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THE EVENING STAR
With Sunday Morning Edition
THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor
WASHINGTON, D. C.
TUESDAY..May *4, 1938
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herein also are reserved. _
New Tax Philosophy.
The Supreme Court, in upholding the
Federal tax on the incomes of three em
ployes of the New York Port Authority,
admittedly a State instrumentality, has
unquestionably broadened the scope of
the Federal taxing power. The opinion
eliminated many of the uncertainties
that have infested the field of tax im
munity, and perhaps, as the minority
asserted, precedents of a century’s stand
ing were swept away.
But, granting all of that, it is difficult
to find language in the opinion justify
ing the assertion by Roswell Magill,
Treasury Undersecretary, that the de
cision is ‘“the strongest kind of support
for President Roosevelt’s recommenda
tions.”
Those recommendations are that Con
gress. by legislative enactment, authorize
the Federal Government to tax the
salaries of State employes and the in
come from State securities, extending a
corresponding privilege to the States
with respect to Federal salaries and
securities.
Should Congress undertake that by
statute, it presumably would become the
subject of litigation, and the Supreme
Court, to uphold the statute, would have
to overrule its decision of 1871 in "Col
lector vs. Day," which held that the
salary of a State probate judge was im
• mune from Federal tax. That the court
did not do that in the Port Authority
case is shown by the concurring opinion
of Associate Justice Black, who agreed
with the result reached by the majority
but found himself unable to reconcile
that result with the principle announced
in ‘‘Collector vs. Day.”
Justice Black made it clear that he did
not feel that the ruling in the Port Au
thority case was broad enough to permit
the taxation of State employes’ incomes
under the Sixteenth Amendment author
izing Congress to levy a tax on incomes
from whatever source derived. That
amendment was stressed by Mr. Roose
velt in his message to Congress on tax
exemptions as being broad enough to
permit the legislation he desired.
The majority opinion avoided any ref
erence to the Sixteenth Amendment, but
turned instead on the respective powers
granted the Federal and State Govern
ments as of the time of its adoption.
Since the decision in “Collector vs.
Day” the court, in deciding the validity
of a particular tax, has relied upon the
doctrine that incomes derived from ac
tivities thought to be non-essential to
the preservation of the State are tax
able, while incomes from activities
deemed to be essential are not taxable.
Certainly, in the Port Authority case,
the court did not discard that doctrine.
The new question before the court was
whether the Constitution grants im
munity from Federal income tax to the
salaries of State employes performing,
at the expense of the State, “services of
the character ordinarily carried on by
private citizens,” and the justices ruled
that it did not.
The court, however, did not state Spe
cifically that State employes performing
► work not ordinarily done by private citi
zens would be immune from such a tax.
Seemingly, there was a strong implica
tion that the salaries of State employes
performing purely State functions could
not be taxed by the central government,
but It is possible that the justices pur
posely left the door ajar for a ruling to
the contrary should such a case arise
in the future.
Henry Ford once compiled a book of
current humor referring to gay but
Irresponsible comment on the cars he
manufactured. It would be too bad if
a new stress of circumstances were to
prevent him from getting out another
edition to be added to his contribution
as a public-spirited citizen.
The Lunacy Bill.
Whether or not a person is a "lunatic”
is apt to be a highly complicated tech
nical question.
In any particular case a jury of lay
men may be no more competent to Judge
whether an individual is mentally irre
sponsible than they would be to judge
whether he has typhoid fever. By and
large, the legal term "lunacy” is equiva
lent to the medical term "psychosis.”
This latter classification is applicable to
persons suffering, to a marked degree,
from delusions, illusions and hallucina
tions which usually fall into one of a
group of patterns.
In some cases the diagnosis is fairly
obvious. A jury, as a rule, takes the
word of a psychiatrist who has examined
the person. A lunacy proceeding
amounts, in fact, to a one-man trial.
The hearing is held in open court. The
unfortunate victim is introduced as a
spectacle for the morbidly curious—for
groups of college students of abnormal
psychology, for example.
There have been, of course, times
when Juries have disagreed with the pro
fessional witnesses. Upon occasions the
supposed "lunatic” will present such a
good appearance and answer questions
so rationally and intelligently that lay
men might be pardoned for a “reason
able doubt.” Some of the most danger
ous of all lunatics are, to all outward
appearances, Intelligent and rational if
one does not happen to hit upon the par
ticular subjects of their delusions.
Under a bill which passed the Senate
about two weeks ago and which is ex
pected to be brought up in the House
this week all this antiquated procedure
of a jury trial for all lunatics would be
replaced by examination behind closed
doors before a commission of experts.
The only possible objection might be
that the power to judge a person insane
and to order incarceration is a very
great one to be given to any small group
of individuals. This is provided for in
the bill. The "defendant” can demand
a Jury trial and get it. The chances are
there will be very few such demands.
The lunatic can no longer be consid
ered as a pseudo-criminal. He is a sick
man. There is no more reason for forc
ing him into open court to answer for his
"crime” than for forcing a victim of
smallpox into the same unpleasant sit
uation.
Schizophrenia and paranoia are no
more "crimes” than is tuberculosis.
Another Unending War.
Both the Spanish and Sino-Japanese
wars are about to reach their anniversa
ries. In July the Loyalist-Insurgent
civil conflict will be two years old. In
the same month it will be a year since
the Japanese embarked upon a struggle
which they thought would last weeks
instead of the protracted period during
which they have already lost more men
than were killed or wounded in the war
with Russia in 1904-05.
In Spain, as in China, calculations of
foreign governments, military experts
and others have gone sadly awry, as
far as estimates of the war's outcome
and duration are concerned. Long
the masters of fully two-thirds of the
country, Franco's victory ever since
the first of the year has been regarded
a mere matter of days or weeks. When
his Italo-German reinforcements of
troops, munitions and aircraft enabled
him last month to drive through Cata
lonia to the Mediterranean and achieve
the coveted objective of dividing gov
ernment Spain, the Insurgents and their
sympathizers throughout the world were
convinced that' it was all over but the
shouting. Yet the Loyalists fight on.
That their resistance is far from broken
and capable of indefinitely arresting a
decisive Rebel triumph is proved by the
monkey wrench which Mussolini has
suddenly thrown into the negotiations
for a Franco-Italian accord on the
Chamberlain "realistic” model. II Duce
declines to traffic with the French un
less they agree to close the Pyrenees
frontier to Loyalist military supplies, a
bluff that inspires no interest in Paris.
The situation in Eastern Spain begins
to resemble the condition on the West
ern front in 1918. So long as the Ger
mans were on the offensive with a pre
ponderance of men, guns and shells,
their progress seemed irresistible, but
the day was to come when they would
overreach themselves and the initiative
be transferred to the Allies. The Loyal
ist armies are still in being. Madrid and
Barcelona, despite periodical and de
vastating strafing by Franco’s air bomb
ers, continue to hold out. If the gov
ernment armies ever regain the offensive,
the Insurgents may find themselves in a
dangerous position.
From Hendaye, on the French-Spanish
frontier, the principal source of Rebel
war news, comes tell-tale word that
"while there is less doubt than ever in
Insurgent Spain as to Franco’s ultimate
victory, there is less anticipation of a
quick finish than there was when Lerida
fell, paving the Insurgents’ way to the
sea, and there is little expectation of a
Loyalist collapse.”
By studying the baseball situation it
again becomes evident that Washington.
D. C., while able to contribute the most
distinguished audiences, cannot rival
other efforts in the plain matter of pe
cuniary revenue.
The amateur theater is preparing to
enter upon spring activity. The possi
bility of allowing it to contribute greater
resources to public revenue might be
worthy of consideration at a time of pe
culiar public stress/
Commencement essays will soon be in
evidence and there will be the usual
dearth of comment on the question of
whether buildings are not costing too
much and expert instruction too little.
Third Term.
There is no statute of any kind to
forbid a chief magistrate from seeking
the mandate of the people for a dozen
years' tenancy of the Executive Mansion.
Nothing but the precedent set up by
George Washington inhibits such an
ambition. Yet the instinct of the aver
age thoughtful citizen supports the limi
tation imposed upon himself—and in
ferentially upon his successors—by the
first occupant of the highest office In
the land.
Consider, for example, these words:
“The menace of the Roosevelt campaign
does not lie in the attack upon the third
term tradition, but in the state of mind
that could desire four years more of
Roosevelt in the White House, four years
more of personal government, four years
more of presidential lawlessness, four
years more of autocratic rule, four years
more of executive contempt for Congress,
courts and Constitution; four years more
of centralization, four years more of
wanton extravagance, four years more
of denunciation and demagogy—in the
state of mind that wants the new
nationalism, that wants a Little Father,
that wants Federal Interference with
every form of human Industry and
activity, that wants the minority de
prived of all safeguards against the
tyranny of the majority, that wants the
States stripped of their power and bu
reaucracy substituted for the Bill of
Rights. * • • The danger does not lie in
popular indifference to the third term
tradition, but in popular indifference to
the fundamental principles of liberty
upon which the Republic was estab
lished."
These, certainly, are burning phrases.
They are quoted from an editorial
written by Frank I. Cobb for the New
York World, January 2, 1912, and refer
to Theodore Roosevelt.
Buddy.
Buddy, they say, is dead; but perhaps
the matter might be argued. First of
three hundred and fifty “Seeing Eye"
d ?s, she was famous in her own right
and as a symbol of the work she was
brought from Switzerland to Morristown,
New Jersey, to do. At eleven and a half
years of age she was approximately as
old as a human being at eighty-two.
Also, she had traveled more than a hun
dred and fifty thousand miles in her
role as guide for her blind owner. It
was well within her right to be weary, to
want rest. Brought home for her release,
’she will sleep under a pine tree in earth
proud to be her pillow.
Yet there is no end for such a career.
Her example, if nothing else, survives.
Likewise, the bond between men and
dogs is strengthened by the service she
rendered—a willing slavery of devotion
which defies adequate appraisal but
which incontrovertibly is as real as any
proven fact in the whole illimitable cos
mos. Let the philosophers debate the
problem as they will, humble hearts need
no reassurance. The average soul knows
—and accepts without question—the law
of continuity. Of course, breath stops,
eyes close, nature claims her price, the
experience of existence in this plane is
terminated. All that is conceded. What
is not, what cannot be admitted, is
finality. The mind refuses to contem
plate annihilation.
Buddy was only an animal, a composi
tion of living tissue—as her master is.
Time may strike them down, yet they
do not perish. Something, a universal
power in which the ticking of the clock
is but a detail, governs, preserves and
protects them. They go, yet they stay.
The burden of proof to the contrary
rests upon the occasional skeptic who
vainly doubts his own doubts and does
violence to a logic beyond logic.
Economies of all kinds are being con
sidered. It may yet be questioned
whether the cost of exploiting criminal
procedure is not being allowed to divert
too much expenditure to the matter of
picturesque celebration.
A simple habit of thought prevents Mr.
Ickes from regarding this Nation s sup
ply of helium as something to be domi
nated by foreign interests mysteriously
controlled by the swastika.
Experienced observers show a disposi
tion. while welcoming new ideas in eco
nomics, to fear that existence is liable
to become Just one new deal after an
other.
Researchers into the doings of Con
gress who are seeking clues to the pros
pect of an early adjournment seem to
lead from one complex to another, with
little progress toward an answer.
Shooting Stars.
By PHILANDER JOHNSON.
Harmony.
While visitors may pause to sigh
For life's departing glories.
The book store man still winks an eye
And tells us funny stories.
All tearfully the tourist calls
Oijr thoughts to disillusion;
The Colosseum swiftly falls
Into a sad confusion.
And still we strive and do our stuff
We hopefully conjecture
To find a man that's big enough
To fit the architecture.
Deliberation Needed.
“In this matter of legislation, haven’t
you been letting the grass grow under
your feet?”
“Not exactly,” answered Senator Sor
ghum. "Of course I believe in making hay
while the sun shines. But you’ve got to
give the hay a chance to come up,
haven’t you?”
a -
Indignity.
A man may be by fate enthralled
To hold a high position
And by his home folks still be called
A gol-dum politician!
“A man has my sympathy,” said Hi Ho,
the sage of Chinatown, "when the most
he can find for rejoicing is news that
his country has slain thousands in a
distant battle.”
Styles.
“Have you studied modem fashions?*
“Yes,” answered Miss Cayenne. “Every
time I go riding I am surprised at the
thought of the old-fashioned girl who
pulled her skirts carefully over her
knees when she sat down.”
Solemn Thought.
The aviator still draws nigh
To face the world, and think,
•Til either fly to realms on high
Or hit a wave and sink.”
“Don't complain of de pig dat puts
two feet in de trough,” said Uncle Eben.
"If he was a man will de same disposi
tion, he’d carry de whole trough home
and lock it up.”
Plenty of Room.
From the Los Angeles Times.
Schuschnigg has no legitimate kick,
say his Nazi keepers, as he has the run
of an apartment. It Isn’t as If ha wars
trapped la a dinette or a breakfast nook.
I ft
THE POLITICAL
MILL
BY G. GOULD LINCOLN.
The Republicans have had few chances
to cheer since 1932. They may be par
doned, therefore, if they grow enthu
siastic over the primaries in Pennsyl
vania, in Oregon and in South Dakota.
For in each of these States the Repub
lican vote in the primaries was greater
than the vote cast by the Democrats.
This fact does not necessarily mean that
the Republicans will poll more votes in
November in these States. In Penn
sylvania, for example, the Republicans
l»ve polled larger votes than their
Democratic opponents in State primaries
in recent years and then have gone down
to defeat in the general elections. His
tory may repeat itself next fall. But
somehow, the Republicans are feeling
a bit encouraged.
Not only has the Republican vote been
larger in Pennsylvania and Oregon, but
in those States the Democrats have en
gaged in terrific battles, the kind of bat
tles that leave bitterness in their wake.
If some of the Democratic voters next
November decide to go fishing instead of
going to the polls, that will be helpful
to the Republican candidates. If some
of the Democrats go to the polls and
vote for Republican candidates, that
will be even more helpful.
The very fact that the contests in the
Democratic primaries in Pennsylvania
and Oregon were so bitter, while the
Republican contests were less so, might
have brought out a greater vote for the
Democrats. In Pennsylvania the Roose
velt administration, represented by
Postmaster General James A. Farley and
Senator Guffey, the C. I. O. which was
backing Thomas Kennedy for Governor
and the A. F. of L., which was opposing
Kennedy, all played important parts
in bringing out the maximum Demo
cratic vote for a primary. Gov. Martin,
in Oregon, was opposed for renomination
on the Democratic ticket by the Roose
velt administration, as represented by
Secretary Ickes of the Interior Depart
ment, by the C. I. O. and A. F. of L.
Surely there was a combination to get
out the vote.
lb 4r *
The Republicans like to think that
something is stirring in the G. O. P.;
that the party organization is showing
signs of coming to life again. For, as
a rule, it takes party organization to
get out the vote in primary elections.
Yet to say that, because Judge Arthur
H. James, the Republican candidate for
Governor of Pennsylvania, was nomi
nated in a contest which showed a
greater number of votes than was cast
in the Democratic primary, Judge James
will defeat Charles Alvin Jones, the
Democratic candidate, in November is
going rather far. Indeed, it is not unlike
saying that the Army football team will
beat the Navy in November because the
Army defeated Yale or Harvard in Oc
tober and the Navy had gone down be
fore Princeton. Comparative scores of
that kind, in sport or politics, some
times are misleading.
* * * *
It is a fact, however, that Republicans
believe they can elect their candidates
for Governor and Senator in all three
of these States. If they can accomplish
those results, they may also gain a
number of seats in the House in Penn
sylvania, Oregon and South Dakota,
seats now held by Democrats. Demo
cratic leaders are sniffing at these Re
publicans claims, based on primary
figures. Nevertheless, the Democrats
themselves took great satisfaction from
the fact that the Democrats rolled up a
larger vote iji the Illinois primaries than
the Republicans, in April. Either pri
mary figures mean something, or they
do not.
It was only a few weeks ago that Re
publican leaders shook their heads over
the political situation in Oregon. This,
they said, was a bad year to hope to elect
Republican candidates there. But they
no longer feel that way. They are will
ing to give odds that the Republican
candidates for Governor and Senator will
win in Oregon in the fall. When former
Senator Steiwer, a Republican, resigned
last winter to go to practicing law, no
one had any idea the Republicans would
have a chance to elect a Senator to fill
his seat next fall. It was generally sup
posed that Mr. Steiwer himself had
come to look upon Republican chances
as hopeless.
* * * *
* * * *
Many Democrats who supported Gov.
Martin will not, it is insisted, support
Henry Hess, the party nominee, backed
by the C. I. O. and the A. P. of L., in
November. The feeling is too intense,
far transcending party lines, it is said.
A great number of Democrats have be
come Incensed over the labor strife in
Oregon. What the Democrats hope, of
course, is that a number of Republicans,
members of labor organizations or sym
pathizers, will turn in for Hess. On the
other hand, most of the labor vote in
Oregon, as elsewhere, already has left
the G. O. P. and registered Democratic.
In Pennsylvania and in Oregon, the
Roosevelt administration has interfered
to aid certain candidates it fancied in
the primary elections. This is a risky
thing for any administration to do. Out
side interference of that kind is resented
by the voters in the States. It appears
that the administration is active in a
number of intra-party contests in other
States. And where it has not already
found Democratic candidates to oppose
Senators and Representatives who failed
to stand 100 per cent with the President
on Capitol Hill, the administration is
casting about, hoping for such candi
dates to turn up.
* * * *
Senator Alva B. Adams of Colorado,
a sound Senator but considered far too
conservative by some of the Roosevelt
New Dealers, is one of the latest to find
he has a candidate in the field against
him, a candidate who has tacit if not
open administration support. Justice
Benjamin C. Hilliard of the Colorado
Supreme Court has just announced he
will seek the Democratic nomination
against Adams. Justice Hilliard says he
will run on 100 per cent New Deal plat
form in the primary which takes place
September 13.
Senator Adams is chairman of the
Senate Appropriations Subcommittee
which rewrote the President's recovery
and relief bill, Inserting a provision that
P. W. A. grants to municipalities to start
power projects to compete with private
public utilities were “out.” This has not
endeared the Senator to a number of
the administration’s closest supporters.
Furthermore, Senator Adams was re
garded as an enemy of the President’s
court packing bill last year; he has fre
quently attacked spending by the ad
ministration and opposed the President’s
reorganization bill. The cup has run
over, in the opinion of New Dealers, al
though Senator Adams has handled
other administration bills successfully in
the Senate.
* * * *
In South Carolina Gov. Johnston is
opposing the veteran Senator (Cotton
Ed) and in Georgia Gov. Rivers is
making up his mind whether to run
against Senator George. Both Johnston
and Rivers are credited with having
administration support. Johnston an
nounced his candidacy from the White
House steps reoently. Rivers, aoocofflng <
>4
THIS AND THAT
BY CHARLES E. TRACEWBLL.
« . ■ ■■ 1 i —
He came down to the office, after his
second night in his new suburban home,
talking about squirrels and *oblns, al
though he nad not been a man much
given to natural studies.
It is always that way. It is unusual,
and amazing, even, to find squirrels on
your front door step, and robins nesting
in a shrub close by the front window.
These things happen in the city, but
not so often. *
Deep city living shuts Nature out, in
its animal mood, at least.
It is not until one reaches the suburbs,
in most cases, that these engaging small
creatures begin to obtrude themselves
upon one.
City residents go to the Zoo, when they
want to see such animals at first hand.
* * * *
The suburban resident has a little
zoological garden of his own in the back
yard, side yard and front yard.
If he is enough interested to make
friends with them as they come, the
creatures respond pleasantly enough.
Unless one is slightly deaf, the shock
of suburban living at first Is rather
severe.
The morning chorus of the birds, at
its peak now, comes as a veritable clamor
to the untrained ear.
The mind, too, must receive some
training to understand and appreciate
and welcome noises and cries for many
years absent from the personal life.
The man who protests the crowing of
a rooster, or the croaking of a frog, the
high shrill note of the spring peeper, or
the bleat of a billygoat, all natural
sounds, is missing something which he
might as well have.
He must learn to enjoy these sounds,
then he will find a whole new world
opening both to his ears and his eyes;
enjoyment of these things is fundamental
to a happy life in the suburbs.
* * * *
Our friend who has Just moved will
begin to notice the wild rabbits soon,
and then a hitherto despised animal will
be seen to be just another small thing
trying to get along in the world.
Are not we all? Isn’t the rabbit a
brother in fur? And may we not say
this as a fact, utterly without sentiment
or sentimentality?
The suburban resident finds that he
may. These animals and birds, to the
former city dweller, are found to be
highly interesting, in their own right.
That they add a touch of novelty is
something for which they are not ac
countable.
The former city dweller is responsible
for that, himself.
He had closed the door of life so long
that he had forgotten that the wild rab
bits and the squirrels—no one would
think of speaking of them as wild—
[ know nothing about boundary lines.
* -d.
If one puts himself into the shoes,
shall we say, of a rabbit or a squirrel,
one is able to see very easily that the
suburbs is just land.
The rabbit which lives off one’s pe
tunias. the squirrel which is going
around burying nuts against the winter,
each creature is doing what Nature or
dained for it to do.
There is no cause for anger, here, or
anything but honest interest.
It is very easy to see that the dogs and
cats and rabbits and squirrels and the
birds and owls and even hawks are just
as interesting.
Thr.t old croaker in somebody’s pool
seems to make a queer noise, at first,
one had been so long away from natural
noises. Listened to rightly, he is heard
to make such noises as are proper to
him, sounds which blend well with the
night and the stars.
* * * *
It will be found that practically all
the natural sounds and sights are easy
to watch and to listen to, provided one
is naturally Interested in such matters.
If one is not?
Then the sensible thing to do is to
work up such an Interest, by making a
forward move in that direction. That
is good psychology.
Even by so simple a thing as listening,
or even by watching, one makes that
forward step. An even better one is to
put out food.
Feeding the squirrels in one's own
park, as it were, is real fun, but it must
be approached carefully.
No bite is nastier than that from a
squirrel’s teeth.
Often such a bite goes to the bone,
ana is difficult to heal.
Do not. therefore, make any sudden
movements close to one of these rodents.
You will not hurt him, but he doesn’t
know it.
Approach him slowly, and make all
movements in the slowest way. Do not
attempt to tell him what he shall do
with the food offered.
It is squirrel nature to hide most of it,
and it is.too late to do anything about
squirrel nature now.
* * * a
The suburbs offer an endless array of
natural features, among which no more
pleasant are to be found than luxuriant
tree, shrub and hedge growth.
Trees and shrubs dominate the sub
urban scene more than they do in town
City folks have a passion for neatness
which they extend to their gardens by
clipping and pruning to extreme lengths.
We of the suburbs like ’em to grow
tall and broad. We do not think there
is anything untidy about a great tree
and a great bush.
Such flowers as may be grown beneath
trees—and not all can be grown, by any
means, at least to their perfection—are
set off perfectly by the luxuriant growth
of other things.
The trees, undoubtedly, set the pace
for the rest.
The suburban acres seem to have more
trees than ever, as the trees are cut
down in the city to make way for—
what do they call it, progress?
* * * *
That most natural of happenings, or
facts, the weather, seems closer to one
out here.
When the moonlight lies across the
lawn, deepening the shadows of the trees,
the new suburban dweller will wonder,
at first, where he has seen such moon
light before.
Why, at the seashore, of course.
Rains come closer, here. Snow is a
delight. Thunder and lightning are very
real, especially the latter.
The splitting sound when a bolt strikes
a great tree brings back the early his
tory of the world, when all things were
natural.
STARS, MEN AND ATOMS
Notebook of Science Progress in Field,
Laboratory and Study.
BY THOMAS R. HENRY.
Nearly everybody agrees these days
that the world is “nuts”—even crazier
than most of the folks In It.
There has just been established in
Washington a new foundation sponsored
by some of the country's foremost
psychiatrists to find out what has gone
wrong with the mind of society and
what, if anything, can be done about it.
The foundation has been set up as a
memorial to the late Dr. William A.
White, long superintendent of St. Eliza
beth's Hospital, the Federal Govern
ment’s institution for the insane, who
was one of the world’s chief exponents
of psychiatric philosophy during his
lifetime.
These psychiatrists sees a queer sort of
parallelism between what is wrong with
the world’s brains and the weird mental
disease of young men and women,
schizophrenia, whose victims now fill
more than 250,000 hospital beds in the
United States. The term means “split
personality.” About 25 years ago. the
psychiatrists believe, according to a
prospectus in the first number of their
journal, Psychiatry, issued today, the
collective mind of civilized society, itself
in the adolescent stage of development,
began to "split.”
For carrying out the study the
foundation has an anthropologist famil
iar with the development of primitive so
cieties, a political scientist, an ethnol
ogist and psychoanalyst, who will delve
into the subconscious motives of racial
and cultural groups. Work will be car
ried on largely through graduate stu
dents. It is hoped to lay the founda
tions for a new science of social rela
tions in which there will be at least
understanding of the queer ways in
which pent-up hates of nations and
classes find vent in the suicide of war,
blood purges, destruction of racial
groups, and open war between govern
ment and business.
The purposes are outlined as follows
in the prospectus of the foundation in
the journal:
“Every established order throughout
the world is constantly threatened by
collective discontents which may dis
charge in hostile political action. At
any given time the stresses of the com
munity are potently attracted by cer
tain symbols of protest against things
as they are. In our epoch it is the sym
bols of Communism and Fascism which
bid most successfully for the support of
disaffected elements. The psychiatric
approach to politics assumes that the
accumulation of discontent is a perma
nent problem of society, and that no
mass movement of any kind is likely
to eventuate in the creation of adminis
trative institutions immune to criticisms
arising from stresses generated within
and between human personalities.
“The task of political psychiatry is to
probe for the enduring sources of dis
harmony in human adaptation, and to
devise expedients for dissipating the dis
content at the least human cost. In
tensive personality study exposes the
more subtle, profound and long-range
accumulations of stress within person
ality and culture. But the results of in
tensive research must be supplemented
to reports from Georgia, is charged with
having been a member of the Ku Klux
Klan. If the administration gets back
of him and. the charge sticks it might
be embarrassing in view of the Presi
dent's appointment of Associate Justice
i Bleak to the mipfis Oonrt lest peat.
*
by extensive research into the short-run
sources of conflict, such as reductions in
employment, reductions in the standard
of lying, and damage to the prestige of
collective national, racial, regional and
class symbols. The study of the person
alities who agitate and organize to lead
the challengers or the defenders of an
existing order is one aspect of this re
search problem, linking it tightly with
the study of the general course of per
sonality development and deviation.
"Research into political discontent re
quires the same rigorous methodology
which is essential in research into the
cultural factors in adolescent disorders.
Concentrated study should be brought
to bear upon contrasting social situa
tions where capitalistic and non-capital
istic, mechanized and non-mechanized.
urban and non-urban. expanding and
disintegrating factors are best exhibited.
The world panorama must be viewed
in its entirety and continually revalu
ated. The turning point in recent world
history was probably the situation in
which the World War was precipitated,
in the course of which determinted ef
forts were made to break up the world
wide division of labor, and at whatever
material sacrifice to create two inde
pendent. self-sufficient world economics.
The processes of world-wide economic
disintegration have continued since, and
each local manifestation of discontent
requires interpretation against this wider
background.
“The secure interpretation of each de
tail of culture depends on the total
matrix in which it occurs. Extensive
data on the adolescent disorders or on
political discontents need constant re
checking in relation to the total pat
tern of which they are specific aspects.
The research program of the founda
tion comprises the selection of cultural
situations which are marginal to the
main body of Western European culture
and the focusing of extended research
upon representative communities which
are typical of these marginal cultures.
Such ethnological case studies will sup
ply the background material for the in
terpretation of the more specialized data
of the separate social sciences.”
Navigation Problem.
From the Providence Journal.
It’s queer how things pop up off there
In the ocean for steamers to come along
and hit. On May 7, for example, while
the captain was doing justice to a crab
meat salad at lunch, the United States
Lines freighter American Banker ran
smack into a 70-foot whale and killed it.
This was 300 miles east of Nantucket.
Two mornings later, a little after 7
o’clock, 15 miles or so south of Brenton
Reef Lightship, the United States Lines
freighter American‘Importer ran into
the fishing boat Jennie T., out of New
port, and sank her.
There was a lot of water around in
both cases, and either freighter could
have veered to one side or the other,
which is more than you can do on a two
lane highway. If this had been done it
would not have been necessary for the
captain of the Banker to run up on deck
and sympathize with the battered le
viathan, thrashing around in the bloody
water, or for some one on the bridge of
the Importer to inquire whether any
damage had been done to the Jennie T.
But that is another queer thing about
the whole business. The way ships are
run nowadays on offshore courses either
the helmsman keeps his eyes glued on
the compass, disregarding all else, or the
ship is kept on her course by a machine.
On some big ships you can’t even see
eutflrom the place where the steering is
k
ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS
By FREDERIC J. HAS KIN.
A reader can get the answer to any
question of faat by writing The Eve
ning Star Information Bureau, Frederio
J. Haskin, Director. Washington, D. C.
Please inclose stamp for reply,
Q. How far can a frog Jump?—J.
W. D.
A. The official world's record frog
jump is 14 feet 8 inches.
Q. Is Carrie Jacobs Bond's “End of a
Perfect Day” supposed to be sung slowly?
—W. J. H.
A. Its composer recently expressed the
criticism. “They sing it too slowly. It
is a happy song.”
Q. What is the largest weight ever
lifted by a man?—E. T. A.
A. The greatest carrying feat by a hu
man being on record occurred in 1898,
when P. J. McCarthy, at St. Louis, Mo.,
staggered sideways eight steps with a
ton and a quarter load on his back.
Later he raised a stone-laden platform
weighing 6.370 pounds with his back, but
made no attempt to carry it.
Q. What is the married name of Pearl
Buck?—H. R. D.
A. The author is Mrs. Richard J.
Walsh.
Q. What is meant by academic free
dom?—C. M. S.
A. Academic freedom, as defined in
the 1938 Britannica Book of the Year,
is the right of a person connected with
an educational Institution freely to ex
press the conclusions resulting from his
study, either orally or through publica
tions. without Interference or restraint
from administrative, political, or religious
authority. It is subject to limitations
imposed by scholarly bodies who may in
sist that academic freedom shall neither
cloak techniques found clearly imper
fect, nor violate canons of professional
ethics.
Q. Why is a young tree nailed on the
roof of a new house?—M. D.
A. The custom of placing a flag or
tree upon the highest part of any
building when it is completed is be
lieved to have originated in Germany.
It is simply a good luck omen and was
designed to protect the structure from
evil spirits.
Q. What kind of a girls’ organization
is the Blue Birds?—C. R. B.
A. It is a junior organization of the
Camp Fire Girls.
Q. When were the first chukar par
tridges brought to the United States?—
G. B. H.
A. The chukar partridge was first In
troduced in the United States by F. E.
Booth of 8an Francisco. They were
then introduced into Oregon.
Q. Is Bright’s disease one of the chief
causes of death in this country?—
L. W. M.
A. Bright’s disease or nephritis stands
fourth among the causes of death in the
United States.
Q. When did Joseph Jefferson make
his first stage appearance?—J. S.
A. He appeared in blackface as a
partner of Daddy Rice at the Bowery
Theater, Washington. D. C., in 1832.
Jefferson, a child of three at the time,
was carried on by Rice In a valise,
emerging as a miniature Jim Crow. The
first 20 years of his life were spent as a
strolling player.
Q. Who invented the universal lan
guage Ro?—E. N.
A. It was invented by the Rev. Edward
P. Foster of Marietta, Ohio.
Q. When did the American flag make
its first trip around the world?—P. B. G
A. The ship Columbia, flying the
American flag, sailed from Boston Sep
tember 30, 1787, on a trip around the
world, returning on August 10, 1790.
Q. What is the meaning of the word
"teche” as used in Louisiana?—V. R.
A. "Teche” is a French word meaning
teak, which is a very heavy, dark wood.
Q. Please give some information about
the Pope's Golden Rose—C. B.
A. The Golden Rose has been bestowed
by Popes of the Roman Catholic Church
on celebrated persons, dignitaries,
churches and sanctuaries, which have
evidenced loyalty to the Holy See, al
most from the middle of the 13th cen
tury. The rose is of wrought gold and
is of single form; the latest model is de
scribed as a thorny branch, and the rose
itself is studded with jewels, usually
sapphires. It is perfumed, anointed
with incense, and laid on the high altar
the fourth Sunday in Lent, where it re
mains during high mass, after which
it is bestowed by the Pope accompanied
by a letter describing the service or
loyalty it commemorates. It is regarded
with the highest honor and is preserved
as a precious heirloom.
Q. What was Hans Wagner's all-time
all-America baseball team?—E. W. H.
A. His selections were as follows:
Pitcher, Christy Mat.hewson; catcher,
Johnny Kling; first base, Hal Chase;
second base, Larry Lajoie; shortstop. Joe
Tinker; third base, Jimmy Collins;
left field, Fred Clarke; center field. Tv
Cobb; right field. Babe Ruth; manager.
John McGraw; umpires, Bob Emslie and
Bill Klem.
Q. Where is the large new aquarium in
the South?—C. H.
A. It is at Marlnrtand, near St.
Augustine, Fla.
Favorite Hymns
Of A11 Creeds.
Favorite Hymns is a collection of 151
of the best loved hymns of all denomi
nations. In this new collection, pre
pared in response to many requests,
there are 151 hymns, complete with
words and music—hymns which have
been a source of inspiration and com
fort to mankind since the beginning of
the Christian church. The book is 6 by
9 inches in size and has an attractive
durable colored cover. Completely in
dexed. Send for your copy without
delay. Inclose 20 cents to cover cost
and handling.
USE THIS ORDER BLANK.
The Washington Evening Star
Information Bureau,
Frederic J. Haskin, Director,
Washington, D. C.
I enclose herewith TWENTY CENT8
in coin (carefully wrapped) for a copy
of the booklet, FAVORITE HYMNS.
Name -
Street or Rural Route
City .
State .—
(Please order by mall only.)
f

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