dictator in Russia Communism Is Goal, However, but Country Does Not Expect to Get There for Several Hundred Years. (What is happening in purge stricken Russia these days? The Chicago Daily News sent one of its most experienced observers to Rus sia to answer this and other vital Questions. His findings are set forth in a series of articles, of which this is the sixth.) By JOHN T. WHITTAKER, Chicago Dally News Correspondent. MOSCOW.—“I have made a list," said an important Ambassador in Mos cow," of 18 ways in which the Soviets are abandoning Communism.” You would have thought from the way he talked that Russia in a few years would be exactly like the United States, England or any other capitalist country. The trouble Is the Ambassador has his definitions mixed up. The Rus sians haven’t got Communism here and have never claimed They de fine Communism as “a society in which the state has disappeared and government over persons is replaced by an administration of things.” In the Soviet Union today the state ts all powerful. Inequality of wages still exists and is encouraged. The profit motive still exists and is encour aged. The Communistic notion of each person giving according to his ability and receiving according to his needs is distinctly discouraged as some thing for the Utopian future. Goal Is Far Distant. Communism is the goal and the Russians don't expect to get there for several hundred years—If ever. Mean while Russia lives in a socialistic state under the “temporary dictatorship of the proletariat." America is demo cratic, but here state socialism is be ing administered by a despotic dicta torship in a backward agricultural country, 90 per cent of whose popu lation were slaves to be bought and sold less than 100 years ago. The profit motive has been reintroduced, just as Lenin back in the early days of the revolution beat a retreat to the “new economic policy” which tempo rarily restored free trading in the mar kets. The profit motive does not make Russia like the United States, however. The essential difference between Russia and a capitalist country re mains vital and unchanged. No Rus sian can appropriate the fruits of an other's labors. The means of produc ing wealth remain in the hands of the state. Banks, factories, plants and transportation belong to the state. Co operative stores, collective farms and handicraft shops are not owned indi vidually, but jointly. Employer Is Limited. For instance, a Russian can hire a girl to cook for him or a man to do the heavy work around the house. But he cannot buy or rent a corner location, put in a restaurant and hire hundreds of girls to cook and serve in order to make money for himself. And he cannot get 20 men, like the man around his house, to be porters at the railroad station to make money for him as well as for themselves. Porters at the railway station belong to a co-operative—the workers them selves own the enterprises and divide the profits. The Russian cannot appropriate the wealth created by the labor of others and he cannot put money to work for him. A writer like Katayev makes a lot of money and an Arctic explorer like Schmidt gets a big lump hono rarium from the government. Both can save their money in a bank, and even invest it in state bonds. But neither can use it to finance and or ganize a plant to make milk choco late bars, for instance, which are scarce, but much fancied by the Rus sian, who will pay as much as 11 rubles ($1.40) for a single nickel bar. A few individual craftsmen, small shopkeepers and private practitioners are alolwed to hang on, of course. They are negligible exceptions. The "business” of Russia is conducted to day by some 75.000 large-scale enter prises owned and operated directly by the state and some 25,000 large and small co-operatives and collectives. In the state ente prise all workers belong to unions which negotiate wages, hours and working conditions. The union is absolutely under the control of the government which owns the factory so that in reality it is only a company union with the cards stacked against the worker. Through the plant com EDUCATIONAL. mlttee which they select themselves they do advise the director who must also listen to the party “cell.” In the co-operatives there are no salaries; income derived from the sale of goods and services is divided among th* workers according to work performed. A state factory or a co-operative is under a trust which is under a com missariat which is under the planning commission which is under Stalin himself. Stalin and the planning commission can decide arbitrarily what percentage of industrial Income h: wants to put into capital plant ex pansion (one-quarter of the 1937 bud get of 98,000,000,000 rubles is for new investments); what price he wants to, fix for any or all articles on the market, whether to raise wages as he has just done in several instances. Must Adjust Prices to Wages. Since the state owns and controls everything Stalin's program in theory is quite simple; merely how to adjust prices to wages—a simple bookkeeping transaction which gives everybody em ployment and all the consumer goods they need. In the future Utopia this theory may work. Just now Russia is in a crisis, and the theory is condi tioned by the Spartan program to industrialize the country, the Japa nese and German arguments for di verting great wealth into the military establishment and the backwardness of the Russian workers whose capacity to produce is the chief problem of Stalin today. The accomplishments are great and _EDUCATIONAL. the failures, too. It Is Incredible that the Marxist system has worked at all given the agricultural situation of backward Russia, when Marxism Is predicated on industrialism. Despite the Ambassador and his 18 depart ures from "Communism,” the Soviets have staked all on state Socialism. Stalin acts on the words of Lenin: "Our doctrine is not a dogma, but a guide to action—not a sacred theory, but a working tool.” More pertinent is what Stalin said In 1931: "We are from 50 to 100 yea* behind the advanced countries,” he said: “we must run through this dis tance in 10 years.” (Copyright, 1038, by Chicago Dally News.) CAB INSURANCE BILL HITS SNAG IN SENATE Senator George, Acting for Absent Member, Asks Measure Be Postponed. The bill to require all taxicabs in the District to carry insurance struck a snag in the Senate again yesterday. It passed the House last August. The measure was reached yesterday during consideration of the calendar under the unanimous consent rule, when one request is sufficient to obtain postponement. Majority Leader Bark ley said the bill is an important one affecting transportation In the District, and that he doubted whether It should be taken up on the unani mous consent call of the calendar. Chairman King of the District Committee was prepared to explain the measure, when Senator George, Democrat, of Georgia asked that it be postponed. Senator George ex plained later he had made the re quest for an absent member. The bill will remain on the calen dar for consideration again later as the session progresses. Argentine Likes U. S. Cigarette. Smokers of Argentina now prefer American cigarettes to those from any other foreign country. Accountancy Pace Course*: B. C. S. and M. C. S. Degrees. C. P. A. Preparation. Day and Even ing Classes; Coeducational Send for 31st Year Book. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN UNIVERSITY llOO 16th Stmt. N.W. at L MET.2S1S -,--i Secretarial Courses STRAYER courses have qualified thousands for positions of leadership in business and government. SECRETARIAL courses are designed espe cially for academic, general, and commercial high school graduates. SPECIAL intensive course in shorthand and typewriting for mid-year graduates who ex pect to enter college in September. SUPERIOR employment service is main tained for graduates. Over fifteen hundred calls received annually. NEW YEAR TERM BEGINS JANUARY 10 Day and Evening Sessions Catalogue on Request 13th and F Streets P. J Harman NAtional 1748 Director STRAYER COLLEGE Woodward & lothrop 10™ 1 1th F and G Streets Prone District 5300 January Reductions "Pocket” $26 to $166 and Have a Chic Fur Coat Reduced from our regular stock of beautifully made, excellently styled coats, notable for fine pelts and workmanship. 20 Coats in seal-dyed rabbit, beaver-dyed rabbit and black or brown pony. Were $129.75. Now_ 25 Coats in leopard cat, silver muskrat, brown or gray caracul, brown or black pony, gray Persian paw and SI CQ gray kidskin. Were $195. Now_ 30 Coats in seal-dyed muskrat, fitch, muskrat, raccoon, ^ ~ caracul or Persian lamb. Were $225. Now_ 199 8 Coats of Alaska sealskin in black or Safari brown. *-***r\ Were $495. Now_ \529 4 Coats of China mink. Were $495. Now __ — *359 Also other groups at savings, priced from $47.75 to $1,595 Pom, Thud Ploo*. Children’s Warm Wool Snow Suits Reduced 45 Girls' Two-Piece Snow Suits of soft virgin wool, warmly lined. Chic hats to match. Attractive Ci/x qc; green, navy and brown. Sizes 8 to 16. Were ^11 $13.95. Now_ IV/ 59 Juveniles' One and Two Piece Snow Suits of virgin wool and wool-and-cotton. Hats to match. Styles for boys and girls. Green, navy, brown, red. Sizes 3 to 6. 40 Were $10.95 Sg.95 15 Were $7.95 $5*95 Onu* An Juvnaun* Afpaul, Tovm Ftooa. Woodward & lotiirop 10™ 11™ F AND G Streets Pjionts District 5300 Save in This ^ Well-Known Electric Refrigerators Positive cooling . . . easy to keep clean . . . more sanitary . . . more convenient.. . more attractive ... Just a few reasons why the modern housewife takes such pride and derives so much pleasure from an electric refrigerator. Trade in your old refrigerotor on one of these inexpensive-to-run modern ones now, at these clearance prices. —Norge Refrigerators Reduced— Model S-52-37, approximately 54 inches high, four shelves, three regular ice trays making 63 ice cubes. Porcelain finish interior and Norgloss finish exterior. Has defrosting tray, hydro- $ I O Cl .50 voir, electric light, ice tray release. Was $167.50- l 1 Standard Model S-62-37, approximately 58 inches high, four shelves, four regular ice trays making 84 ice cubes. $| yf Q.50 Other features same as above. Was $188.50- \*rCm 1 De Luxe Model N-52-37, approximately 58 inches high, four shelves, three regular and rubber ice tray; makes 83 ice cubes. Porcelain finish interior and Norgloss finish exterior. Has hydrovoir, defrosting tray, electric light, ice tray release, movable insert shelf, bottle SI C|T fl rack, sliding utility basket and egg basket. Was $189.95— U 1 —Universal Refrigerators Reduced— 1 Model D-8, approximately 64 inches high, six ice trays, 141 ice cubes, four shelves. Acid-resisting porcelain interior, chill tray, removable baskador, automatic interior flood lighting, nine-point cold control. De signed and built for a lifetime of trouble-free, economical operation. Cooled by the famous ice cycle system, operating with the smoothness of a rolling ball ... only three moving parts ... amazingly silent. Was $269.50_ Am\J Am 1 Eight-cubic-foot Universal Cooler Refrigerator, Dulux SIHH finish. Was $189.50- Iv/W Deferred Payments May Be Arranged for a Slight Additional Carrying Charge Electeic Appliances, Sixth Flooe. Bed Room Furniture (jready Reduced Boudoir Chairs 18 In brown, orchid, blue or green rayon cover with re versible seat cushion. Were $9.75. Now__$7.25 18 Ottomans to match above * boudoir chairs. Were *1.25. Now _ $1.25 1 With blue rayon taffeta cover and tufted seat and back. Was $22. Now, $16.75 2 Club type, with reversible seat cushions and tufted back. Blue striped rayon cover. Were $29.50. Now, $19.75 1 Pillow back chair with blue rayon taffeta cover, rever sible seat cushion. Was $39.50. Now..$27.50 7 With tufted pillow back, reversible seat cushion. Covered in rose or blue fig ured ckintz. Were $16.50. Now . $12.25 Bros and Bedding, Sixth Flo< Pillows 12 Gray Goose Feather Pil low* with tan and white striped cotton ticking. Were *3.50. Now .*2.50 Comfortable Attractive Sofa Beds 12, choice of green, rust, or brown, open into twin or double beds. Were *47.50. Now . .*34.50 6 Covered In rust cotton tap estry, open into single or double bed. Were *49.50. Now . *34.50 1 Studio Couch in rust-col ored cotton tapestry cover, reversible back cushions. Was *54.50. Now_*39.50 i Springs and Mattresses 1 Innerspring Mattress, dou ble size, covered with blue brocaded cotton damask. Was $54.50. Now_$37.50 1 Double Size Box Spring, with gray brocaded cotton damask ticking. Was $49.50. Now .. $37.50 1 Double Size Innerspring Mattress with blue cotton daipask ticking. Was $29.75. Now -$22.50 1 Double Size Box Spring with blue cotton damask ticking. Was $29.75. Now, $22.50 1 Innerspring Mattress, sin gle size, covered in gold rayon ticking. Was $59.75. Now . $39.50 1 Layer Felt Mattress with tan and white striped cot ton ticking. Was $29.50. . Now - $19.75 1 Custom-built Box Spring, single size with blue rayon taffeta ticking. Was $65. Now - $39.50 Men's and Young Men's Suits and Overcoats From Regular Stock greatly Reduced Tn MBrt Stou, Bacon Tux*. Woodward & lothrop ' IO™ ll™ F *«ro G Street* Prom district 1300 FRIDAY REMNANTS Remnant Day Merchandise is not returnable or exchange able; not sent C. 0. D. or on approval; telephone or mail orders not accepted. Playing Cards, 58c box 50 boxes playing cards, 2 decks to the box. 100 packages Christmas Notes. Originally 25c to SI. Now -10c to 50c 50 packages Writing Paper. Were 50c and $1. Now _25c and 50c 300 packages Christmas Wrapping Paper and Ensembles. Assorted designs and colors. Were 10c to 25c. Now -5c to 15c 50 packages Paper Plates, 6 nine-inch plates to a package. Brown and Dubonnet. Were 10c. Now_6c Stationery, Aisle 4, First Floor. Furs Reduced 1 Brown Kidskin Swagger. Size 20. Was <149 50. Now _ $75 I Leopard Swagger Coat. Size 16. Was $425. Now, $269.50 1 Black Alaska Sealskin Swagger. Size 16. Was $495. Now.. $295 1 Manchurian Ermine Swagger. Size 18. Was $425. Now -- $239.50 2 Kidskin Jackets. Brown and black. Size 16. Were $125. Now - $65 1 Black Caracul Coat, Silver Fox Collar. Size 16. Was $298. Now_$159.50 2 Grey Persian Paw Swaggers. Sizes 16, 18. Were $195. Now - $145 1 Black Persian Lamb Coat. Size 18. Was $350. Now - $260 1 Black Persian Lamb Jacket. Size 14. Was $275. Now _ $199 1 Gray Caracul Swagger Coat. Size 18. Was $250. Now _ $187.50 2 Seal-dyed Rabbit Coats. Sizes 37'i, 16. Were $129.75. Now _ $95 2 White Lapin Swaggers. Sizes 18, 20. Were $49 75. Now .... ___ . .. _ $35 1 Skunk Bolero Jacket. Size 16. Was $175. Now $129.75 1 Dyed American O’Possum Jigger Coat. Size 18. Was $195. Now__ __ _ $145 1 Beaver-dyed Rabbit Swagger. Size 14. Was $110. Now _ _ ... _ $74.25 1 Natural Gray Chinese Kidskin. Size 18. Was $275. Now .. ___ _. ___ $169.50 1 Pahmi Swagger. Size 20. Was $175. Now ... $129.25 1 Gray Persian Lamb Swagger Coat. Size 16. Was $295. Now ... $169.50 2 Double Silver Fox Scarfs. Special_ $129.75 Furs, Third Floor. Glace Fruits Reduced Attractively packed in inlaid wood boxes. 10, 8-ounce, were 85c. Now _59c 8, 16-ounce, were $1.65. Now___ $1 7. 2-pound, were $2.50. Now __ $1.50 10 Glare Fruits in club shape dishes, 8-ounce size. Wpre 60c. Now . .. ... 45c 10, 16-ounre packages Glace Fruit. Were $1. Now...75c 9, 8-ounce packages Glace Fruit. Were 60c. Now 45c 37 Two-Pound Keebler Fruit Cakes. Were $1.25. Now 85c 2 Four-Pound Fruit Rings. Were $125. Now..._90c 35, 1-pound packages Cresca Cluster Raisins. Were 35c. Now - 25c 31, 1-pound tins Assorted Nut*. Were $1. Now 65c 22, 14'2-ounce packages Fresh California Deglet Noor Dates. Were 45c. Now _25c German Lubkuchen, made in Nurnberg. 5, 3-ounre packages, were 15c. Now_10c 22, 3-ounre packages, were 25c. Now_15c 8, 10'x-ounce packages, were 75c. Now_50c 21, 5-ounce packages, were 35c. Now_25c 11, 8-ounce tins, were $1. Now __75c 8, 15-ounce tins, were $1.75. Now_$1 Glace Fruits. 11, 6-ounce packages, were 23c. Now_15c 4, 16-ounce boxes, were 60c. Now _40c 6, 16-ounre packages, were 50c. Now_30c 12, 16-ounre baskets, were 65c. Now_40c 11, 18-ounce packages, were 75c. Now_50e 7, 20-ounce round baskets, were 90c. Now_65c 3, 28-ounce oval boxes, were $1.75. Now_$1 4, 214-pound round baskets, were $1.25. Now_73c The Food Shop, Fifth Floor. China Reduced 7 Covered Vegetable Dishes of English earthenware In odd patterns. Special_ _ 75c 12 Lenox Ivory Candle Holders in plain and embossed design. Originally $3.50 each. Now_.... 75c 1 Hand-painted Metal Serving Tray, red. As 1s. Originally $3.50. Now _ 75c Hand-Painted Italian Ware, grape design 2 Large Salad Bowls. Were *3.50. Now_*1.75 1 Baker. Originally $1.50. Now . _...65c Hand-Painted Italian Ware, sailboat design 1 Large Chap Plate. Originally $3.50. Now.$1.65 1 Chop Plate. Originally $2.50. Now_$1 1 Platter. Originally *1.35. Now_65c 1 Platter. Originally $1.25. Now_50c 1 Baker. Originally *1.35. Now_50c 18 Fruit and Sauce Dishes. Originally 30c. Now_10c 11 Teacups and Saucers. Were 60c. Now,..30c 11 Plates. Originally 45c. Now.....15c 6 Plates. Originally 30c. Now_10c Blue-Banded American Earthenware 4 Sugar Bowls with Covers. Originally $1.35. Now ...45c 2 Covered Vegetable Dishes. Originally $2.75. Now . 95c Odd I«t Pottery, slightly chipped and damaged, greatly reduced. China, Fifth Floor. Rugs Reduced Seamless Broadloom Wool Rugs 6x9 Persiantwist Tan. Was $44.10. Now_$29.75 12x7 Blue Duratwist. Was $67.80. Now_$47.50 12x4.2 W. St L. Cedar Broadloom. Was $31.20. Now $19.75 12x6.9 India Red Duratwist. Was $65.55. Now_$39.50 3.6x5.10 Desert.Tan Duratwist. Was $13.85. Now $7.95 12x7.6 Desert Tan Duratwist. Was $72.30. Now „ $47.50 9x7.5 Heather W. St L. Broadloom. Was $48.20. Now $29.75 12x13.9 Blue Duratwist. Was $118.80. Now _ $76.5# 12x11.9 Apple Green Duratwist. Was $98 02. Now..$59.75 27x27 Cedar W. St L. Originally $2.95. Now.. $1 2.3x3.6 Blue. Were $4.60. Now..$2.75 2.5x5 Blue. Was $7.40 Now...$3.95 3x3 Brown. Was $6.75. Now...$3.95 2.3x4 Burgundy. Was $5 25. Now.$2.65 2.8x4.8 Red. Originally $9. Now-$2.45 30x54 Green. Originally $8. Now-$3.95 Seamless Axminster Wool Rugs 6x9. Was $32.75. Now.$1».75 9x12. Was $49.50. Now ..$29.95 8.3x10.6. Was $49.50. Now. $29.75 American Oriental Wool Rugs 9x12. Was $59.75. Now.$37.95 9x12 Fine Quality. Discontinued pattern. Was $195. Now .-.-.$129.58 9x12 Kara Khtra American Oriental Rag* Discontinued pattern. Waa $125. Now-$79.50 9x12 Guibtaa Bug. Discontinued pattern. Was $160. Now ..-..$119.59 Anglo Persion Worsted Wilton Rugs 9x12. Was $125. Now- $87.59 8.3x19.6. Was $115. Now.$76.25 444 square yard Remnant of linoleum. Am la. Originally $14. Now...... .$3.50 5 square yard Remnant of Linoleum. As la. Originally $12.50. Now.. __$3.75 8x19 Super Quality Chinese Rug. Was $295. Now... $195 2—2.6X4.6 Approximate Size Persian Oriental Rugz. Were $29.75. Now .___- $15.75 3.8x6 Approximate Size Karabaugh Caucasian Oriental Rug. Was $69.50. Now__ $39.50 36x63 Tufted Linea Rug. Was $21.85. Now $13.75 9x12 Hooked Wool Rug. Wool and Ramie, as Is. Was $74.50. Now ..--- ... -- 539.95 2—9x12 -Texture .Broadloom Rugs. Were $59.50. Now _ .$36.75 6—27x59 Hooked Design ChenlUe Rugs. Were $4.95. Now ..-. $2.95 8x12 Wool Wilton Rug. Was $58.50. Now.$36.95 Rugs am Lutoliuv, Fifth Floor.