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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, May 18, 1938, Image 13

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Move to Pick
Nominees
Assailed
Non-Partisan Alliance
Seen Way to Halt
Intervention.
Bjr DAVID LAWRENCE.
OVER in Italy and in Germany,
the head of the state picks
out the members of the na
tional legislature. In America,
the system is slowly being developed
whereby President Roosevelt picks the
nominees for the Senate and the
Dmrld Lawrence.
House m nis own
political party.
Heretofore, a
Chief Executive
has occasionally
interested himself
in a party pri
mary oontest, but
this has been the
axception rather
than the rule.
President Wilson
intervened once,
for instance, by
letter, in a Demo
cratic primary
contest in which
Senator Varda
man of Mississippi was a candidate,
but public criticism was so widespread,
especially in the South, that he did
not repeat the effort anywhere else.
Pr»»tdents have in the past felt at
Ub*£y to exercise their influence in
their own States, but not outside in
other States. Mr. Roosevelt, however,
has now openly, as well as on some
occasions secretly, interested himself
In the selecting of nominees for party
nominations in various States and dis
tricts.
Twenty-five years ago, a Progres
aive was one who believed in primary
elections because the people did the
nominating and a standpatter or
conservative was one who believed in
the nominating convention where the
political boss flourished.
Administration Intervenes.
Today the primary system, whatever
Its defects, is still a method whereby
the people are supposed to make their
own selection of candidates unin
fluenced by outside money or outside
power. Yet the Roosevelt administra
tion has just intervened in a half
dozen State situations, and indications
are the National Government, with
Its enormous opportunity for manip
ulation of public funds and favors,
will increase its participation in the
electoral process.
Intervention in the Southern pri
maries is tantamount to election in
most instances because the admin
istration has enough machinery to
wield the balance of power. The
Florida primaries presented a case in
point. The administration backing
was enough to assure the renomina
tion of Senator Pepper, and that
means re-election next autumn be
cause the Republican vote is negligible.
The President has put the weight
of his administration—which means
the army of officeholders—behind his
candidate in Kentucky, Oregon, Penn
sylvania, Florida, South Carolina and
Georgia. If public opinion does not
manifest disapproval, it may be t*ken
for granted that the President wm go
further and pick candidates for ad
ministration support in other States
as well and in particular congressional
districts.
Targets ior aukc*.
The members of Congress who op
posed the Supreme Court “packing”
plan of the President are targets for
attack. Quietly but effectively the
plan for punishing these insurgents is
progressing. There was much talk at
one time about helping out the mem
bers of Congress who incurred the
presidential wrath, but the foes of
the Supreme Court bill are conspicu
ously inactive today with respect to
mobilizing the voters behind the men
who stood up for their convictions
against administration pressure.
Naturally if Senators and Represent
atives see the administration candi
dates winning and no concerted effort
made to get behind those who opposed
the administration, the band wagon
will begin soon and a Congress of 100
per cent rubber-stamp members may
be expected, very much as is the case
In Germany and Italy.
The Florida result is a conspicuous
example of the inactivity of the anti
administration groups in America.
Two and three years ago, this situa
tion was foreseen and there was wide
spread discussion of coalition, but
nothing came of it.
Sort of Free-for-All.
A hue and cry has sometimes been
raised about the possible unpopularity
of outside help for candidates In
Southern States, but now that the
administration has adopted the policy
of direct participation, using Govern
ment funds and influence, there need
be no hesitation on the part of those
who disagree with the administration’s
program.
It would appear now that party
primary contests, especially in the
South, have become a sort of free-for
all. Men like Senator George of
Georgia and Senator Ellison Smith of
South Carolina are marked for admin
istration reprisals. Will the people in
other parts of the country allow them
to be sacrificed because they fought
the administration's effort to break
down the Supreme Court? These are
questions which the present season of
primary campaigns would seem to be
raising. The true progressives and
true liberals who are against the
Fascist tendencies of the present ad
ministration happen to be poorly
organized, and perhaps afraid to stand
Up to the administration's tactics.
The Republican party, on the other
hand, is powerless to help the truly
liberal and truly progressive Demo
crats of the South who fought the
court packing plan. Certainly a non
partisan alliance would seem to be the
logical way to protect the men of the
South who stood by their convictions
and now are marked for slaughter
by the political dictator in the White
House.
(Copyright, 1938.)
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The Capital Parade
Anti-Monopoly Inquiry Seen Aimed at Morgan 8c
Co., Strong Foe of New Deal.
By JOSEPH AESOP and ROBERT KINTNER.
P. MORGAN & CO. must be ready for a bitter struggle to retain
its immense power in the American business world. The state
ment is sensational, yet the conclusion is inescapable. The great
• house at the corner of Wall and Broad is all but certain to have to
fight, and. if it does, its antagonist will be the New Deal.
In the past, of course, Morgan's has participated in the long
civil warfare between business and government. But now a single
combat between Morgan's and the administration is fast preparing.
The stage is set. In the inner circles of Washington and Wall Street
there is excited and anxious anticipation. The struggle should soon
begin.
Of the events which set the stage, the President's anti-monopoly
message was by far the most important Its mild tone and confusing
name have misled many as to the true meaning of the message. The
investigation demanded by the President is not irttended to be a mere
Investigation of "monopolistic practices.” It is intended, by those White
House advisers who conceived and
will direct it, to be a dramatization
of the concentration of economic
power in the United States.
That Morgan’s will be cast
as the chief villain of the play
cannot be doubted. That the Mor
gan partners will be called to the
stand at the most significant mo
ments of the Investigation is frank
ly admitted by those who are
nlannine it. It is. to be sure, ener
getically denied that the New Deal is “out to get Morgans, yeime very
nature of the investigation and the results that are hoped from it make it
Inevitable that Morgan s will be the principal sufferer.
Moreover, if the administration doesn’t succumb to the temptation
to try “to get Morgan’s." it will be more superhumanly virtuous than it
has in the past.
The fact is that the great banking firm is regarded by the New
Deal's guiding minds ps chiefly responsible for the extreme resistance
of American business to New Deal policies. From the President
down, the mast powerful officials of the administration detest Mor
gan's with an all but personal hatred.
Persecution complexes are as common among politicians as among
financial potentates, and probably the New Dealers have given an undue
weight to certain incidents.
The United Corp.’s sudden refusal to register under the Holding
Company Act after it had announced its readiness to do so was one recent
incident which stirred suspicion. Another was the refusal of Alfred P.
Sloan of General Motors. Walter S. Gifford of American Telephone &
Telegraph and Edward R. Stettinius. jr., of United States Steel to sign
the friendly statement on government-business co-operation in which
John W. Hanes persuaded 16 business leaders to join.
Sloan, Stettinius and Gifford, the heads of the three largest
industrial companies in vhe country, afe all in close relations with
Morgan's. Their companies all do business with Morgan's. And the
New Dealers inferred, rightly or wrongly, that their unanimous re
fusal must be traced to a single source.
Again, the New Dealers believe, rightly or wrongly, that John W. Davis,
the Morgan lawyer, took the lead in rallying the utilities companies to their
so-called unitea front against the Holding Company Act. They point out
that the financial community, for which Morgan's sets the tone, and the
YOURE
HURTINC
ME'
■A/M
Morgan-affiliated industrial compa
nies have consistently taken the
most Intransigent position.
Men will Imagine devils for
themselves. It must be emphasized
that there is no intention here to
pass upon the good sense of the
New Dealers’ suspicions and beliefs.
The important fact is that they
exist.
The so-called anti-monopoly
investigation is planned to attack
Morgan's at its most vital point—it s far-reacning innuence over tne policies
of corporations, banks, insurance companies and the like. For the first
time since the abortive Pujo money trust inquiry, this influence will be
called in question.
At the same time, it is not only in the anti-monopoly investiga
tion that the combat between Morgan's and the administration now
threatens. By the depression, the Nation’s railroads have been put
squarely in the New Deal’s power. By the Supreme Court's decision
on the Holding Company Act. the administration also rules the
utilities. And these are two of Morgan's and Morgan. Stanley &
Co.'s most profitable and important fields of operation. Here
again, the temptation to do Morgan's a disservice will be hard for
the administration to resist.
Certain financial interests, which have been careful to cultivate the
New Deal’s friendship, are already hoping to profit by the approaching
combat. But before any predictions as to the outcome can be made, one
thing should be remembered. As one New Dealer rather ruefully put it:
"Morgan's has been investigated before, and in trouble with the Govern
ment before. But they seem to be the only firm that can handle their
particular job. So what can you do with them?”
(Copyright. lf>38, by the North American Newspaper Alliance. Inc.)
CTHE opinions of the writers on this page are their own, not
* necessarily The Star’s. Such opinions are presented in
The Star’s effort to give all sides of questions of interest to its
readers, although such opinions may be contradictory among
themselves and directly opposed to The Star’s.
-—— p--—
Henlein’s Czech Program
Hitler Agent Is Asking Democratic Powers of Europe
to Aid Politically Impossible Plan.
By DOROTHY THOMPSON.
M "W yHAT Konrad Henleln is ask
\ \ I ing the so-called demo
V Y cratic European powers to
" ’ help him do, is to change
the Czechoslovak foreign policy and
totally to reorganize the Czechoslovak
state, on a basis incompatible with
its present democratic constitution.
Dorothy Thompson.
ii is aiso specu
lated, whether In
concession to the
demands of the
German-speaking
minority in
C z e c hoslovakia,
the border might
not be pushed
back, to permit
the so - c a 11 e d
Sudeten areas,
largely., inhabited
by Germans, to
b e incorporated
into Nazi Ger
many.
Now, the first
thing to get perfectly clear in our
minds is that none of these demands
is politically possible. In order to
carry them out, either President
Eduard Benes, or Prime Minister
Hodza, would have to make himself
dictator and accomplish the changes
by decree.
Czechoslovakia is governed by a
Parliament. It would take a three
fifths vote to change the constitution.
Konrad Henlein, acting in behalf
of Mr. Hitler, wants Czechoslovakia
to abandon at least half of her only
defensive alliance—the three-cornered
Russian-Czech-French pact, which.
Incidentally, only comes into play if
Czechoslovakia is a victim of unpro
voked aggression. Is it conceivable
that under present circumstances any
Czech government would freely aban
don that alliance? Especially when
she knows that France is on the apron
strings of England?
Mr. Henlein’* Program.
Secondly, Mr. Henlein wants to or
ganize the German-speaking popula
tion of Czechoslovakia into a Nazi
state, inside the boundaries of the
country. That Nazi state would act
as an agent of Germany inside
Czechoslovakia.
Henlein knows that he cannot cap
ture the Czechoslovak republic as a
whole for Nazism, so he wants to make
a Nazi state out of the German-speak
ing elements and demand cantoniza
tion and autonomy.
But no conceivable sort of canton
ized state can exist under one roof
with totally different and hostile social
and political philosophies.
Henlein wants to make it illegal for
any Czech to sell property to a Ger
man or for any German to sell prop
erty to a Czech. He wants to set up a
sort of German ghetto, but an ag
gressive one, to create an eternal bar
rier to any possible fluctuations. Al
ready his movement is propagandizing
against intermarriage between Ger
mans and Slavs—incidentally against
the very sort of racial absorption that
created modem Prussia! He wants to
be able to drive Slavs and Jews out of
the German sections.
Plan Utterly Preposterous.
Representing a minority, he wishes
to set up a system where in a segre
gated section of a democratic state
certain non German and non-Nazi
minorities can freely be persecuted!
And at the same time he wants
his followers admitted to over-all ad
ministrative positions and to the
army! The whole proposal is utterly
preposterous. It is an Invitation to
civil war!
Now, since Mr. Henlein's visit to
London, statements are coming fiom
there that these demands represent
his ‘•maximum” and not his ‘■mini
mum.” thus reversing the attitude that
he took In the speech at Carlsbad on
April 24. The acceptance of such a
statement as meaning anything at all
is a crucial demonstration of unreal
ism, self deceit and Ignorance. And
the ignorance is understandable, with
the example of Austria still completely
fresh.
Move Arises From Slogan.
The Henleln movement in its viru
lence has .arisen from the slogan of
the Nazis, to unite all Germans with
in the Reich.
This plan of Henlein's would unite
all Germans as Reich agents inside an
other country. Complete detachment
and union with Germany would be
preferable. But that is also politically
anad technically impossible.
There Is exactly as good a reason to
give the South Tyrol, now part of Italy,
to Germany as there is to give the
Sudeten lands to Qermany. Neither of
them, of course, ever belonged to the
Reich. Both of them were parts of
the old Austro-Hungarian Empire,
both of them contain German-speaking
populations, and both of them lie be
hind a natural frontier of mountains.
That is why Mussolini will defend the
Brenner frontier and why the Czecho
slovaks must defend the Bohemian
frontier.
Those who listen to the German
claims seem utterly to forget that what
Germany is asking for is not German
peoples, but the territory on which
they live as well—terirtory which they
colonized centuries ago, in a great push
eastward. Any German Nazi who
wants to be Joined with the Reich can
Join himself to it, with the blessing of
the Czechoslovak Republic. But Ger
many does not want her Germans. She
wants a lot of landscape, factories,
mines, banks, schools and what not
that never in the whole history be
longed to her.
Imperialism Blocks Solution.
Now, the Czechoslovak Republic
could solve this problem in completely
good faith if there were good faith
and not imperialism behind the mi
nority agitation.
Czechoslovakia could permit every
German-speaking citizen to opt
whether he wants to live in a demo
cratic Czechoslovak Republic with his
language, cultural institutions and
other legitimate minority rights se
cured, but otherwise subject to the
same constitution and laws that gov
ern everybody else.
If he doesn’t want to, and feels that
he must Join Germany, he could be
given a reasonable length of time in
which to liquidate his affairs and he
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This Changing World
Chain Store Powers in Europe Gradually Absorbing
Smaller and Weaker States.
By CONSTANTINE BROWN.
HERE is a possibility the smaller states in Europe will suffer the fate
of the Independent grocer and butcher in most sections in this
country. The chain stores have swallowed him up. And politically,
chain powers are now being set up at the expense of the smaller and
weaker states.
* * * *
Reports which are received in Washington from various parts of Eu
rope indicate that practically all governments are concerned over their
futures.
The totalitarian policy is either to absorb physically the minor
powers or to ‘‘dovetail" them into their economic system. And the
one is as bad as the other.
The mast menaced countries are those situated in Central and South
Eastern Europe. Austria has ceased to exist. Czechoslovakia's fate hangs
on a very thin hair. She is certain to disappear as a state as we know
today either by the secession or the
minorities or by making some sort
of an arrangement with Berlin
which will deprive her of her actual
independence. Hungary is likely to
follow the Rome-Berlin axis and
become incorporated in the eco
nomic entity the two dictators are
planning. Rumania will either
undergo a change in which Fascism
will replace the present personal
regime of King Carol or will also be
Incorporated in the German-Italian economic bloc. Yugoslavia nas already
broken away from France and has become—enthusiastically or not is
Immaterial—a component part of the new Central European economic sys
tem. Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey are all playing the “follow the leader"
game. Their political and economic life depends on Berlin and Rome.
* * * *
In Switzerland, a country which has avoided war for many a genera
tion, there is a strong tendency toward the Berlin-Rome axis.
* * * *
Western Europe, where the struggle between democracy and
totalitarianism has not even begun, has two predominant chain
store systems; the British and the French. While, neither of these
two powerful organizations has the same ruthless tendency to
••assimilate” their neighbors, there is na doubt that they exercise
through their finances and control over raw materials a strong
influence on the lesser kingdoms and republics. Fear of the Rome
Berlin axis plus economic interests is bound to turn the Nordic
kingdoms and whatever the Nazi-Fascist bloc has left untouched,
toward the United Kingdom and France.
* * * *
The same thing Is happening, in an Asiatic manner, in the Far East.
The day China is subjugated by Japan's military forces—and this seems
inevitable since the principal world powers are treating that valiant nation
with the same kindness they have treated Ethiopia—the remaining fewr
independent nations will become
Japanized. Moreover, by a process of
systematic elimination, the coun
tries which are at present under
the sovereignty of European powers
will gradually shake them ofT and
join the militant Japanese. All
serious observers are unanimous in
their opinion that within our life
time the white man's regime in
Asia will be only a memory of the
past.
The New World will be the only one left where the ‘ individual grocer”
will still be permitted to carry on his business without fear: this hemi
sphere of ours will still maintain independent and individualistic states—
provided the totalitarian state idea does not become too deeply imbedded in
the minds of the politicos who are running the republic south of Rio Grande.
could then be permitted to go and
take with him all his property.
The argument that Germany is over- j
populated already could also be met. j
Czechoslovakia could agree to take
in return for all the optants leaving ;
an equal number of refugees from the
Reich who would rather live under
! a democratic system.
Clear Test for Germany.
It is entirely possible that Czecho
, Slovakia may startle the world by |
j making just such a proposition, and
| if It does it will provide a clear test
I of whether Germany really wants
j to unite all her like-minded people
or is out to divide and destroy neigh
■ boring states.
The Henlein movement in the form
that it has taken amounts to an
internal conspiracy against the con
stitution and stability of a country
which Great Britain collaborated to
set up and whose governmental sys
tem is founded on Anglo-Saxon prin
ciples of liberty and law. If social
peace, stability, competence to meet
internal and external obligations and
popular will to maintain that state
are measures of a claim for sover
eignty and independence, then Czecho
slovakia can meet all requirements.
Czechoslovakia has never asked for
any privileges from Great Britain ex
cept those ahe shared as a member
Headline Folk
and What
They Do
Ex*Judge Dawson Is
Hard Hitter and Ready
to Strike Again.
By LEMUEL F. PABTON.
FEDERAL Judge Charles I. Daw*
son of the western district of
Kentucky called more strikes
against the New Deal than any
other Federal judge. Then he quit as
umpire so he could step in and do
some swinging on
his own account
for the opposing
team.
At London,
Ky„ he is defense
counsel for the 66
defendants on
trial in the Fed
eral court on
charges of having
conspired to vio
late the Wagner
act. It is a unique
case in Depart
ment of Justice
procedure, unpre
cedented in its
Judit Dawson.
charges against law enforcement offi
cers as having Instituted a reign of
terror in the coal regions, and possibly
a critical engagement on the widening
front of Wagner act hostilities. Op
posed to Judge Dawson is young Bricn
McMahon, Assistant United States At
torney General, heading the prosecu
tion. Mr. McMahon, bucko Irish clean
up hitter in New Deal criminal case#,
has never lost a case since he signed
with the Government.
It was Judge Dawson who, early in
1935, ruled out the N. R. A., later to
be sustained by the Supreme Court.
The only New Deal measure he ever
sustained was the Frazier-Lemke act
—reluctantly, however—but the Su
preme Court reversed him on that.
When he left the bench, on June J,
1935. he said he felt that his duty to
his country required him to fight cur
rent subversive tendencies in gov
ernment "to an extent not possible to
a judge on the bench.”
He has been a strict constructionist
in constitutional issues. In the pro
hibitian era, he was the judicial bul
wark of the drvs. rendering what was
pehraps the most extreme decision in
volving the Volstead act. He ruled
that the man who bought a drink was
equally guilty with the bootlegger. He
is a Republican, an unsuccessful can
didate for Governor in 1925, appointed
to the Federal bench in that year.
He has been described as a "legal
crusader, with a booming voice, bris
tling gray eyebrows and iron-gray,
tumbled hair.” He was reared on a
farm and is proud of his huge hands,
developed in farm work, and eager to
sock the New Deal with one or both
fists.
of the League of Nations—with which
she accepted equal responsibilities.
She cannot ask Great Britain, with
the League defunct, to fight for her.
But she can expect. I should think,
that any British government woul;i
use all peaceful diplomatic means to
support her and will not collaborate
in any way to undermine her.
i (Copyright. IPS*. New York Tribune, Ine )
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