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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, February 10, 1938, Image 10

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With lastly Marais* tdltlea
THURSDAY.February lb, ISIS
The Evening Star Newspaper Company
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Member of the Aasocimted Press
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the use for republication of all news dispatches
credited to It or not otherwise credited in tnii
paper and also the locel news published herein.
All rights of publication of special dispatches
herein also are reserved.
Union Leadership.
Union leadership in industry today
faces a real test. Fortunately for the
country and for the workers who make
up a great part of the population this
leadership is giving serious considera
tion to the need for aid to "business."
The American Federation of Labor,
through its executive council, has put
forward a program for the improvement
of conditions. It recommended that the
Government help business through the
repeal or modification of the undis
tributed profits and capital gains taxes.
It asked the creation and maintenance
of work and opportunities for working
men and women in private industry. It
demanded the maintenance of the pres
ent wage scale and adequate Federal
relief for the unemployed.
William Green, the president of the
Federation, said of the program advanced
that it was designed,to bring about real
eo-operation between the Government,
Industry and labor, and that if it were
carried into effect, business would “start
This evidence of serious purpose on
the part of the leaders of the A. F. of
L. to deal with the conditions of in
dustry in a helpful way has been
matched in part by the leadership of
the C. I. O. in recent weeks. John L.
Lewis, chairman of the C. I. O., is of
the opinion that labor must look to
business and to itself for aid in these
critical times, according to reports. The
C. I. O. has concluded successfully nego
tiations with the United States Steel
Corporation for a new working contract.
The year 1937 will go down in history
as a period of great industrial conflict,
with hundreds and hundreds of strikes
and a vast number of employes involved.
This conflict has brought prosperity to
no one. It has played its part in the
recession—which is just another way of
•eying depression. The time has come
for Intelligent statesmanship as well as
leadership in the relations between
employer and labor if they are not to
destroy one another.
An important part may be played by
the Government. Indeed, an important
part is being played by the Government.
It is the fear of what the Government
may do, rather than any fear of what
lahpr may do, that has tied capital into
a bow knot and prevented expansion of
business and industrial operations. The
administration has given indication that
It desires to be helpful. The President
has called for co-operation between
business and the Government.
Business, big and little, has pointed
out what steps it believes may be taken
to help conditions. Labor leaders have
done the same. Yet the Government so
far has done nothing. No tax bill has
been enacted into law. There has been
no amendment of the Social Security
Act or of the Wagner Labor Relations
Act. There have been demands from the
President that prices be lowered and wages
maintained at a high level. The single
accomplishment of the special session
which began last November and of the
present session, up to date, has been the
enactment of the administration's bill
to stimulate a housing program—and no
one knows whether that will work, or
whether, if it does work, it will not be
a great blow to other similar business.
The need for real leadership in the
field of labor was never greater than it
is now. More important to the workers
today than politics is the improvement
of conditions in industry, with more
business and more employment. These
things can be accomplished in only one
way and—let no politician seek to say
otherwise—they can be accomplished
only through the advance of private
Japanese have long made a close study
ef adjacent lands. When talking even
as far as across the ocean, they find it
hard to restrain disrespectful impressions.
Another Rockefeller Gift.
Announcement of a further contribu
tion of the Rockefeller Foundation to
the extension of the services of the
Library of Congress has been authorized
by Dr. Herbert Putnam. The exact
amount of the gift is not disclosed, yet
It is known to be sufficient to provide
apparatus which will make possible a
tremendous advance in the practical
utility of "the largest institution of its
kind in the world."
It happens that during the past few
years new machines and new methods
v have been developed for copying books,
manuscripts and other bibliographic
material. Science has perfected a photo
graphic technique for the reproduction
ef printed or hand-written text on films
email in slaw but subject to enlargement
as desired without great expense. A
•crap ef celluloid no larger than a post
age stamp may be a transcript ef a
document as expansive as the Declara
tion of Independence. The whole Gut
tenberg Bible might be represented in a
reel diminutive enough to flt into a
man's coat pocket. No argument is re
quired to show the convenience to
scholars engaged in research enterprise.
On payment of the actual costs of the
work any individual anywhere soon may
obtain from the Library an accurate
facsimile of any page of any character
it may have in its possession. The
Foundation, therefore, may be said to
have democratized the Library. It has
earned the gratitude of a universal
public by providing money which, In
application, will bring the facilities of
the Library within the reach of every
person who may wish to profit by them.
Congress, thg several departments of the
Federal Government, the courts, the
State legislatures, municipal officials,
universities, colleges, schools of all
grades, business Arms, other libraries,
all will be advantaged by as notable a
philanthropy as current history chron
icles. Washington Joins with the entire
Nation in appreciation to the Rocke
feller family.
A Needed Airing.
Members of the House District Com
mittee are to be commended for the de
cision to hold hearings on the so-called
“numbers racket" bill, designed to assist
the police and prosecutors in dealing
more effectively with this vicious racket.
The bill should be examined thoroughly
and the testimony of the police and of
the United States Attorney’s office, con
cerning the need for it in Washington,
obtained. Favorable report and quick
passage by the House of this bill will
strike directly at the source of the
strongest, and potentially the most vi
cious, racket in Washington.
Hearings on the bill will permit tnor
ough examination of Chairman Pal
misano's contention that its provisions
would permit the police to search a man’s
house “on suspicion that he is a gam
bler.” Of course the proposed amend
ment to the gambling laws does not con
template removal of the Fourth Amend
ment, or the denial to the citizen of any
safeguards which the Constitution guar
antees. The bill was not drawn by half
wits, as Mr. Palmisano seems to think.
It was carefully prepared by the United
States Attorney. It is modeled on a New
York statute and follows generally other
State statutes found effective in dealing
with the racket. It was twice passed by
the Senate after a careful hearing. The
United States Senate is as carefully con
cerned with the Bill of Rights as is Mr.
The section of the bill of which Mr.
Palmisano complains is, as a matter of
fact, identical with a section of the Dis
trict Code. But it broadens the scope of
the existing gambling statutes to include
the relatively recent numbers racket.
Mr. Palmisano also complains that the
amendments—considered here as a sepa
rate bill—to the gambling law would au
thorize the arrest of innocent purchasers
who happen to have numbers slips in
their possession. How many innocent
citizens are running around town now
with their pockets full of numbers slips?
Mr. Palmisano may be able to plead their
cause, but the purpose of the bill is to get
at tha numbers runners. Nobody is very
much bothered about the occasional
numbers player. The viciousness of the
numbers racket springs from the fact
that the almost incredible earnings of
the racketeers give them a sinister power
in the underworld which should be
broken immediately.
It is an interesting commentary on our
government in the.District of Columbia
which finds the chairman of the House
District Committee more concerned with
the fancied dangers of strict enforce
ment of a needed law than with the
realistic condition of crime and rackets
in the District today. The hearing should
be held quickly. And the Corporation
Counsel, it is hoped, will make himself
familiar enough with the purposes of the
amendment to explain them to the mem
bers of the committee. The former hear
ing on the amendments, in which Mr.
Palmisano and Mr. Sacks were so exer
cised over the dangers to "innocent per
sons," not not reveal the Corporation
Counsel as having been particularly well
All the rest of the United States cabi
net is entitled to credit for a disinclina
tion to avoid interrupting Mr. Hull when
he is busy trying to think things out.
The U. S. 8. Panay was a good ship
that made an unmistakable dent in the
histories of several nations when it went
Crop Control.
The administration’s crop control bill,
dealing with five staple crops particularly,
cotton, wheat, com, tobaeeo end rice,
faces only one more hurdle—Senate
agreement to the conference report. By
a vote of 263 to 135, the House yesterday
approved the conference measure. Pre
sumably, the Senate will also give its ap
The bill is the administration’s answer
to demands for an “ever normal granary.”
It is the hope of those sponsoring the
measure that it will effectually prevent
disastrous surpluses, which in the past
have forced down prices paid to the
farmers. The Secretary of Agriculture Is
given both great power and great respon
sibility in the administration of the act.
He must estimate normal needs and fix
estimated carry-overs. He must divide
among the farmers of the Nation the
estimated proper acreage allotments and
later fix marketing quotas if the yield
appears likely to be disproportionately
large. Here is a job that will require
almost superhuman talents, and a job
that will require, it seems, an army of
agents to enforce.
One check is placed upon the final
decrees of the Secretary of Agriculture—
a referendum in which the farmers will
cast their votes. To make the dictum of
the Secretary stick, two-thirds of the
farmers voting must agree.
So the country tuna from the vetun- :
tary curtailment of crop* to compulsory
curtailment, when neoessary. At the same
time, the new measure continues the
payment of benefits to those farmers who
comply with the allotment plan. The
bill continues also the operations of the
present “soil conservation" law, with its
payment of benefits to the farmers who
follow the soil conservation and sod
building practices approved by the De
partment of Agriculture.
Opponents of the new crop control bill
predict that when once these operations
get under way, the farmers themselves
will be the first to become uneasy and
later disgruntled. Never, they say, has
regimentation on such a scale been un
dertaken. The supporters of the plan,
on the other hand, maintain that only
by such measures of control can the
farmers hope for stable crops and stable
marketing. They insist that the old meth
ods of each man for himself are outworn
and have proved their failure many times
The problems ahead of the Depart
ment of Agriculture, not to mention the
farmers themselves, are considerable.
Months ahead of crop production the
estimates and the allotments must be
made. Weather, with its droughts and
its floods, is scarcely predictable. How
ever, the advocates of the program hope
that the carry-over of more or less fixed
surpluses will make the plan work, and
that the abundant years will balance the
lean years.
what the farmer will do with hi* land
that Is not permitted for production of
certain crops is a question that neces
sarily becomes a serious problem. Shall
a farmer who is not permitted to grow
wheat or cotton turn to producing more
milk and butter, or more potatoes, far
example? It is not long since the coun
try was given a demonstration of %hat
may occur under such conditions. The
old potato control act was invoked to
meet such a situation. The farmer* in
one section of the country who had been
accustomed to supplying the markets
with potatoes found that those who had
been growing cotton or wheat were cut
ting into the markets with a new supply
of potatoes.
There is also the ultimate consumer to
be considered. If prices of foods increase,
the consumer is vitally affected. The
people must eat. If they eat less, so
much the worse for the consumer and
eventually for the producer.
The Department of Agriculture is ex
pected to care for the consumer's in
terests as well as for those of the farmer,
to keep the whole in balance. It Is a huge
governmental machinery which the new
crop control bill undertakes to set up,
not only huge but complicated. The proof
of the pudding is always in the eating,
and the country will follow this latest
experiment with interest and also with
Many persons will confer with Presi
dent Roosevelt with the result that dif
ference of opinion will have to be con
sidered a part of the proceedings on
which action is to be baaed.
No man can expect to know enough to
give the true meaning of all the Greek
letters used by colleges. There is a limit
even to the wisdom which colleges may
choose to impart.
Any one who honestly confesses the
“Star Spangled Banner” is hard on the
upper register, can tum over a few pages
and And John Philip Sousa's "8tars and
Stripes Porever.”
The legitimate hope of a writer of
books is that he will produce something
that can hold its interest long enough
to qualify for mention in the Haldeman
Julius nickel catalogues.
Shooting Stars.
Singing » Song.
81nging a song of the daytime.
Singing a song of the night.
Singing a song of the playtime,
Or a song of the sorrows that blight.
Singing a song of the sinner.
(The sinner will sing one of yOu.)
Singing a song of the dinner
Where viands are plenty, or few.
Songs may be frivolous chatter.
Songs may come straight from the
What does it really matter?
Keep singing and doing your part.
Cbuaies Not Needed.
"When you went to school did you
study Greek?”
"No,” said Senator Sorghum. “Early
in life I decided On a political career and
I observed that English is all the lan
guage any one needs to say things that
are hard for others to understand.”
a 1
Jud Tunkins says a rascal is usually
only a fool with a little passing power.
My radio! My radio!
You bunch ’em all together—
The classic tunes of long ago
And talks about the weather.
Perils ef Leisure.
"Dolan,” said Mr. Rafferty, "what would
you think of a four-day week?”
“I dunno. With all that extra time off
for debatin’ and recreation I’m wonderin’
whether I mightn’t risk losin’ me tem
per an’ spoil the peace an’ quietude I’d
be supposed to enjoy.”
"All men desire peace.” said Hi Ho,
the sage of Chinatown, "yet few of us
fear a light which we feel sure ef
New Order ef Things.
Be kind and gentle to the kid—
Serve as his willing victim.
Grandpas can’t do as (Mice they did—
They grabbed the kid and lieked ’im.
“A man dat can’t trust anybody.” said
Chela Eben, "is bound to Admit dat ha
i (ttl tfust mm ktaaatf." * |
Law Enforcement at Well
As Legislation Is Needed
T# th* Mitsr of Tht Star:
In your Sunday Star P. H. James calls
attention to the January 7 press release
of the Department of State in confirma
tion of Mr. Mason’s criticism of alien
deportation legislation breakdown by the
present Secretary of Labor and the great
need of Congress passing bills Introduced
by Senator Reynolds and Representative
Starnes and defeating the Labor De
partment’s very objectionable Kerr
Coolidge bill because it would only deport
aliens “hereafter convicted of a crime in
volving moral turpitude” and confer on
the Secretary of Labor discretions even
to nullify that inadequate law!
The attitude of the present Secretary
of Labor is amazing. She readmitted de
ported anarchists such as Emma Gold
man, Willi Muesenberg, Henri Barbusse
and their like, under a misused and abused
discretion known as the ninth proviso.
Although immigrant Inspectors report
and the sworn allegations of United
States citizens show that the alien Red
Bridges who directs strikes involving the
use of force and violence to overthrow
law, order and local government, she de
liberately refuses to start deportation pro
ceedings against Bridges and is snowing
time to run along until he can be nat
uralized in May, Just as she has "stayed’’
the deportations without authority of law
of thousands of alien law breakers until
their “residence” here has run into the
seven-year residence period necessary for
her seventh proviso discretion. She even
releases from her "custody” deportable
alien perjurers, forgers, embezzlers, biga
mists and the like with letters addressed
to Canadian immigration officials, in or
der to avoid their deportation, which
would prevent under the laws of 1029
and 1032 their readmisslon for at least
one year. All this was recently developed
before the House Appropriations Com
mittee. What is needed is not only more
legislation but some kind of decent law
enforcement. p. ames.
Why Have a Storage Plan
With Nothing to Store?
T« th« Mitsr At Th( tur:
In regard to the farm bill and the com
ment* of Senator* published in The Eve
ning Star, espcially where Senator O'Ma
honey, Democrat, of Wyoming, tell* u«:
“It is perfectly absurd for Congress to
pass a bill to reduce the surplus of cot
ton, wheat, rice, tobacco and corn and at
the same time to permit increases in
other commodities not in the program. It
will do no good to reduce some crops if
we create more meat and milk.” ' I
What use have we for the reactionary
Egyptian scheme of crop storage if we
are not to have surplus crops? What
advantage is to be gained, supposing Mr.
Wallace to be able to keep those over
abundant supplies eatable and fresh?
As at present we have a storage and au
tomatic distributing system that is su
perior to anything Mr. Wallace or the
Congress could invent but which was re
tarded by the A. A. A. and has been over
thrown by Mr. Roosevelt's managed
money ideas Imported from Europe,
which are as inferior as a dirt road com
pared to a macadam highway. However,
since Mr. Roosevelt has buried the ever
ready storage power of the world, which
he calls a fetish, in the primary treas
ury or the dirt of Kentucky, who can
blame Mr. Wallace for introducing the
system of Joseph to help Mr. Roosevelt
unite agriculture, business and Govern
ment—a provision which the States for
got to insert in an article of the national
Constitution? ROBERT WHITE.
Favors Income Tax as
Equitable for District
To th* Editor of The sur:
Kindly grant me apace to express my
hearty approval of the actions of the sub
committee handling tax matters pertain
ing to the District of Columbia.
Their decision in recommending an in
come tax for the District of Columbia was
a wise and sane choice, it is the most
popular and equitable tax that could be
encated into law. The income tax ex
cels the sales tax in many ways. I note
that some members of Congress are op
posing the income tax because it hits
their own pocketbooks. I think most of
those members who are opposing same
will contribute their own share without a
murmur. I think all employes of the Fed
eral and District governments, earning in
comes from funds appropriated for the
expenses of the Government, should be
compelled to pay the income tax and all
other taxes to which they are liable.
I also advocate that Congress enact
legislation making it obligatory that po
licemen and firemen be required to live
in the District of Columbia. I also think
school teachers, janitors and other em
ployes of the public schools should be
subject to the same restrictions as to
Also Congress should legislate to pro
hibit husbands and wives being employed
under the Federal and District Govern
ments in justice to the vast number of
unemployed. HENRY F. ASH.
Two-Job Holders Reduce
Chances of Unemployed
To the Miter ef The Star:
I read with interest the letter of H.
Black in The Evening Star and I agree
that holders of double jobs increase un
No matter in what business office one
may go signs on the desk announce that
Mrs. So and 80 occupies the chair. How
many women work in Government offices
who have no need to do so?
There is a lot of talk about unemploy
ment add yet nothing is done to replace
well-supported married women who work
in offices, shops and stores with needy
unemployed. These married women take
the bread and butter away from many
a man and his family.
I have been unemployed for nearly a
year and when I give my age (3?) I'm
considered too old to work. Married
women, no matter what age, can get A
job. Is it not about time that something
is done to correct this situation?
Information on Specific
Income Tax Case Asked
T« the Editor of The Stir:
The writer for your income tax column
Would no doubt Appreciate having spe
cific eases to answer so as to actually help
the most people.
Here is one that I have been asked at
Mast a dozen times.
A, man is married and has a salary
$1,800. He receives rent from a small
piece of property that he owns, amount
ing to $50 per month, or $600, or a total
of $2,400, which under the present in
come tax law makes it unnecessary for
him to file a return. But during the year
he receives from the settling of an estate
the sum of $300 or now a total of $2,700
and so he must make out a tax return.
Just how is that return made out?
Will your expert please answer this
through your column for the benefit of
Hard Both Ways.
Trm the Omsfci WArld-Krald.
We’ve tried both ways and it’s just
about as bard to Uva within an income
as »is to ttm wtttmt sen. -- . '
Wooden-faeed youngsters.
You see them everywhere. The young
man never moves a muscle when he is
praised or blamed.
The young woman leans on her elbow
in the best movie tradition, gazing in
tently into eyes for minutes on end, her
face an absolute blank.
They imagine they are very "smooth,"
and they are; they have been smoothed
out by psychology.
Their expression is their defense
against that pseudo-science which is
noteworthy not for what it is but for
what it has done to a nation.
It has “put over" some of the most
absurd ideas ever to arise in the mind
of man.
Especially it has succeeded in making
many persons, and all of the young, think
that any honest emotion necessarily
means something else than what it seems
to be.
Thus the only way is not to show any
The only way not to show any is to
keep a perfectly blank face, far more
wooden than the old-time Indians ever
thought necessary.
* * * *
These modem Indians are determined
not to give themselves away.
They are wise in their day, perhaps.
Not for them the glow of pleasure at
good news, or horror-struck countenance
at bad.
They live in a world in which every
thing they say and do may be held
against them, if they dare let others see
what they really think.
Few older people realize how far down
the roots of the so-called modem psy
chology have struck.
Nothing that one likes, but it "shows”
something or other, generally evil.
One does not dare express a liking for
the color, yellow, for that shows some
thing quite horrible.
One might gladly declare a new book
prejudiced and unfair, but to do so
would brand one immediately as that
super criminal of the ages, a Victorian,
or, even worse, a Puritan.
* * * *
These youngsters live in a world peo
pled by dragons of a new sort.
These strange beasts are ideas, other
people's ideas of what the things humans
do and say “mean."
In the old days, of course, there were
such ideas, but mostly they were caged
in dream books that most sensible per
sons looked upon as so much stuff and
Nowadays these books, in another form,
have the imprint of great universities,
and great professorial names on their
Dreams megn some pretty terrible
things, nowadays.
The most innocent dream allows the
students of this sort of thing to put the
dreamer down as a monster, or would
be monster.
* * * e
Naturally, the wise persons doesn't go
around telling his dreams any more.
The wise young person, going a step
farther, as youth always has gone, ap
plies the same defense to everyday life.
He has a set expression, which alloys
no one, especially his comrades, to put
any interpretation on him.
His mouth is lined with "wise-cracks,”
ready to be shot forth on the instant, as
a second line of defense against the pos
sible (and feared) psychological attack.
Let us stop to consider this brave young
phenomenon before it is too late, for he
is only a passing phase of humanity.
Men will not continue to live long
under the psychological blight.
Some brave person, someday, is to
assume the armor of brave St. George,
and go tilting, with success, against the
false ideas which have worried them all
so long.
Until that day, however, he and his
mates must fight not only the real evils
of this world, but the “evils we know not
* * * *
These evils are the creation of a group
of men.
Like mental Frankensteins, they have
grown so that few persons dare call them
false, or assert their non-materiality or
They have all the seeming of a demon
that is dreaming, to use the words of Poe,
who seems to have been, basically, far
ahead of his times.
He was Just at the beginning of it, evi
dently. He wrote of a dream within a
dream. It remained for later men to try
to explain the inner dream in terms of
the outer.
Today we have the evil effects before
We dare not express our plain Joy in
anything, for fear we will "give ourself
If we like anything, we run a grave
risk, evidently, if we say so. Some smart
aleck who has read a few books will pop
up to call us names.
* * * *
The good we do doesn't exist st all;
the evil we do lives not only after us, but
right with us, according to the psycholo
gists. whose ideas youth has assimilated
hook, line and sinker.
We cannot criticise a book we think
rotten, because, if we do. we give away
to the wise ones the hidden desire on
our part to do something Inexpressible.
Thus evil persons, plainly enough, have
managed to put a premium on their dirt
and smut, and woe be any honest person
who dares to say them nay.
The world dare not crusade against
anything wrong, because if its people do,
they immediately show themselves pos
sessed of far worse evils, according to the
theories, than those they are fighting
The whole thing works itself out,
whether intentionally or unintentionally,
to a covert attack of real forces of evil
against the forces of good.
"Don't you dare say anything," jeers
the evil spirit of the age, “or we will call
you far worse names than you call us!”
* * * *
So youth, and a great many others,
seem intimidated.
The wooden face, the lack of seeming
respect for moral and ethical ideas, the
mad desire for motion in music, and ex
perience at any price
What are these but efforts to combat
an evil propaganda abounding with
clever ideas, but which in time will be
found, one may believe, as false as many
other ideas of the past, which for a time
swept all before them, but at last were
shown to be essentially untrue.
Let us oldsters envy, Just a little, the
battalions of the wooden-faced, but pity
them more.
Notebook of Science Progress in Pield,
Laboratory and Study.
Dyeing grass green might seem a par- |
adoxleal Job—but not for the owner of
lawn or golf green.
The problem of how to do it has Just
been solved by chemists of the Depart
ment of Agriculture, working in co
operation with the united States Golf
"Brown patches" are often caused by
a specific disease due to a fungus which
kills off the grass in midsummer. This
fungus can be kept in check with a dye
known aa malachite green. The trouble
has been that it colors the grass blue—a
queer, unsightly kind of blue that is al
most as unpleasant to the eye as the
brown patches themselves.
Now. according to an announcement
from the Department of Agriculture, it
has been found that the dye is Just as
effective when mixed about half-and
half with auramine O, a yellow dye,
with a small mixture of crystal violet, a
red dye. Together these result in a
very grasslike shade of green which
cannot be distinguished from the origi
nal color of the greensward.
A half ounce of the mixture, worth
about 10 cents, is sufficient when mixed
with water to spray 1,000 square feet of
turf. It keeps the grass green from three
days to three weeks, depending on the
weather. Rain before it has had time
to dry washes it off quickly. It also has
some tendency to bleach out under a hot
summer sun, but during a dry spring or
autumn it is almost perfect.
experiments have shown that this dye
ing process does not injure healthy grass.
, It may even improve putting scores by
giving the golfer an evenly colored ex
panse between the ball and the eup.
Variation in shades may lead to mis
Judgment of distance.
T ^ W f
Man cannot make synthetic sunshine
—nor something "Just as good."
He may be able, however, to mix up
some imitations which are better than
others, so far as plant life is concerned,
according to experiments Just reported by
Dr. Earl 8. Johnston of the Smithsonian
Institution’s Division of Radiation and
The trouble is that plants and sun
shine have been associated for a long
time—at least a half million years.
Those plants that didn’t thrive on it have
been eliminated in the course of evolu
tion, or driven into dark places where
they do not get much of it. Those for
whom it was the ideal mixture have
thrived, remained in the open, and elim
inated their weaker competitors.
Sunshine, Dr. Johnston explains, con
sists of an almost infinite number of
wavelengths of light, ranging through
the visible spectrum from the dark red
to the deep violet, and extending in both
directions into the invisible ultra-violet
and infra-red. Now plants, like animals,
must eat, drink and breaths in order to
grow healthily. They are able to per
form these functions through activation
by light which falls upon them.
First of all, they must form chlor
ophyll, the green in the leaves. This
process is the keystone of life on earth.
Without it the whole structure of life
would collapse. After the chlorophyll
has been formed carbon dioxide gas must
be absorbed from the atmosphere, of
which it forms a very small constituent.
Moreover, they must draw up nutriment
—food and drink—from the water and
soil through their roots.
Previous experiments have shown that
each of these processes is best promoted
by certain narrow bands of light wave
lsngths la the solar^sctrua. while ,
ophyll formation, for example, proceeds
better under red light than blue. Two
narrow ranges, one red and the other
blue, have been found most effective for
carbon dioxide absorption, which is
essential in the manufacture by the
Plant of sugars and starches, the fuel
of animal life. 8tems grow long under
red light and are greatly retarded under
blue light.
A good deal of the sunlight seems to
have no specific function. Why not,
especially in greenhouses, make up a
mixture of those wavelengths which have
been shown to have the greatest specific
activating effects? Dr. Johnston tried
out various mixtures in this way. The
experiments were made possible by a
rotating wheel device by means of which
the amount and intensity of various wave
bands could be varied almost at will and
the effects on the plant growth observed.
He found that health and vigor of
growth varied almost directly as the
artificial light mixtures approached the
normal mixture of sunshine and that
any accentuation of a particular wave
band brought about an abnormal re
sponse. By progressively enriching his
light mixtures with blue, however, he
found that there was a measureable in
crease in the dry weights of the plants
when harvested.
The problem can by no means be con
sidered solved, he concludes. By con
tinuing experiments along similar lines,
he concludes, “it may even be found that
plants can be grown normally under
greatly reduced intensities of light, pro
viding a proper proportion between the
intensities of its component wavelengths
is worked out.”
Approves Superhighways
Construction Proposal
f* the Mltsr at The Star:
I chanced to read an article in The Star
of February 3 concerning “Superhigh
ways.” I note that Senator Bulkley of
Ohio intends to introduce a bill authoriz
ing the construction of such a system of
roads in the United States.
But I wonder if it would not be possible
to give this proposition a little more
publicity. I think the ides, by far, the
most sane and most desirable of any I
have seen or heard of in recent months.
I am of the opinion that the American
people are willing to pay a reasonable
price for any value received. This plan,
as I understand it, does give something
in exchange for the tax or toll we would
be asked to pay.
The amount of employment It would
mike is almost beyond comprehension.
The American Shirt Style.
Wo* the Cleveland Plain Dealer.
Black Shirts and Brown Shirts in
Europe, and now it’s Gold Shirts in
Mexico. This country, however, 'cling*
obstinately to stuffed shirts.
Film College Life.
Worn the Olataland Neva.
A Western dean thinks many of the
boys and girls com# to college far too
young. Not in the campus musical
films we see.
Won the Portland Oregon Journal.
A Nebraskan defines conscience as a
sixth sense that comes to our aid when
we are doing wrong and tells us that
wt art about to get caught.
A reader can get the answer to any
gueetion of fact by writing The Evening
Star Information Bureau, Frederic J.
Haskin, Director, Washington, D. C.
Please inclose stamp for reply.
Q. Are many fighters killed in prize
fights?—B. W.
A. There were four deaths in boxing
during 1037. In the past 18 years thera
have been 30 deaths recorded in that
Q. Did Peter Cooper, the Inventor,
ever run for President?—E. W.
A. In 1878 the Independent party
nominated him for President of tha
United States and he received nearly
100,000 votes.
Q. What is the most popular book in
the Modem Library list?—E. H. J.
A. The most popular book in the Mod
em Library titles is Dostoyevsky’s "Tha
Brothers Karamazov.”
Q. Is a Booztwhisky bottle rare?—H. L.
A. These bottles bearing the imprint of
the distiller, E. C. Booz of Philadelphia,
were first made during the presidential
campaign of William Henry Harrison.
They are blown in the shape of a log
cabin at the Whitney Glass Works and
are now among the rarest of the early
whisky bottles.
Q. Is there a Breton violin?—H. W.
A. The French violin maker, F. Breton,
is listed among the Mirecourt makers of
the nineteenth century. He made vio
lins covered with light yellowish or
brownish varnish and of a broad, sym
pathetic tone. They are excellent orches
tra instruments.
Q. Who is president of the Philadel
phia Rapid Transit Co.?—L. H.
A. Ralph T. Senter is president of the
Q. Please give a biography of Henry
Phipps —C. R.
A. The steel manufacturer and phi
lanthropist was bom in Philadelphia in
1839. He was educated in the public
schools of Allegheny City and began work
as an office boy and clerk in Pittsburgh.
Within five years he became a partner In
a powder distributing agency and in a
small iron mill. Later he became asso
ciated with Andrew Carnegie in iron and
steel manufacture, amassing great
wealth. He devoted much time and
money to artistic and philanthropic
undertakings. To establish the Phipps
Institute he contributed $1,000,000 to the
University of Pennsylvania and at Johns
Hopkins Hospital he built a psychiatrical
clinic. Large sums also were given to
New York City for the improvement and
construction of tenement houses. He
died in 1930.
Q. What percentage of toys sold here
is made in this country?—J. L.
A. Ninety-five per cent of the toys sold
in this country are manufactured here.
“ " »
Q. In what country are the various
professions recognized by distinctive
stones?—C. H.
A. Each profession has its special stone
in Brazil. The lawyer is recognized by
his ruby ring, the doctor by his emerald,
the dentist by topaz, while the engineer
wears tourmaline.
Q. What was the late John D. Rocke
feller’s favorite game?—H. W.
A. For many years he had found relax
ation after meals in the game of Nu
merics. which may be played as solitaire
or with a number of players.
Q. How many acres are there in the
New York Botanical Garden?—W. H.
A. It occupies 400 acres of land.
Q. Please describe the funeral services
of Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who
was killed in Miami.—N. W.
A. The Rev. Preston Bradley, pastor
of the People’s Church, read from the
23rd Psalm and said a prayer at the
funeral of Anton Cermak at 9:30 on
March 10. 1933. at the City Hall in
Chicago, 111. Services were held at the
stadium at 1 o'clock, at which Rev.
John Thompson spoke on the personality
of Cermak. Gov. Homer read a tele
gram from the President and gave a
eulogy of Cermak. Rabbi Louis L. Mann
spoke and the Rev. Daniel J. Frawley
paid the final tribute. There was a Ma
sonic ceremony at the grave.
Q. What is bentonite?—R. R.
A. Bentonite is a claylike mineral of
volcanic origin, capable of absorbing
enormous quantities of water; when
soaked in water it serves the purpose of
soap. It is used as a filter for oils and
as a filler and binder in plaster in the
manufacture of a great many articles. It
was first found in Fort Benton, Wyo.
Q. What is the best wood for smoking
meat?—F. M. G.
A. Green hickory wood and sawdust
are the standard fuels for smoking meat,
but almost any hardwood such as oak,
apple, maple or ash will be satisfactory.
Where timber is scarce corncobs may be
used. Any resinous wood will blacken the
meat and give it an undesirable flavor.
If paper or pine shavings are used to'
kindle the green hardwood, be sure that
all have been completely burned or re
moved from the fire before the smoke
house door is closed.
A View of the World
From an Up-to-Date Map
With a copy of the Map of the World
before you. you can see the world at a
glance and get a better understanding of
the news dispatches about world affair*.
A brief study of this map and of the
commercial and geographic data printed
on the reverse side will convince the
average person how little he really knows
about the world. Keep abreast of the
times. Order you copy of this up-to-date
map, which is 21 by 38 Inches in size
and is printed in five colors on durable
paper. Ten cents postpaid.
Use This Order Blank
The Washington Evening Star
Information Bureau,
Frederic J. Haskln, Director,
Washington, D. C.:
I inclose herewith TEN CENTS in
coin (carefully wrapped) for a copy
Street or Rural Route
City. .
State "
(Please order by mall enlyj

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