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Cloudy and somewhat colder today; to morrow cloudy, probably followed by rain tomorrow night; lowest tempera ture about 32. Temperatures today— Highest, 54, at 2 p.m.; lowest, 40, at 5 a.m. Full report on page A-2. Closing New York Markets, Page 18. First in Washington— First In the news coverage that builds public confidence—First in circulation and advertising that reflect public confidence. (A*) Meant Associated Press. 86th YEAR. No. 34,558. ZTlm" Tc* ' WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1938—FORTY PAGES. THREE CENTS. Gaston B. Means Dies, Silent On $104,000 Fails to Tell Where Ransom Hoax Money Went BACKGROUND— Gaston B. Means was convicted here June 13, 1932, of obtaining $104,000 from Mrs. Evalyn Walsh McLean under pretext he would return alive the kidnaped son of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, who was subsequently found slain. The former Justice Department agent received a 15-year sen tence. He teas stricken with a heart attack Thursday. By the Associated Press. SPRINGFIELD, Mo., Dec. 12.— Gaston B. Means, 58, oft-time con vict widely known for his $104,000 Lindbergh baby hoax, died early to day at the United States Medical Center here. Undisclosed to the end was his secret of what became of the large sum Mrs. Evalyn Walsh McLean of Washington, D. C., gave him on his promise that he could return the kidnaped son of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh alive. The big-time swindler offered no death-bed statement. He had met earier attempts of G-men to obtain here the inside story of the case with stony silence. Means’ death had been expected Since Thursday when he suffered a heart attack following an opera tion for removal of his gall bladder. Wife at Bedside. At his bedside when he died was his wife. Mrs. Julie Means of Wash ington, D. C. Other survivors in clude a son. Billy; three brothers, Afton and Brandon W. Means of Concord. N. C. and Frank Means of Providence. R. I.; and three sis ters, Mrs. J. F. Goodman and the Misses Mary Belle and Kate Means, all of Concord. Dr. M. R. King, warden, said the body would be sent to Concord. The prison at Springfield w>as one of a series in which the former Jus tice Department agent had been held since he was convicted at Wash ington June 13, 1932, of obtaining the huge sum from Mrs. McLean under the pretext that he could ob tain the return alive of the kidnaped 1 son of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh. The once dimpled-cheeked man,! called by his prosecutors a “modem | Baron Munchausen,” first was sent! to Atlanta Penitentiary, then to the ! Northwestern Penitentiary at Lewis- j burg. Pa., and from there to Leaven- j worth, Kans., in September, 1934. Illness brought his transfer to the j Springfield Prison Hospital in July, 1937. Sensational Career. Even before the Lindbergh case, he had a sensational career. It embraced trial and acquittal on a charge that he murdered a wealthy Widow for whom he had acted as attorney and financial agent; self admitted activity before the United States entered the World War in behalf of German employers to check on supplies shipped to the allies: his work in the Justice De partment and subsequent scandalous charges he voiced before a Senate committee against high men in the Harding administration, and con vicions at trials during which wit nesses said he had used his prestige in inner Washington circles to profit from illegal activities. The Lindbergh hoax case began Unfolding when Means was arrest ed May 5, 1932, as he was driving from his home in Chevy Chase, Md. Mrs. McLean testified she tele phoned Means a few days after the kidnaping, inquiring if he thought he could effect return of the Lind bergh baby through his “underworld contacts.” Means told her he was certain of it and that, as a matter of fact, he had been thinking about calling her to assist him in getting In touch with Col. Lindbergh. At Means’ trial it was brought out that prior to Mrs. McLean’s telephone call. Means had approached Col. M. Robert Guggenheim with a sugges Itinn that the latter arrange with . Lindbergh for Means to “in tigate” the case. [rs. McLean, then the estranged ; of the publisher of the Wash ton Post, said Means professed ing learned through a one-time mate in the Atlanta Penitentiary t the baby was alive and held in dco. Means’ reference to a peni tiary term was to one he served conviction in 1924 on charges t he helped the diversion of ok,000 cases and 12.000 barrels of bonded whisky into bootleg chan nels by boasting he had the Justice Department in his pocket. Becomes Suspicious. Mrs. McLean said Means told her of having met the old cellmate at a New York speakeasy. She told of handing $100,000 to Means, whom she also paid $4,000 for “expenses” at her Washington home in the (See MEANS, Page A-3.) Father Jailed in Theft To Provide Bread The father of three colored chil dren was sentenced to pay a fine of $10 or serve 10 days in jail in Police Court today for stealing a 6-ounce can of baking powder to make bread for them. The defendant, Edward Hall, about 40, of the 1300 block of Ninth street N.W., told Judge John P. McMahon that there was no bread in the house for his children and that he had all the ingredients except the baking powder. Hall said he did not get paid until next Thursday and that he could not borrow even enough to pay for the 12-cent can of powder. He readily admitted stealing it from a P‘ e in the 1500 block of Seventh set N.W. pecial Officer Donald Howard ght him as he walked out. GASTON B. MEANS. Take Reich Goods To Aid Jews, Nazis Plan to Tell World Germany Will Tie Emigration Up With Trade Expansion By the Associated Press. BERLIN, Dec. 12.—A high Ger man source disclosed today that Germany was working out what may become a new Nazi formula for the emigration of Jews. The problem probably will be solved, he said, by allowing one wealthy and four impoverished Jews to leave the country as enough Ger man exports are sold abroad to yield foreign exchange to meet the costs of their emigration. The disclosure coincided with in timation of a slight let-up shortly in the severity of Nazi anti-Semitic measures in return for which, it was indicated, Germany expects foreign Jews to provide foreign exchange. "The government, together with foreign Jewish associations, is work ing out a plan of coupling emigra tion with exports,” this source said. Foreign Aid Discussed. He told of it in connection with a D.NB., official German news agency announcement, which dealt with aid that foreign Jews and wealthy Ger man Jews can contribute to ridding Germany of her entire Jewish popu lation. “In pursuance of this plan,” he said, “every emigrating wealthy Jew should agree to take four pen niless Jews with him. “Obviously we cannot give him foreign exchange to finance such an operation. “He should find some wealthy Jew abroad to lend him such sums as may be necessary for enabling him and his four co-religionists to start life modestly anew in some other country. “We are willing to reimburse this foreign Jew but obviously can do it only by furnishing made-in-Ger many goods. “The emigrating Jew thus has it in his own hand to hasten the day of his departure from Germany; if he can provide additional mar kets for German-made products.” This source was confident that such a method promised success. Aim to Ease Tension. It was obvious from his manner that the DBN communique was cal culated to ease foreign tension over Germany's anti-Semitic drive, thus paving the way for foreign Jewish aid for German Jewish emigrants. The announcement said that re strictions against Jews entering ho tels, restaurants or stores owned by non-Jews would be relaxed after January 1. Signs proclaiming “Jews unwant ed'' were put up by all restaurants and hotels except those with large international clientele after the November wave of anti-Jewish vio lence. The only exceptions to the prom ised relaxation of anti-Jewish re strictions concerning hotels would be a few hotels such as the Kaiser hof in Berlin, where government officials and foreign guests of the nation usually stay, and the Deuts cherhof in Numberg, where Adolf Hitler always stops. Will Be No Ghettos. The DNB announcement declared that while there would be no ghettos, Jews would be asked to move out of houses owned by gentiles and gen tiles from houses owned by Jews, thus to avoid friction. Individual acts against Jews in the future are to be punished se verely, according to the announce ment. All this, DNB made plain, is not a change of the fundamental Nazi anti-Jewish policy but merely a change of method. The determined purpose of the Nazi regime was said now as before to be the elimination of all except the very oldest Jews from Germany. Britain'Hopes' Reich Will Not Annex Memel Joining France in Representation To Germany BACKGROUND— Memel territory, formerly part of Germany, was given to Lithu ania after war, but with special rights of self-government. Rise of Nazi regime in Germany has created demand in Memel for re turn to the Fatherland, and Ber lin has assiduously fostered this agitation. Showdown on fate of this region has drawn closer since Munich agreement dis membering Czecho-Slovakia. Bj the Associated Press. LONDON. Dec. 12.—Great Britain has expressed to Germany the “hope” that Reich will not annex Memel, Prime Minister Chamberlain told the House of Commons today. Britain, he said, was joining France in representations to Berlin concerning possibility of a move ment to absorb Memel. which was German before the World War, as a sequel to yesterday’s elections for the local Parliament which resulted in a decisive victory for Memel Nazis. Cites 1924 Statute. In reply to a question the Prime Minister said: “There is reason to think that after the Memel elections demands may be made upon the Lithuanian government by majority parties in the Diet which would be inconsistent with the statute of Memel (the agreement of May 8, 1924, by which Britain. France. Italy and Japan approved Lithuania's possession of Memel). “The British government, as a sig natory of the Memel convention, can not ignore this possibility. “In view of the special influence which the German government is in a position to exert in these matters, the British charge d’affaires in Ber lin has been instructed to join with the French Ambassador in express ing the hope that the German gov ernment will use its influence to in sure respect for the statute.” Not Required to Aid France. Previously Mr. Chamberlain had told the House that Britain was not obligated to go to the aid of France in event of an Italian attack on France or her colonies. Replying to a series of persistent questions, Mr. Chamberlain also dis closed that Germany thus far has made no official request for the re turn of her former colonies, lost in the World War. The prime minister declined to amplify his statement when a mem ber asserted that Adolf Hitler had brought up the colonial question in his September conference with Mr. Chamberlain at Godesburg, and again at Munich. MEMEL, Lithuania, Dec. 12 W5).— The pro-Nazi Memel directory, flushed with what it termed a smashing victory in parliamentary elections yesterday, decreed the end of Lithuanian police powers today in this former German territory. The decree asserted that only police of autonomous Memel would be permitted to control security of the territory lying at Lithuania’s southwest corner adjoining Ger many. Lithuanian police who heretofore have collaborated with Memel's autonomous force now will be re garded as private citizens. Final Decision in Berlin. Political observers declared final decision as to any change in the territorial status of Memel, object of German ambitions to expand along the Baltic, would be made in Berlin, not Memel. The Lithuanian government, which holds a somewhat nominal sovereignty over Memal, awaited the return from Berlin of the Ger man Minister It was expected he would bring precise German pro posals for the future of the dis puted region. A student strike was called in Kaunas as President Anatnas Smetona, re-elected last month with out opposition, took the oath for a new seven-year term. An attempt to call a general strike, however, failed. “Time Ripe for Decision.’’ Memel's “Horse Doctor Fuehrer,” Ernst Neumann, 50-year-old vet erinarian, sounded a rallying cry that “the time is ripe for a decision in Memel.” « He was backed by yesterday’s vote which showed over 96 per cent of Memel’s eligible voters—90 per cent (See MEMEL, Page A-3.) Police Open Center to Receive Gifts tor Needy Children National Guard Armory Becomes One of Key Spots in Christmas Campaign Presaging a merry Christmas for thousands of Washingtonians whose slim purses give them little hope of providing themselves with Christ mas cheer, the Metropolitan Police Department today opened its holi day gift-reception center in the Na tional Guard Armory, Sixth street and Pennsylvania avenue N.W. The armory thus becomes one of the key spots of the Christmas Cam paign being conducted by The Star, Warner Bros, and National Broad casting Co. through the co-opera tion of the police and the District Congress of Parent Teachers. Gifts contributed to the city’s needy by the generous-spirited citizens will be distributed by the police from this headquarters. Baskets of food will be given away to the needy at the armory the day before Christmas, and on December 25 the department will hold open house for children at the fifth precinct station, Fifth and E streets S.E. At the 18th annual police Christmas party every poor child in the city who wants it can get a present, a toy—for each boy or girl the thrill that comes, or should come, once a year—the re sult of the fact that better-off Washingtonians are eager to heed the Christmas Campaign slogan: “You Are Santa Claus.” The chief need of the police, how ever, is not food or clothing or toys but money. Capt. Joseph Morgan, commanding the fifth precinct, ex plained that cash is the first desire, because it can be used to buy food, clothing and toys now and set aside for the needs of the unlucky throughout the whole year to come. (See CAMPAIGN. Page A-4.) /And it USE&1 To BE SUCH A nice little l^KlSSY! Railroad Expenditure Of Billion Seen if Taxes Are Cut Spending at That Rate For 10 Years Needed, Senators Are Told By the Associated Press. Senators investigating the theory of incentive taxation heard today that railroads might spend $1,000, 000,000 a year for improvement if Federal and State taxes were light ened. me earners need to spend at tnat rate for 10 years, said R. V. Fletcher, general counsel for the Association of American Railroads. Mr. Fletcher told the Senate Profit-sharing Committee such ex penditures would create 500,000 jobs in the heavy industries. Before the railroad spokesman took the stand, the committee heard from a former Government tax ex pert that a reclassification of Federal taxation would increase employment, spur business and Increase national income. Lovell Parker, for 12 years an ad viser to the Joint Congressional Committee on Taxation, told the committee that if the Nation had a $100,000,000 income “all our trou bles would be over.” Urges Tax Reductions. As for the railroads, Mr. Fletcher said he believed “it would be a very wholesome thing” if the Govern ment would provide some incentive in the form of tax reductions in return for railroad expenditures on rehabilitation. He said such action by the Federal Government might provide a lead for similar moves by the States, which collect the major share of taxes from the car riers. “I think that if the railroads could have continued to buy as much materials and supplies during the depression as they purchased from 1923 to 1929.” Mr. Fletcher said, "there would have been no necessity for the huge expenditures that have been made for relief.” Mr. Fletcher agreed with Senator Vandenberg, Republican, of Michi gan. that the railroads should be al lowed to buy their securities at pres ent low market values without hav (See PROFITSHARING, Page A-12.) --• Ex-Governor General Of Free State Dies By the Associated Press. LONDON, Dec. 12.—James Mc Neill, 69, governor general of the Irish Free State from 1928 to 1932, died today. McNeill was a member of a com mittee appointed in 1922 to draft a constitution for the Free State and, before becoming governor general, served from 1923 to 1928 as high commissioner. Doctor's Life Is Saved in Slide 15 Stories Down Elevator Cable Hands Burned to Bone in Clutching Strand After Falling Into Open Shaft By the Associated Press. NEW YORK, Dec. 12—A young West Virginia physician stepped into an open elevator shaft on the 17th floor of the Hotel Piccadilly today, grabbed wildly for the elevator cable and dropped 15 stories in a flesh searing slide which seriously injured him, but probably saved his life. The cable slide of Dr. Kostokos Kostainer, 28, of Elkins, W. Va„ stopped on the roof of the elevator, which was on the second floor. His hands were burned to the bone, but he was conscious when hotel em ployes reached him. He called for a cigarette and calmly puffed it as he received first aid. At Roosevelt Hospital it was said he suffered possible Internal Inju ries. a fracture of the left leg and severe bums and abrasions on both hands. Dr. Kostainer's mother-in-law, Mrs. M. Manners of Greensburg, Pa., who was walking behind him. narrowly escaped following him down the shaft. She saved her self by clutching the side of the elevator entrance and dropping to the floor. They were engaged in conversa tion as they walked along the cor ridor on their way to breakfast, and Dr. Kostalner failed to notice the elevator door was open. There was no explanation why the shaft was unguarded. Willkie Would Fix Power PtmlMse Price By Arbitration Utility Executive Makes Plans Known in Letter To Lilienthal Bj the Associated Press. Wendell Willkie, president of Commonwealth <fc Southern Corp., offered today to submit to company stockholders his proposal that a fair purchase price for the Tennes see Electric Power Co. be fixed by i arbitration. In a letter to David E. Lilienthal, director of the Tennessee Valley Au thority, Mr. Willkie said he was making this suggestion because a 1 representative of T. V. A. “pretended : to be disturbed by possible litigation : on the part of the stockholders" if | the results of arbitration did not please them. Mr. Willkie suggested some time ago that the Securities and Ex change Commission be named to fix a fair purchase price for the Ten nessee company's properties. The company is a subsidiary of Common wealth & Southern. Testifies to Rejection. J. A. Krug, T. V. A.'s chief power planning engineer, told a congres sional committee last week that he was authorized to say that the T. V. A. directors had rejected the sug gestion. One reason he gave for T. V. A.’s attitude was the possibility of stockholder litigation. “I am unwilling to believe,” Mr. Willkie wrote Mr. Lilienthal, “that the T. V. A. or the municipalities lack confidence in the arbitrators (See-T. V. A., Page A-2.) Glass Container Field Dominated By Two Concerns Patent Ownership Data Given Monopoly Committee BACKGROUND— President Roosevelt last spring asked Congress to authorize com prehensive survey of America’s economic structure with particu lar attention to concentrations of financial power. To do job. Congress set up 12-man commit tee, evenly divided between legis lative and executive branches, and supplied them with $500,000. Study may take two fears. By JOHN C. HENRY. Two concerns holding ownership of basic patents have a virtual strangle-hold on the glass container manufacturing industry, it was shown before the Monopoly Com mittee today. The companies are the Hartford Empire Co. and the Owens-Illinois Co., under whose licenses almost 97 per cent of the 1937 glass containers were manufactured in 1937. This disclosure came as the com mittee questioned F. G. Smith, pres ident, and A. T. Safford, jr., counsel for Hartford-Empire. Hartford-Empire, it was brought out, gets more than 90 per cent of its income from royalties on its patents, making no glassware itself and merely licensing, not selling, ma chines by which glassware is made under its process. The company has assets of $11,000,000 and maintains headquarters at Hartford, Conn. In outlining the monopolistic pat ent policy of Hartford-Empire, Hugh B. Cox, Assistant to the Attorney General, placed in the record a (See MONOPOLY, Page A^5J Eva Tanguay Rallies HOLLYWOOD, Dec. 12 (£>).—Eva Tanguay, "I Don’t Care Girl” of the stage in the 1900’s, rallied early today from a critical abdominal ill ness, but Dr. Wendell W. Starr said there was little chance she would survive. Summary of Today's Star Page. Page. Amusements Obituary __.A-12 B-20 Radio _B-ll Comics B-18-19 Santa Story. B-8 Editorials ..A-10 Sports ..A-14-16 Financial . A-17 Society_B-3 Lost and Found Woman’s Page B-15 B-15 Foreign. Lima conferees weigh Venezuelan plan of defense. Page A-l Memel chiefs end Lithuania’s police powers. Page A-l Britain “hopes” Reich will not annex Memel. Page A-l Reich plans trade subsidy for Jews’ emigration. Page A-l Italians shift anti-French drive to Somaliland. Page A-2 Csaky named new Hungarian for eign minister. Page A-4 6,000 Japanese slain by guerrillas, Chinese declare. Page A-6 National. Gaston B. Means dies; silent on ransom hoax money. Page A-l Supreme Court rules Missouri school must admit Negro. Page A-l Willkie offers to submit T. V. A. plan to stockholders. Page A-l Ludlow asks ban on non-American munitions shipments. Page A-2 New Dealers predict crop control will be continued. Page A-2 Mayer suicide leaves mother to face murder charge. Page A-2 Eden’s program today is New York mystery. Page A-l Labor racketeering is charged in truck strike. Page A-l Picket lines encircle New York pack ing houses. Page A-5 Washington and Vicinity. Hearing tomorrow to air medical application of trust act. Page A-2 Three killed, 15 injured in nearby traffic over week end. Page B-l Open door colonial policy urged by Dr. van Zeeland. Page A-8 Capital Transit gets temporary writ to block auto-railers. Page B-l Police pressing search for the “shot gun bandit." Page B-l Editorial and Comment. This and That, Page A-10 Answers to Questions, Page A-10 Letters to The Star, Page A-10 David Lawrence, Page A-ll Alsop and Kintner, Page A-ll Frederic William Wile. Page A-ll Jay Franklin, .Page A-ll Lemuel Parton, Page A-ll / Sports. Don Budge tops Nation's athletes in poll for second year. Page A-14 Travis-to-Tigers deal on fire, with Bonura now a Giant. Page A-14 Alertness wins title for Giants, out gained by Packers. Page A-14 Washington golfers rated “too lazy” to become champions. Page A-15 Gevinson seeks comeback in ring here tonight. Page A-15 Special prizes add pep to The Star bowling tourney. Page A-16 Miscellany. Nature’s Children. Page A-1 Bedtime Story. Page A-7 The Holy Terror. Page B-6 Cross-Word Puzzle, Page B-18 Letter-Out, Page B-18 Winning Contract, Page B-12 Uncle Ray’s Corner, Page B-19 Review Ref used On Dismissal Of 145 Sailors By the Associated Press. The National Labor Relations Board failed today to obtain a Su preme Court review of its conten tion that the Peninsula and Occi dental Steamship Co. should rein state 145 seamen dismissed from two ships. The board appealed from a de cision by the Fifth Federal Circuit Court, holding that the men had engaged in a sit-down strike, had taken possession of the ships and that this was “at least prlma facie eyidence that the crews were gulity of mutiny.” “It would be gross negligence,” the Circuit Court added, "for a Vessel to put to sea with that kind ol crew.” The company, with headquarters in New Haven, Conn., operates the steamships Florida and Cuba from Miami and Tampa, Fla., to Havana. It was contended by the Labor Board, however, that the men should be returned to work and given back pay because their discharge was due to their joining and assisting the National Maritime Union, a C. I. O. affiliate. The American Federation of Labor opposed a review. The company had contracts with the International Seaman's Union, a federation affili ate, fixing hours, wages and work ing conditions. -» --— High Court Upholds Law School Equality For Colored Race Admittance to State University Ordered By Justices By the Associated Press. The Supreme Court ruled today that a State must give “equality” in educational privileges to white and colored law students. It gave this opinion in holding that the University of Missouri Law School must admit Lloyd L. Gaines, colored, of St. Louis, as a student. Chief Justice Hughes delivered the majority opinion that held Mis souri, in compelling colored law stu dents to attend school outside the State, had violated the "equal rights” provision of the Constitution. Missouri provided that until a law school for Negroes was developed in the State, the tuition of colored law students should be paid at uni versities in adjacent States. Equality of Right Issue. “The question here,” Chief Justice Hughes said, “is not of a duty of the State to supply legal training, or 6f the quality of the training which it does supply, but of its duty when it provides such training to furnish it to the residents of the State upon the basis of an equality of right. “By the operation of the laws of Missouri a privilege has been created for white law students which is denied to Negroes by reason of their race. “The White resident is afforded legal education within the State; the colored resident having the same qualifications is refused it there and must go outside the State to obtain it. “That is a denial of the quality of legal right to the enjoyment of the privilege which the State has set up. and the provision for the payment of tuition fees in an other State does not remove the discrimination.” Two Justices Dissent. The chief justice's opinion re versed a decision by the Missouri Supreme Court in favor of the law school. Justices McReynolds and Butler dissented, holding that "the Supreme Court of Missouri arrived at a tenable conclusion and its judgment should be affirmed.” “That court,” Justice McReynolds said with Justice Butler’s concur rence, “well understood the grave difficulties of the situation and rightly refused to upset the settled legislative policy of the State by directing a mandamus. • * * "For a long time Missouri has acted upon the view that the best interest of her people demands sep aration of whites and Negroes in schools. “Under the opinion just announc ed (by Chief Justice Hughes) I pre (See COURT, Page A-9.) --» ■ •' .— - Bulletin NEW YORK, Dec. 12 (/P).— George Bums, the radio come dian, pleaded guilty in Federal Court today to a charge of smug gling. Federal Judge William Bondy deferred sentence until after the trial of Albert Cha perau, also named in two indict ments with Bums. Mrs. Roosevelt to Pay Taxes On Exempt Radio Earnings By the Associated Press. Persons close to Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt disclosed today that she intends to pay income taxes on her future radio earnings, although the Treasury had ruled them tax ex empt. The “purely personal” decision by the President’s wife, it was said, was made to avoid any chance of future criticism. In the past, she has paid income tax on all her earnings except those from radio broadcasts, which were paid direct to a designated charity. Since she received no income for herself, the Treasury ruled in 1934 that such radio earnings were not taxable Income. Mrs. Roosevelt has made no radio broadcasts during the past year, but White House sources said that if she signs any new contracts she will have the money paid directly to her so that it will be taxable. Mrs. Roosevelts radio earnings were thrust into the national spot light in 1937 when Representative Hamilton Fish, Republican, of New York accused her of using a “loop hole” to avoid the taxes. Mrs. Roosevelt has entered several fields of paid employment to aid charity since she entered the White House, including lecture tours, radio broadcasts, book publication, maga zine editing and writing and news paper column-conducting. In 1934 she reported her broad cast receipts were $38,000, paid directly to the American Friends' Service Committee in Philadelphia. In 1935 Mrs. Roosevelt’s radio book ing agent was quoted as saying she had made $119,000 for charity and turned down $1,000,000 more because suggested programs did not meet her specifications. Lima Committee Studies Broad Defense Project Venezuelan Plan Would Define Aggression BACKGROUND— Eighth Pan-American Confer ence at Lima, Peru, takes on signal importance this year in view of the Nazi-Fascist victories in Enrope and the attempt of totalitarian states to infuse their ideology into the American sys tem. In keynote speeches Satur day. Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Argentine Foreign Minister Jose Maria Cantilo and Peruvian Foreign Minister Carlos Coacha joined in calling for an agree ment to bar foreign military or political invasion of the Americas. By ANDRUE BERDING, Associated Press Foreign Correspondent ' LIMA, Peru, Dec. 21.—Alfranio de Mello Franco, former foreign minis ter of Brazil, today was elected chairman of the important Pan American Conference Committee for the Organization of Peace. The committee, of which Alf M. Landon is the chief United States member, already has started work on a sweeping project for safeguard ing the security of the Americas. A meeting of the committee was the first order of business today, which included meetings of half a dozen other committees mostly for organization. The Peace Committee must handle the potent problem of co-ordinating various "Americas for Americans" plans into one instru ment which will be acceptable to the whole conference. The security project was ad vanced by Venezuela. It defines what would be aggression from a non-American nation and calls for immediate consultation and com mon action by the Americas in event of attack. Some of the delegates considered the project too advanced in con cept for conference approval in its present form, but from the commit tee discussion may emerge a draft acceptable to all. The committee was easily the most important of the various groups swinging into vigorous action today, after the ceremonies of convoking the congress Friday and Saturday. Favorable Peace Omen. Some delegates saw' a favorable omen for peace legislation in the address by Jose Maria Cantilo, for eign minister of Argentina, who said on Saturday that the American nations were ready to maintain a common front against any danger which might menace the independ ence and sovereignty of any of them. In view of the previous Argentine attitude against any step drawing away from European ties, the feeling prevailed that Cantilo took a step further than might have been ex pected. Deciding to return home today, Cantilo instructed his delegation to proceed upon the outline of his speech but no further. Much criticism of the Venezuela aggression project was that it did not consider the possibility of in vasion of the hemisphere by political activities of the non-American nations, which both Cantilo and Secretary Hull, chief of the United States delegation, mentioned in their Saturday speeches. The United States delegation would like to see something included on this. Aggression Is Defined. The Venezuela plan," without ex aggerating future dangers" and "without sowing suspicions," de clares that "for America the moment has arrived to think and work con tinentally, to unify its action and its methods of defense in the face of emergencies that might arise." The definition of aggression in cludes: Force to settle differences rather than use of the courts: declaration of war on one of the signatories: invasion by armed forces: attack by land, air or sea: a naval blockade; support to armed bands invading one of the Americas. The Argentine and Mexican dele gates are working on a resolution calling for the end of the Spanish civil war and offering pan-American mediation, hoping they can win unanimous backing of the confer ence. Secretary Hull, although he an nounced a long list of United States representatives to serve on the seven executive committees, carefully kept himself from any of them. Hull Sees Other Chairmen. He continues to function as chair man of the delegation and, of the highest importance, to consult with other delegation chairmen in fur thering his hope for a common viewpoint at the conference. Mr. Landon, former Kansas Gov ernor, took the most important ex ecutive post as chief of the United States delegation on the Peace Or ganization Committee. The Rev. John F. O’Hara, presi dent of Notre Dame University, re vealed that Mr. Landon had offered to raise from private sources a fund for exchange of college professors between the United States and Latin America in an effort to better frinedly relations. Assistant Secretary of State A.dolf A. Berle is chief of the United States delegation on the Economics Com mittee and may present a declara tion for further lowering of trade barriers as a means of improving living standards and the bettering chances of peace. Hunter's Luck WAUKEGAN, 111.. Dec. 12 UP.— George Reisselmann’s gun didn’t go off when he tried to shoot a rabbit sitting on a package—he had forgot ten to load it. George examined the package and concluded it was just as well he didn’t shoot any bullet. His reason: The package con tained six sticks of dynamite.