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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, May 21, 1938, Image 8

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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Mornin* Edition
TIIEODORE W. NOYES, Editor
WASHINGTON, D. C.
SATURDAY May 21, 1938
The Evening Star Newspaper Company
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Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to
the use lor republicalion ot all news dispatches
rreriiteri to it or not otherwise credited in this
paper and also the local news published herein.
All rights oi publication ol special dispatches
herein also are reserved.
A Sound Proposal.
Successive administrations since the
enactment of the Rogers foreign service
law in 1924 have made serious and on
the whole effective efforts to purge the
diplomatic and consular branches of
politics and the patronage blight. Under
our political system, with spoils the tra
ditional prerogative of "deserving" par
tisans, it probably will never be possible
wholly to "careerize" the foreign service.
There must always be plums in the way
of ambassadorships and ministerships to
bestow upon party supporters who say
it not with flowers but with fat campaign
contributions in an election year. The
Rogers law took this situation into ac
count by failure to include within its
promotion and pension provisions any
foreign service officer above the rank of
counselor of embassy or legation.
Representative Robert Low Bacon, Re
publican. of New York, himself the son
of a one-time Secretary of State and
who apparently has an inherited interest
in our foreign relations, has introduced
a bill proposing to remedy a Rogers law
deficiency which unfairly handicaps men
who embark upon the foreign service
as a career, but, under existing condi
tions. may suddenly be subjected to loss
of their status through the whims or
political exigencies of the President—
any President. As the law now is there
are officers who in the past have not felt
they could accept appointment by pro
motion to the grade of minister for
personal economic reasons; being with
out. independent means, they did not
regard themselves justified in surrender
ing their status as members of the
career foreign service.
Today if n foreign service officer is
Appointed minister and later is sup
planted through the wish of a President
to appoint some one else, such a foreign
service officer is dropped entirely from
the roster after perhaps a long and dis
tinguished career, forfeiting all the
> -rights, including retirement emoulments,
\ which he had previously earned. This
Inequity would be removed under the
Bacon bill creating a new class of for
eign service officers to be known as "min
• isters of career.”
Inherently fair and sound, the pro
posal deserves the prompt and cordial
> support of Congress.
• » i
Rodfern's Immortality.
* •
; The eleven-year-old mystery of the
* fate of Paul Redfern. the American flyer
* who disappeared somewhere over the
J Guiana jungles in an attempted non
J stop flight from Brunswick, Ga.. to Bra
* 7tl. may be solved at last with the report
l that his grave and the wreckage of his
* plane have been found.
J There can no longer be much doubt
[ that Redfern is dead, and that the suc
i cessive expeditions in search of him are
J as futile as were those in search of Sir
John Franklin about the middle of the
’ past century. And over these trackless
‘ Jungles, it now appears, the American
* aviator crashed into as strange an im
( mortality as has come to a man of our
* age.
s Some years ago there was brought to
’ the National Museum here by a Depart -
* ment of Agriculture plant explorer the
I image of a new god whose cult had
arisen suddenly and was spreading rap
* idly among the savage Indian tribes of
j the region. It was the figure of an air
* plane, quite accurate in some of its de
* tails. These details were such as could
* have been copied only at close range.
The probability is that they wrere copied
i from Redfern's crashed plane.
* Thus this flyer becomes the latest
* of the weird procession of hundreds of
; thousands of supernatural personages
| whom men have feared and worshipped
; through the ages. It is a strange, but
► not altogether unenviable, fate.
*
j Annapolis naval students report that
successful aspirants in mathematics were
‘ thrown into the river by fellow students
in a spirit of jocose celebration com
* memorating the fact that even in seri
ous scholastic circles we give more at
j tention to cheerful persiflage than we
do to the really hard work of compu
tation.
«
Federal Intervention.
It is not a flattering commentary
on any local government that the
protection of civil liberties of its citi
zens should require even an inquiry by
the Federal authorities.
That such intervention was justified in
"bloody Harlan County” became evi
dent with the disclosure of strong-arm
rule and terrorism brought out before
the Senate Civil Liberties Committee.
That it is again justified in Jersey City
has been apparent for many weeks as
' the administration of Mayor Hague, hid
*
ing behind Its own made-to-order
ordinances for control of individual
liberties, consistently abused the privi
leges of American citizenship and made
the community virtually a foreign
country.
It has been obvious during these
developments in Jersey City that the
Federal Government was being increas
ingly embarrassed. On the one side
was Mayor Hague, influential Democratic
leader and official of the Democratic
National Committee. On the other side
has been the C. I. O., principal "victim"
of the Hague ban and important sup
porter of the administration party.
Prominent in the picture were the highly
publicized cases of "deporting" Norman
Thomas and refusing "passports” to
two members of Congress, one a Demo
crat.
All factions involved undoubtedly have
exerted pressure either for or against
Federal intervention. The La Follette
committee, out of funds at the time,
found refuge in that circumstance while
President Roosevelt himself expressed
the opinion that it was a "local matter.”
Those demanding a correction of con
ditions in Jersey City apparently have
prevailed in the past few days, however,
with the intervention of the Department
of Justice resulting.
It is to be hoped that a full inquiry
will be made and that politics may be
sufficiently disregarded to allow cor
rection of a condition which offends
any honest-thinking American.
A Fresh Start.
It is significant that the Department
of Justice, in deciding to reopen its in
vestigation of automobile finance com
panies, has chosen to make a fresh start
in South Bend, Ind., rather than at Mil
waukee, Wis.. where the original grand
jury inquiry ran afoul of a Federal judge
with “old-fashioned" ideas.
That first investigation developed into
what became known as the “Judge
Geiger case,” taking its name from
Judge Ferdinand A. Geiger, who refused
to permit his court to be used for what
he considered to be purposes outside the
scope of legitimate prosecution.
The Milwaukee grand jury, according
to the department, was prepared to re
turn indictments when Judge Geiger,
after learning that representatives of the
Justice Department had been negotiat
ing for a consent decree while the case
was pending before the jury, dismissed
the entire proceeding. He took the po
sition that an attempt had been made
to use the grand jury as a “club" to com
pel the signing of the consent decrees,
and in that he was supported by the dis
closure of what can be described only
as thinly-veiled threats made by high
officials of the department in Washing
ton to representatives of the finance
companies.
The entire record, incidentally, was
spread before the House Judiciary Com
mittee at the request of the Attorney
General. After all the facts became
known, however, the committee seemed
content to let the department's com
plaint die a natural death and the At
torney General has shown no desire to
press the issue.
In deciding to take the case to South
Bend, the department presumably was
motivated by an understandable desire
to make a fresh start in new surround
ings. But in view of its experience wifh
Judge Geiger, it is probable that there
will be no more "high pressure'' conver
sations in Washington between depart
ment officials and the automobile men.
Summer Music.
Not since the summer of 1936 have
the melodies of the masters floated from
the Arlington Memorial Bridge Water
Gate across the moonlit Potomac or up
ward to the silent nocturnal grandeur
of the Lincoln Memorial.
It is with real pleasure that Wash
ingtonians should greet the news that
the evening summer concerts will be
resumed probably in early July. Like
the Hollywood Bowl concerts under
starry California skies, the programs of
music played by the National Symphony
Orchestra by the lapping river should
be a part of the cultural, civic and
social life of the city in which they
are given.
The proposition by which the musi
cians will be in a band shell on a barge
instead of on a permanent platform
is also a happy one. There is some
thing more romantic, sentimental if you
will, about playing from a boat rather
than from a dock, and the Pine Arts
Commission has well taken exception to
the location of a permanent structure
at the Water Gate.
The concerts, it will be recalled, were
started during the summer of 1935 by the
National Symphony Orchestra and con
tinued the following year by the musi
cians on a co-operative basis.
There is now a general disposition
to extend the operation of daylight
saving time so that people who have
learned to understand it are willing to
accept it without argument.
Virginia Speed Laws.
Next month Virginia will place in
effect a new speed law setting specific
limits for passenger cars, trucks and
buses.
For years the maximum speed limit
on highways of the Old Dominion has
been forty-five miles an hour—at least
in theory. Actually, under the present
law, a speed of more than forty-five
miles an hour is prima facie evidence of
reckless driving, and two convictions for
reckless driving automatically call for
revocation of an operator's license.
This unusual situation has been held
objectionable on the ground that drivers
summoned to court for speeding have to
be convicted or acquitted of reckless
driving.
Although the new statute raises the
limit for passenger cars and motor cycles
from forty-five to fifty-five miles an
hour, the move is expected to aid ma
terially in the fight against highway
fatalities.
In addition to defining the limits for
passenger cars and motor cycles, the
Legislature set the limit for passenger
buses at fifty miles an hour, for trucks at
forty-five miles an hour and for school
buses at thirty-live miles an hour. These
limits for the various classes of vehicles
are expected to and no doubt will pro
mote safety and facilitate the flow of
traffic if adequately enforced.
Enactment of the new law followed a
recommendation of the Governor’s Leg
islative Advisory Council, which made a
study of Virginia statutes to discover
which needed overhauling. The neces
sity for a definite speeding law was
found to be most urgent.
It is obvious that modern traffic prob
lems cannot be solved alone by legisla
tion, but m Virginia, and perhaps in
other jurisdictions, legislation may prove
to be the first step toward improvement.
The Old Dominion is to be commended
for making what appears to be a progres
sive statutory enactment. It should not
hesitate to make further changes in the
law books if the results are not as suc
cessful as anticipated.
I
One of the most interesting features
of the circus has been the monkey that
enjoys an especial share of press agent
celebration. You may go through dress
ing rooms or cages and find an old
rule respected as it was in the days
of P. T. Barnum or Adam Forepaugh.
It is the feature which enjoys the
most expert exploitations that get popu
lar credit for being most of the show.
There is still a tendency to refer to
the Vice President of the United States
as “Jack” Garner. This need not inter
fere with his serious ambition. A time
is still within memory when newspaper
workers addressed to Mr. William How
ard Taft a pathetic reminder of his in
creasing dignities w'ith the rhythmic
question: “Can't we call you 'Bill' now,
any more?”
Chinese citizens raised more than
$1,500 in this city to be sent to their
relatives who are fighting at home.
The sum is small, but it may have its
value as an evidence of thoughtfulness
and good will.
Politics in Pennsylvania has for many
years displayed distinctive peculiarities.
There are citizens who to this day are
wishing for a Boies Penrose who would
keep matters straight by arbitrarily an
nouncing who was to run and when.
A study of the Pennsylvania returns
brings up the question of whether our
political system is not concerning itself
too much with variety of purpose and
not enough with substantial and endur
ing results.
— ■- —— ■ ■ —
Greenbelt. Maryland, is a notable and
progressive community, but it does not
escape ordinary embarrassment when
it comes to the simple matter of estab
lishing a dog tax.
Shooting Stars.
By PHILANDER J0HN60N.
Digestion.
Though you may voice some cruel word
With energy complete
This warning sage will still be heard—
“Be careful what you eat!''
Dear friend, be careful what you drink,
Beware of viands neat.
But most of all take heed and think—
Be careful what you eat.
In gentleness and not in ruth
We'll never try to cheat.
Say what you wish, but pause in sooth—
Be careful what you cat!
Guidances.
“I'm glad the circus has gone on its
way,” said Senator Sorghum.
“You are again taking up the reigns of
government?" asked the serious visitor.
“Yes, and I feel better to get back on
my regular job Instead of being con
stantly tempted to get out and try to
ride a trick mule.”
Shortage.
The ballet dancers we admired
Once seemed quite scantily attired.
But now when for the street they dress
The clothes they wear seem even less.
“The man who grieves because life
holds no more illusions,” said Hi Ho, the
sage of Chinatown, “is usually a dweller
in a large city removed from temptation
to engage in a horse trade.”
Fearlessness.
“I understand you have a lady police
man in your town.”
“Yes,” answered the city father, “and
three of our most promising young men
are going to the dogs trying to get
arrested.”
Persistent Preference.
To love our enemies well try,
But as the peaceful prayer ascends
Well keep, while years go drifting by,
Our best affections for our friends.
“De horticulturist who took de spines
out of castus,” said Uncle Eben, ‘‘did so
well dat we’s lookin’ for him to make life
easier for de boss by gettin’ de pins out’n
newly laundered shirts.”
Navies as Peace Keepers.
Prom the Loulivllle Courier-Journal.
A ‘‘hon-aggression pact” with Japan
would be an effective instrument for
the preservation of peace in the Pacific
as soon as we have a Navy big enough
to keep it for both of us.
Costly Confabs.
Prom tha Arkaneaa Oaiette.
More and bigger visits between
Caesars—Hitler’s to Rome is said to have
cost Italy $30,000.000—might serve to
prevent war by consuming the where
withal.
Oratorical Instruction.
Prom the Philadelphia Record.
A school to teach public speaking to
Congressmen's wives has been opened
In Washington, leaving wilted observer*
convinced that the day of the matriarchy
has really arrived.
1 T
Senator Nye’s Reversal
Of ^Neutrality Position
To the Editor of The Ster:
A great deal has been said and written
lately concerning public opinion, and, in
contemplating it one cannot help re
marking how quickly and easily the pub
lic forgets and changes its opinions of a
few years back. This applies particularly
to many serious issues of today, but the
most striking example just now is that
afforded in the movement to lift the
arms embargo against Spain. By a
curious and, to many of us, inexplicable
irony of fate the author of the resolu
tion to lift the embargo is the same man
who in 1935 headed the Senate commit
tee investigating the munitions industry,
who that year was co-author of four
resolutions on United States neutrality
during war, involving arms embargoes;
who in 1936 offered another bill for an
embargo on raw materials essential for
the conduct of war, and in 1937 offered a
bill denying passports for travel in war
zones. In the year 1937 Senator Nye also
put himself on record during debate of
the present Neutrality Act as opposed to
giving the President discretion in the ap
plication of embargoes and other meas
ures to belligerents.
The year 1935 was marked by a wide
spread anti-war feeling in this country.
Countless books such as “Merchants of
Death." “Road to War,” ‘‘Iron, Blood and
Profits" made their appearance to in
form people in regard to the munitions
industry and to discourage any tendency
to profit by that industry again at the
cost of another world war. The Nye
committee made a far-reaching investi
gation of the traffic in arms and its re
port is one of the strongest arguments
that has ever been made against war
and European intrigue leading to it. Mr.
Nye spoke earnestly and compellingly
throughout the country on the subject,
and in a speech on April 27,1935, he said:
‘‘And I say it is high time we changed
our policy and adopted a policy of neu
trality which said that in the event of
more engagement in war that it shall be
unlawful for the American flag to be
flown on any cargo whose destination is
a nation engaged in war." And further:
“I would still insist that the duty was
upon us to give our every effort to the
accomplishment of these better things,
these things that might save us from the
consequences of more wars. We owe
something to others than ourselves.”
With these sentiments we all heartily
agreed then and most of us do so now.
In the same year, during the discussion
of the Neutrality Act and the embargo
against Italy and Ethiopia, Mr. Nye was
quoted as saying: "It will be impossible
for Congress to form a policy later with
out incurring representations that such
a new policy involved the taking of sides
against one parttiailar belligerent."
ihe joint resolution of January b.
1937, states that during the civil war in
Spain It shall be unlawful to expoi\
arms and munitions of war "to Spain or
to any other foreign country for tran
shipment to Spain or for use of either
of the opposing forces in Spain." This
resolution, according to Secretary Hull
in his message to Senator Pittman,
was passed unanimously in the Senate.
We can safely assume that Senator Nye
either voted for the resolution or at least
did not register any opposition by a neg
ative vote. His attitude up to the pres
ent time has been that of firm opposition
to the shipment of arms abroad to feed
wars and to draw the United States into
them. One of his arguments was that
our last war was brought upon us when
American ships carrying munitions to
Europe ran afoul of the belligerents.
Prom the beginning of the civil war in
Spain British ships carrying supplies to
the Loyalist government have been cap
tured and sunk. The New York and
London Times have constantly reported
such attacks and sinkings. Yet Senator
Nye. in the face of all his previous state
ments, has introduced a resolution "re
pealing the joint resolution * * * ap
proved January 8. 1937, and conditionally
raising the embargo against the govern
ment of Spain."
no reasonaoie person disputes me nice
of a state of belligerency in Spain, re
gardless of whether it has been legally
recognized or not. Senator Nye's atti
tude on war and shipments to belliger
ents is equally applicable to the condi
tion in Spain. But he asks that the
condition of strict neutrality maintained
by the United States since the beginning
of the civil war should now be altered,
and arms be permitted to be sent to
one party. It is superfluous to discuss
the merits or demerits of the recent Nye
resolution now, but the striking thing
is that the Senator has executed as sud
den and as neat a reversal of position as
any acrobat. And apparently the re
versal is unaccompanied by any strong
reasons therefor.
Today the popular tune has changed
from absolute neutrality to active parti
sanship in quarrels that are strictly Eu
ropean. ELEANOR H. FINCH.
— .1 ■ - » I-—
I
Asks Less Personalities
In Radio Announcements
To the Editor of The Stur:
When will the broadcasting stations In
Washington give their listeners a
"break" and import some real honest
to-goodness announcers.
It is certainly disheartening to tune in
morning after morning and listen to
such drivel coming over the air; the an
nouncers endeavoring t very sadly in
deed) to emulate Ben Bernie, Fred Al
len. Charlie McCarthy, etc.
Just the other morning one announcer
spent five minutes telling his listeners
of his personal engagements for that
week. "Emceeing” here and doing a soft
shoe dance there! As though any one
was interested!
Another announcer whose name at one
time appeared in a famous columnist's
dailv article (every one wonders why)
insists upon talking about his trips to
New York. And he is so delightfully
droll he is sickening. He reminds one of
Ben Bernie no end. He is so utterly
different.
Won't the Washington owners of these
stations please have some consideration
for their audience. Or maybe the native
Washingtonian is satisfied with this
mediocre announcing.
ARTHUR L. HAMMOND.
Potomac Bridge Ideal as
Memorial to Jefferson
To the Editor o( The Star:
We are very much in need of a new
highway bridge across the Potomac.
Why not put an end to the annual dis
cussions about the Jefferson Memorial
by putting up a beautiful bridge and
calling it the Thomas Jefferson Memo
rial Bridge? I know of no better me
morial for a person than a really beau
tiful bridge that improves the whole
landscape. I am quite sure that many
more people are grateful to Francis Scott
Key because of the lovely bridge put
up in his name than if his memorial
were just another building in Washing
ton. MARY TUCKER.
The Retort Embarrassing.
From the Chicago Tribune.
A Swiss introduced a German to a
friend whom he identified as a Swiss
admiral. “But what does Switzerland
want with an admiral since it has no
navy?” inquired the German. “Well, in
Germany you have a minister of justice,"
retorted the Swiss. jy
THIS AND THAT
BY CHARLES E. TRACEWELL.
“L STREET.
"Dear Sir:
"I always read with Interest your
articles pertaining to recorded music and
kindred subjects.
"As you are building a musical library
you may have some ideas on the type of
needle best suited to the newer record
ings.
"For a time I used a chromium needle,'
later switching to a cactus needle, which
I generally find satisfactory, being less
noisy than the metal needle, but not
capable of producing as much volume.
"I have the feeling that the cactus
needle is less wearing on the record, but
this may be untrue. However, I have a
few records that do not seem to repro
duce correctly with a wooden needle,
seeming to drag, while they perform
acceptably with the metal needle.
"I would like to learn of your expe
rience with needles and know which type
you prefer.
"Sincerely yours, "R. B. W.”
* # * *
In few arts does so much depend upon
so small a point.
The phonograph needle is a small
thing, but mighty, when it comes to
getting out of a record what the artist
and engineers put into it in the first
place.
It is now generally understood that
electrical recording puts far more into
a disk than ever went into one before,
but it is not so well realized that some
offerings are too fully recorded.
That is, there is<so much in them that
the sound comes bubbling over the
edges, as it were.
Neither the tone-control device, nor
the volume control, will enable the lis
tener to enjoy such records.
The right kind of needle alone enables
him to listen calmly to some of the too
full recordings. To the person not ac
quainted with this art it might ■seem
the easiest thing in the world to "turn
down” the volume, but that merely cuts
the output and thins it. There is a
maximum point of tonal enjoyment,
just short of blasting. This is the point,
at which the machine operates most
efficiently as a musical instrument.
One expert declares that all records
should be played at this volume, and
that if they sound too loud the listener
should go into another room. In the
main, this is good advice. The tone
control will cut out some of the higher
frequencies, and so give the music a
more mellow tone, but it will not give
all the desired effect.
It is not only a question of toning
down a recording which actually has
too much in it. but also of smoothing
out and bettering the sound of any rec
ord. Operation of the tone control de
vice cuts out most of the needle hiss,
but the record also has to be considered.
They are expensive, and the owner
wants them to last. It is not only com
mon sense, it is art. as well, since record
wear at last destroys the tone of the
recording.
* * * *
Makers of steel needles claim that the
point is really a tiny ball, and that this
rides along the bottom of the groove.
The sound waves are in the sides of
the grooves. That is the reason the
better steel needles are inspected indi
vidually with el»ctrical apparatus, in
order to make an absolutely smooth
contact.
Perhaps 99!) out of a thousand enthusi
asts have the idea that the steel needle
is bad for a record. Whether any of
them has made practical tests is an
other matter.
The writer here has never used steel
needles, either on the older recordings,
with the acoustical machines, or upon
the new electrical recordings with the
straight electrical machines, in which
the old tone arm has been replaced by
the electrical pick-up. The thorn, or
cactus, needle, is preferred. We have
yet to see whether it will wear the rec
ords. Our belief, as that of our corre
spondent, ft that it will not. That, at
any rate, is the claim.
There are various grades of these nee
dles, some of them harder than others.
The more dense wood gives a tone closer
to that of steel or other metal.
There is a wide belief among gramo
phone "fans’’ that these needles not only
give a more artistic tone, in any record
ing, but also will not harm the record.
It would make an interesting experi
ment for some devoted enthusiast to
buy two identical records at the same
time, and play each of them at least once
a day, playing one with cactus needle
solely, and the other solely with steel or
other metal. Time would tell.
# * * *
It is not generally known that a slight
abrasive is used in the record material,
in order to grind the point of the needle
to fit the groove better.
The weight of the pick-up also helps
in this process.
Perhaps there is far less wear on a
record, with any needle, than the aver
age anxious owner fears.
The salvation of any individual record
is the extent of the collection. The larg
er the collection, the less often any rec
ord will be played. !
Often a new record will chatter when
it is played with any sort of needle.
Our experience has been that this will
finally disappear with the exclusive use
of a cactus needle.
The “swish" in some records, which
our correspondent rails a drag, is in the
record; probably it was pressed incor
rectly. No type of needle will alter
this swishing sound. Fortunately, not
one record in 10,000 suffers from this
defect.
In addition to correct alignment of
the pick-up arm. a modern machine
should be set level, so that when the
turntable is revolving, and the needle is
placed on the smooth outer rim of the
record, it will remain where it is. and
neither slide into the grooves or off the
edge of the disk.
Some record addicts believe that, all
new records should be played at least
once with a steel needle, cactus there
after.
They assert that this is particularly
necessary in the case of heavily recorded
numbers.
There is a large opportunity for wide- '
spread experimentation in this whole
matter The final word has not been
said. But until it is. we will continue
to use the wooden needles. They are
easier on the mind, and, we believe, on
the record.
We do not advocate turning the cactus j
needle slightly in the holder, each time a j
record is played, as is sometimes advo- j
cated.
As long as the reproduction is clear,
the cactus needle is fitted to the groove,
and should be let alone until the repro- i
duction becomes fuzzy. The longer and I
sharper the point, with these needles,
the better, ''griouidpring- is a danger.
STARS, MEN AND ATOMS
Notebook of Science Progress in Field,
Laboratory and Study.
RY THOMAS R. HESRY.
Already Gallinger Hospital's blood
bank can be credited with saving eight
or ten lives.
Started less than two months ago at
the instigation of the hospital's surgical
department, it has become one of the
largest set-ups of its kind in the United
States and is opening new possibilities
in blood and serum storage. The basic
plan is similar to that in eight or ten
other cities. Blood is given not by
transfusion from one person to another,
but from supplies kept in cold storage.
Even' drop used must be replaced as
soon as possible by relatives or friends
who hitherto would have been used for
the transfusions.
In this way it is possible to have on
hand constantly adequate supplies of
blood of all the four types encountered
in human beings. Transfusion is of
greatest value in emergencies, such as
loss of blood from serious accidents or
the severe hemorrhages which sometimes
occur in obstetrical cases. The sooner
the new blood supply can be given the
better. Although many lives have been
saved by the practice in the past it has
been seriously limited.
The blood must be of the right type to
match that of the natient, both in cell
form and agglutination properties. It
must be free from contamination by cer
tain prevalent blood diseases. The avail
ability of a blood transfusion in an
emergency was depended often on pure
luck—finding a person willing to give
the transfusion who fitted exactly in the
picture. Even then a delay of several
hours usually was necessary while the
appropriate tests were made.
Under the blood bank method the
surgeon simply goes to the icebox and
draws out an adequate supply of what
ever kind of blood he needs. A transfu
sion can be under way in 10 or 15
minutes after the patient is brought to
the hospital. The supply must be re
plenished as soon as possible, for the
solvency of blood banking depends, like
that of money banking, on the income
equaling or exceeding the outlay. The
replacement blood Is obtained from vol
unteers among the relatives and friends
of the patient. No difficulty has been
encountered.
It is not necessary tnat exactly tne
type withdrawn be replaced. One can
draw cash from a bank and replace it
with checks to cover the account. Just
so, type 1 blood can be withdrawn and
type 4 deposited. In the end it will come
out even.
The icebox blood, it is demonstrated
by the work at Gallinger, is even better
than that drawn fresh from the human
veins. Without much doubt it undergoes
some sort of change and this seems to
result in less serious reactions. It can
be kept for approximately a month in
good condition.
The success of the blood bank tests
has led the Gallinger doctors to prelim
inary experiments with a blood serum
repository. It is hoped eventually to
have a collection, as nearly complete
as possible, of blood serums from per
sons who have recovered from such ail
ments as streptococcus infections, parrot
fever, poliomyelitis and encephalitis. It
may be possible to keep these for an
indefinite period, for use in emergencies.
Whenever a volunter blood donor comes
to the hospital a careful medical history
is taken. If he has had any of the
diseases for which convalescent serum is
used his blood Is drawn but it does not
go into the blood bank vaults. Instead
it is given special treatment and kept by |
itself for a special sort of emergency. j
The value of the Gallinger blood bank
is augmented by a new device, to which
special adaptations have been made in
the laboratory there, for counting blood
cells and typing blood. This is done by
the passage through a solution of the
blood of light which falls on a photo- 1
electric cell, thus setting up an electric i
current which varies in strength with
the strength of the light coming through
the clouded solution. The strength of
this current is recorded by an electrom
eter, and this record can be translated 1
by means of tables into an accurate esti
mate of the number of cells in the water
through which the light passed. Work
which once required hours can now be
completed in a few minutes.
The blood bank work is in charge of 1
Drs. Jacob Weinstein. H. H. Loeffler and i
Howard Newman and was started be
cause of the reported success of similar
set-ups in other cities.
Among the far-reaching results that 1
may come from this blood bank work in >
hospitals like Gallinger, the doctors
stress, may be a great reduction in battle
deaths in another war. Blood transfu
sions are especially important for
wounded men. Under the circumstances
they usually have been impossible and
thousands have died for no other rea
son than loss of blood. With the per
fection of methods now in use it prob
ably will be possible to transport large
quantities of Icebox blood to the front
lines, where they will be on hand for the
emergency cases following a battle. This
will perhaps be the outstanding medical
innovation in future warfare.
Lessons From Tank Warfare.
Prom the San Antonio fcipress.
Military and naval experts studying
the wars in China and Spain have
learned nothing conclusive about the
airplane's potency as an offensive weap
on. Japan’s vastly superior air force
has failed to •break China's morale or
gain any ground without the land troops'
support. In Spain the contest has been
nearer equal, but nothing is yet proved.
Likewise, the combat value of fighting
ships, chemical warfare and disease bac
teria has not had an adequate test in
either struggle.
It is a different story as regards tanks,
which have been developed so greatly in
speed, mobility and general efficiency
since the World War to render previ
ous performance no longer a criterion.
Military experts have found occasion to
observe several types of tanks in action
under varying conditions in Spain and
China, and they have reached conclusions
mostly favorable to the tank advocates.
United States Army authorities do not
believe that tanks can substitute for in
fantry any more than can airplanes, but
they have shown themselves indispensa
ble adjuncts to manpower in big bat
tles. When two powerful forces are
stalemated, a strongly backed tank
charge has a good chance to crush the
enemy lines.
Recitation Insurance.
Prom the Saglnew News.
Student at Northwestern University
have insured themselves against having !
to recite. The teachers ought to be j
given the privilege of insuring them
selves against having to listen. 1
ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS
By FREDERIC J. HA SKIN.
A reader can get the answer to any
question of fact by writing The Eve
ning Star Information Bureau, Frederic
J. Haskin, Director, Washington, D. C.
Please inclose stamp for reply.
Q. Who is the new President of Ire
land?—E. G. H.
A. He is Dr. Douglas Hyde, scholar
and writer, who is largely responsible for
the revival of the Irish language by his
foundation of the Gaelic League in 1893.
Among his works are “A Literary His
tory of Ireland.” ‘ Love Songs of Con
nacht” and "The Three Sorrows of Story
Telling." Dr. Hyde is 78 years old.
Q. What is the meaning of Lafcadio
Hearn's given name?—J. H.
A. The author was born in Leucadia.
one of the Greek Ionian Islands, from
which he chose his own name.
Q. Where was the first creamery?—E.
W. S.
A. A Dane, who traveled In Switzer
land in 1820. wrote an account of the
practice of Swiss farmers of sending
their rows to a central organization (
where most of the milk was made into
cheese. Each farmer was paid in due
ratio according to the yield of his cows.
The increase in profit was marked and
the movement spread to France. The
modern creamery may be said to date
from 1866, when the first distributing
society was founded in Denmark.
Q. What is the name of the harmonica
band that played in "Mad About Music'?’’
—H. W. C.
A. Cappy Barra's Harmonica Ensem
ble appeared in that motion picture.
Q. How long does a day last on the
earth?—E. W. H.
A. Each day lasts 48 hours on the
earth from the time it begins on the
west of the International Date Line until
it entirely runs its course to the east of *
that line.
Q. How many boys and girls belong
to the 4-H Clubs?—L. G
A. In 1937 the 4-H Clubs, sponsored
by the extension service of the United
States Department of Agriculture, had
a membership of 1.191,976 farm bojs
and girls.
Q How did the Big Bertha get its
name?—E. W. O.
A. The long-range guns that bom
barded Paris were called Big Berthas in
honor of Bertha Krupp. wife of the head ,
of the great armament factory at Essen.
Q. How long have combs been used?
—R. W. D.
A. Hair combs are of great antiquity
and specimens marie of wood, bone and
horn have been found in Swiss lake
dwellings. Among the early Greeks and
Romans they were marie of boxwood and
in Egypt of ivory.
Q. Where can one get a book showing
harmonious combinations of garden
bulbs?—A. S.
A. A book recently published by the
Macmillan Co. is "Garden Bulbs in
Color.” by McFarland. Hatton and Foley.
It contains 275 colored pictures and is a
valuable guide in planning harmonious
combinations in the garden.
Q. What is meant by the Federal
Filled Milk Act?—J. H.
A. The Federal Filled Milk Act of 1923
prohibits the interstate distribution of
any combination of milk, cream or
skimmed milk, with any fat or oil, other
than the milk fat so as to resemble or
imitate milk or skimmed milk in any
form.
Q Please describe the blue room at
the White House.—L. W. R.
A The blue room, decorated in the
style of the first French Empire, has
always been considered the most beau
tifu room in the White House. The
walls are finished with white enameled
wainscoting and covered with heavy
corded blue silk brocatelle. Window'
draperies are of the same material, with
gold fret motifs embroidered at top and
bottom and stars embroidered in the
valances, above which are poised Ameri*
can eagles. The room is lighted with a
crystal chandelier, supplemented by
wall sconces. A white marble mantel
dates from 1792. The mantel clock,
decorated with a figure of Minerva, is
said to have been given by Lafayette
to George Washington. The furniture
has white and gold woodwork and blue
and gold upholstery.
Q. How did Fanny Crosby, the famous
hymn writer, become blind?—V. L.
A. She lost her sight in infancy, due
to the ignorance of a country physician
who applied hot poultices to her in
flamed eyes.
Q. How many grains of sugar are
there in a pound of granulated sugar?
—E. H. C.
A. The American Sugar Refining Co.
says that the variety is great, depending
upon the size of the grain. For in
stance. the coarsest sugar made by that
company is in crystals about the size of
a split pea. There are approximately
2.000 grains to the pound of this sugar.
Fine granulated sugar contains about
20,000,000 grains to the pound. For the
confectionery trade, an extremely fine
granulated sugar is made which has
close to 100.000.000 grains to the pound.
Q. When was the printed Bible made
official in England?—J. H. W.
A. The royal proclamation of 1538,
which made the printed Bible official,
read as follows: "That ye shall provyde
* * * one boke of the holy byble of the
largyest volume in Englyshe and the
same set up in sum convenient place
wythin the said church that ye have
the cure of, where as your parishioners
may moste commodiouslv resorte to the
same and reade it. * * * That ye shall
discorage no man prively or apertly
from the readynge or herynge of ths
sayde byble.”
Q. What is the oldest inhabited city
in the world?—E. H.
A. Damascus in Syria.
Q. When will the Will Rogers Rodeo
be held in Colorado?—S. H. B.
A. The second annual Will Rogers
Rodeo will be held on August 19, 20
and 21 in the stadium at Colorado
Springs. It ranks with the bigger rodeos
of the country with approximately *10,
D00 in prizes and will be directed by
Arthur Perkins.
_ ft
Q. How large is the Colorado Desert?
—T. M.
A. It is about 200 miles long and at
tains a maximum width of 50 miles. The
name Colorado Desert is applied to
that arid region of Southeastern Cali
fornia which extends from San Gorgonio
Pass southeastward to the Gulf of Cali
fornia, including the depression know:
as Salt**» Sink.
Extreme Methods.
F’rom the Pontiac Press.
Collcgianlike cheering squads are
used to rouse the Chinese hinterland for
war. They can be that aggravating.
A *

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