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No. 1,798—No. 34,823. aJMSTp?*.. WASHINGTON, D. C., SEPTEMBER 3, 1939.-EIGHTY-EIGHT PAGES. ** FIVE CENTS TEN CENTS
. ... IN WASHINGTON AND SUBURBS ELSEWHERE
Britain Goes to War
As Ultimatum Expires
21 Dead, 30 Injured
As Blast Rips Side
By ELMER PETERSON,
Associated Press Porelm Correspondent.
WARSAW, Sept. 2.—Twenty-one
dead and over 30 wounded were
counted tonight after a German
bomb had struck an apartment
house in a Warsaw workingmen's
The bombs tore off the side of
the apartment house as if it had
been made of paper. Rescue work
ers still were clearing away the
resultant pile of debris in a search
for further casualties when I in
One of the bombs had dug a
crater fully 20 feet in diameter, and
the open ground was piled high
With furniture and belongings.
Craters in 100-Yard Circle.
In the center of a large park in
the southern section of Warsaw, I
saw where a bomb had struck a
simple wooden dwelling, killing two
persons and wounding one. In an
open field near the Vistula River,
where 10 light bombs apparently
had been released simultaneously,
thev had due craters in a 100-yard
With me on this tour of inspec
tion of damage done by the German
air bombings were C. Burke El
brick. secretary of the American
Embassy; Clifford Norton. Charge
d'Affaires of the British Embassy,
and officials of the Polish foreign
During the tour the party twice
was forced to take refuge because
of air-raid alarms, five of which in
all sounded through the city today.
Once we took cover in a shallow
dugout filled with workingmen, their
wives and their crying children.
W’nrst Scene In Workers’ Quarter.
The worst scene of damage was at
Kolo, the workingmen's quarter,
where, in addition to wrecking one
apartment building, the bombs had
smashed windows in several others.
An old man gulped back tears as
he said his wife and two children
were dead. A woman, still staring
blankly into space, said:
“My husband is gone.”
An official news service commu
nique stated that yesterday German
raiders dropped 120 bombs on War
saw and its vicinity, killing 10 and
w-ounding 25 in Warsaw proper, with
the number of casualties in the sub
Urbs still undetermined.
Severe Fighting Reported.
Although official information was
lacking, it was reported that severe
fighting between Polish and German
land forces was proceeding in Sile
sia. where the Germans are attempt
ing to pinch off Katowice by attacks
from two directions.
A radio announcement at 4 p.m.
410 a.m., E. S. T.», claimed that
Polish troops still were holding the
Westerplatte munitions base in the
harbor of Danzig. A Berlin com
munique last night had reported
Westerplatte in German hands.
A large-scale evacuation of wom
en and children was under way
from the center of Warsaw to the
suburbs and nearby villages after air
laid sirens sent residents scurrying
to cover five times today.
The fifth alarm lasted an hour.
With sporadic outbursts of anti-air
craft fire. Americans reported they
saw nine planes, presumably Ger
man, high over the center of the
city. A Polish-American reporter
saw one German plt.ne shot down
In a dog-fight with two Polish pur
suit ships near Otwock, 10 miles
Anti-aircraft guns were heard in
sction on the city’s outskirts after
the fifth alarm sounded at 2:45 p.m.
<3:45 a.m. E. S. T.) and the attackers
apparently were driven off.
1 The Polish Embassy in Lon
don reported Warsaw was bombed
six times during the day. A
Havas, French new's agency, dis
patch reaching Paris said one
raid started at 5:05 p.m. (11:05
a.m., E. S. T.) and lasted for 25
(A German communique re
ported big gains and said Polish
troops in the northern part of the
Polish Corridor had been cut off.)
The Polish Telegraph news agency
aaid 130 persons, mostly women and
(See WARSAW' Page~A^4J
Arrive in Oakland
By the Associated Press.
OAKLAND, Calif., Sept. 2.—'The
Japanese good will plane Nippon
landed at the Oakland Airport today
from Seattle. A large crowd greeted :
The plane carried eight men— j
seven flyers and a representative of (
the newspapers sponsoring the ,
The plane left Tokio a week ago. |
The tentative schedule called for
a take-off for Los Angeles tomorrow, i
London in War
fText of Premier Daladier's
statement to Parliament on
PARIS, Sept. 3 </P).—It was
assumed today that France
considered herself at war with
Germany inasmuch as she
had said she would follow
whatever steps Britain took.
By the Associated Press.
PARIS, Sept. 3 (Sunday)
(Passed through British cen
sorship).—The French gov
ernment announced today
that Robert Coulondre,
French Ambasador to Berlin,
would call on Joachim von
Ribbentrop, German foreign
minster, at noon (6 a.m., E.
S. T.) today to demand a re
ply to France's ultimatum for
withdrawal of German troops
The French action was or
dered taken just three hours
after Sir Nevile Henderson,
British Ambassador to Berlin,
had informed the German
government at 9 a.m. (3 a.m.,
E. S. T.) that a state of war
would exist between the two
nations unles Germany re
plied by 11 a.m. (5 a.m., E. S.
T. ) to England's final warn
By the Associated Press.
PARIS, Sept. 2.—France and Brit
ain through their highest spokes
men. declared definitely tonight that
unless Adolf Hitler calls his troops
out of Poland a general European
war will commence.
It was understood generally that
a final and formal notice to that
effect would be delivered to the
German Fuehrer in the course of
The notice would require an im
mediate reply or at least one within
a set time limit.
The British and French proposals
Negotiations Still Possible.
M. Daladier. before the French
Chamber of Deputies, and British
Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, be
fore the British House of Lords,
said negotiations still were possible
if German troops cease hostilities
and withdraw from invaded Poland.
On the bare shred of hope that
Hitler might accept this proposal
seemed to hang the chances of
Every one here went on the as
sumption that he would not. In
that case, it was agreed generally
that France and Britain would have
to start a war of assistance to Po
land without much more delay.
President Albert Lebrun in a mes
sage read to Parliament today said:
"The future of civilization is at
M. Daladier, addressing the
crowded Chamber of Deputies, said
no Frenchman will go to war with
hatred for Germans at heart but all
W’ill have the knowledge ‘'the very
existence” of their country was in
There wrere reports of another
i See PARIS. Page A-4.)
British People Calmly Await
War,'Fed Up' With Hitler
By JOHN GUNTHER.
LONDON, Sept. 2 (N.A.N.A).—
The second world war has begun.
All Europe is bracing itself for the
shock of an unexampled catastrophe.
But the British are calm and con
fident. There is not the slightest
sign of panic here, not the slightest
The chief British emotion is what
[ can only describe as “fed-upness.”
They are sick and tirefl of Hitler and
nis appalling recklessness, to say
nothing of his bad faith.
A few days ago it became clear
hat the British people—the com
non, ordinary people—were in no
nood to endure another crisis like
his one. If has dislocated all
lormal activity and exasperated folk
n every walk of life. I have heard
lozens of comments to the effect
hat “even war is better than the
ncessant assault on the nerves in
hese crises month after month.’
The British do not like war. They
ire a civilized people and they loathe
the idea of jnaking war. But they
are convinced that the sort of thing
Hitler has been doing must abso
lutely be stopped. "We cannot go
on this way," I have heard every
If anything were finally necessary
to stiffen the British and remove
any last trace of the feeling that
negotiations were still possible, it
was the manner of Hitler's behavior
just before he struck at Poland.
The British like good form. Perhaps
it was foolish to expect nice manners
from Hitler, but it really seems that
the British were almost more
bothered by the way in which Hitler
provoked the final crisis than by the
effect of his behavior.
Hitler strung out the negotiations
with the British, giving some faint
hope that there might be a peaceful
settlement. Then, on Tuesday, he
informed the British that the Polish
plenipotentiaries must be in Berlin
by midnight Wednesday prepared to
(Sea GUNTHER. Page A-fl.)
U. 5. High Officials
Quiet on Prospect
Of Major War
Sudden Move Shunned
As to Invoking of
Embargo on Arms
Washington officials refrained
from comment on the European
situation last night as reports of
renewed fighting and bombings in
Poland overshadowed earlier indi
cations of lessening hostilities.
Rapid developments abroad left
officials uncertain as to what to
expect next. It was felt in some
quarters that nothing could be said
until the results of the latest move
by Britain and France—a final no
tice to Adolf Hitler that failure to
withdraw his troops from Poland
would result in a general European
Hope, however slender, that a
major war might be averted re
mained as long as a general conflict
had not actually begun, in the view
of some officials.
Both the White House and the
State Department made it plain this
Government would take no steps to
invoke the Neutrality Act until a
clearer picture of the European sit
uation was obtained.
At Secretary of State Hull's press
conference, a reporter recited press
reports from abroad, and asserted
they were confusing to observers
Concrete Outline Lacking.
Secretary Hull said that his re
ports, too, failed to bring any con
crete outline of developments. He
said he felt it was a sound policy
for the State Department not to
publicize rumors and reports which
might be proved incorrect within
from three to six hours.
In other official quarters, observers '
said they were unable to "add up"
such developments as the seeming
slowing down of military operations,
the French expression of willingness
to participate in a last-minute peace
effort if German "aggression" were
halted and Reichschancellor Hitler's
decision to draft a reply to Great
Britain's most recent note.
Along with Mr. Hull, Stephen
Early, White House secretary, em
phasized that the administration
would await further developments
before it takes any major steps. He
said the President certainly would
(See ROOSEVELT.'Page A-5J i
Law Bars U. S.
B> »be Associated Press.
A statute enacted in. 1917 would
make it illegal for American citizens
to enlist in any European army for
A fine of not more than $1,000 and
imprisonment of not more than three
years are the penalties.
In addition, any American citizen
who enlisted in a foreign army and
took oath of allegiance to the gov
ernment he w'as serving W'ould lose
his American citizenship.
In the past, the State Department
has taken the position that citizens
who enlist in the military services
of foreign states can not expect to
receive the protection which the
United States ordinarily accords its
Numerous Americans were re
ported to have enlisted in the Span
ish civil war. but available records
here show no convictions on charges
of violating the enlistment statute.
Way Home Besiege
Embassy in Paris
Harried Officials Chalk
Notices to Ease Strain
On Vocal Cords •
By the Associated Press.
PARIS, Sept. 2—The American
Embassy posted a bulletin board in
the foyer today to ease the strain
on the vocal cords of its harried
staff as the largest crowd of Amer
icans in many days besieged offi
cials with queries as to how to
The following information was
chalked on the board:
"See page 4 of the Paris Midi for
information on auto roads and rail
roads. Trains are running on reg
ular schedule today, but will not be
doing so after midnight. Their
schedule then will depend on the
number of passengers seeking trans
portation. Passengers should be at
the station well before train time.
“Gas masks are available for pur
chase at the F. F. M. G. (official
dealers) at 103 Rue de Turene.
“Cars owned by Americans are
not to be commandeered. Gasoline
is available for sale as usual.
“There are American Consulates
at Paris. Bordeaux, Calais, Cher
bourg Havre, Dieppe, Lille, Lyons,
Marseilles and Nantes.”
Embassy officials said inquiries for
gas masks still were numerous, but
emphasized that American citizens
stood much less chance of needing
them If they followed the Embassy's
advice and got out of Paris at once.
American House Vacated.
American House in the University.
City on the outskirts of Paris was
ordered emptied. The handsome
brick building, built for the use of
Americans studying at the Univer
sity of Paris, looked lika.an express
office, with crates of books, trunks
and other baggage piled high In the
J. Rousseau of Brunswick, Me.,
(See AMERICANSTPage A-7.)
Finland Carries On
Olympic Games Plans
By the Associated Press.
HELSINKI, Finland, Sept. 2
(Passed through British censor
ship).—Finland's preparations for
the 1940 Olympic games continued
without pause today despite the
nearby threat of war.
$3,c:3,000 P. W. A.
Staff Cuts Expected
To Be Greater Than
At First Foreseen
By NELSON M. SHEPARD.
With demobilization of one-half
the Public Works Administration's
staff of 10.400 employes already be
gun. it was learned yesterday that
$3,000,000 nas been temporarily im
pounded from its greatly diminished
appropriation for administrative ex
penses. creating the possibility of
severer cuts to come.
The wholesale notices of dismis
sals. "due to a drastic reduction in
available funds.” as announced by
Col. E. W. Clark, acting commis
sioner, began yesterday when an
initial number of 2.175 employes
were affected. Of these 416 are in
the Washington central office. The
remainder, slated for dismissal by
September 15, are in the seven field
It was expected when the first
announcement ivas made on August
16 that by January 1. or thereabouts,
approximately 5.200 in the Washing
ton and regional offices would be
"furloughed.” But. unless the $3.
000.000 that has been impounded is
put back in circulation by that time,
it was predicted in official circles
that the force will have to be slashed
to a much greater extent. These ad
ditional reductions, it was feared,
would go beyond the number neces
sary in the routine tapering off of
the P. W. A. which has now. passed
the peak of its construction program.
Resnnnse tn Rnn«pv»1f OrHor
No public announcement has been
made of the impounding of so con
siderable a sum. but it was with
drawn from circulation by John M.
Carmodv. Federal works adminis
trator, in response to President
Roosevelt’s recent direction to Gov
ernment departments to effect
savings for the fiscal year.
Nor was an explanation forth
coming. President Roosevelt’s letter,
conveyed to department heads
August 9 from the director of the
Budget, did not specify any per
centage of savings. That was left,
presumably, to their own determina
tion after taking all things into
To what extent Federal depart
ments and emergency agencies have
saved from current administrative
appropriations could not be ascer
tained from the Budget Bureau. De
partment heads were ordered to re
port savings effected for this fiscal
year "and for succeeding fiscal
years” and it was understood such
reports for the coming fiscal year
would be submitted not later than
The 'situation in the P. W. A. is
difficult to determine because of the
reluctance of‘officials to discuss the
already bad state of affairs in avail
able administrative funds. It goes
back to the start of the fiscal year
on July 1. The sum of $4,000,000
was taken from the $20,000,000 ap
propriated for the year ending June
30, 1940. The P. W. A. had under
taken a new construction program
before July 1, had added a huge
staff and was obligated for salary
payments. The $4,000,000 was
taken from current funds to pay
those obligations incurred before
the start of the fiscal .year.
Program Advanced Speedily.
With only $16,000,000 left, the
P. W. A., under the spur of the
then administrator, Secretary Ickes,
plunged ahead at accelerated speed.
The program advanced more speed
ily than any other. There waa ap
(See P. W. i; Pice A-S.)
His Answer to
In Berlin for
BERLIN, Sept. 3 (Sunday)
(AP).—German Foreign Min
ister Joachim Von Ribben
trop received British Ambas
sador Sir Neviie Henderson at
9 a.m. (3 a.m. E. S. T.) today
to hand him Germany’s
answer ..to the “final warn
ings’’ of Britain and France.
Ribbentrop was expected to
see the French Ambassador,
Robert Coulondre, shortly be
fore noon (6 a.m. E. S. T.)
By the Associated Press.
BERLIN, Sept. 2.—Nazi troops
moving swiftly but as effectively as
a steamroller—according to high
command communiques — tonight
continued their advance over the
lowiapds and lakes of Pomorze Uhe
Polish Corridor) and hilly regions
At the same time the British and
French Ambassadors awaited the
reply to their governments’ final
‘ warnings ' delivered to the foreign
office last night. Authoritative
German sources said they did not
know when Adolf Hitler's replies
would be made.
Berlin was made nervous tonight
when the radio warned that bomb
ers were expected during the night
and requested the population to re
Diplomatic Relations at End.
Meanwhile, diplomatic relations
with Poland were broken oft in
fact when Polish Ambassador Joset
Lipski left Berlin early today.
The German Ambassador to War
saw, Hans von Moltke, has been
in Berlin for some time.
Sweden has accepted the office of
conducting Polish affairs in Ger
many. The Netherlands is con
ducting the Reich's affairs in Po
Five members of the Russian
military commission arrived in Ber
lin todav to negotiate a military ac
cord with the Nazis. The new
Soviet Ambassador. Alexander
Schkvarzeff. and a new Embassy
councilor, both selected by Russian
Premier-Foreign Commissar Vva
cheslaff Molotoff, also reached
The Russians were given a rous
ing welcome at the airport when
they arrived from Moscow by way of
Sweden. Another welcome awaited
them as their limousines, flying
hammer and sickle flags, passed the
Reich chancellery in the Wilhelm
strasse en route to the hotel. The
crowd, which for days has been be
fore the chancellery, raised vigorous
"heils'’ and gave the Nazi salute.
Schkvarzeff will be received by
Hitler tomorrow for presentation of
his credentials. The Ambassador
will be accompanied by the head of
the Russian military commission,
Gen. Maxim Purkaiev.
Poles Reported Trapped.
The supreme high command an
nounced that the Corridor was
practically pinched off. trapping
Polish soldiers remaining In its
extreme northern tip.
Troops advancing from West
Prussia were north of Kulm, only
a few miles from their comrades
driving west from East Prussia.
It was stated the West Prussian
corps had reached the Vistula River
at that point, leaving but a small
gap to close.
Grudziadz, where the Polish cav
alry schools are located in an old
fortification on heights overlooking
the Vistula, apparently still was
held by the Poles.
The high command's communique
stated that naval aviators had
bombed Gdj'nia, Poland's Baltic
port, and the strong Polish fortifica
tions on the peninsula of Hela in
Danzig Harbor. It claimed Ger
many was in absolute control of the
(See BERLIN, Page A-6.)
Attempts to Broadcast
To Germany Planned
Bj the Associated Press.
CLEVELAND, Sept. 2.—A call to
the German people to rise up and
“defeat Adolf Hitler” was sounded
today 4 by the German-American
League for Culture in national con
Attempts will be made to broad
cast the message to Germany
through three short wave radio sta
tions, one in England, one in the
United States and a secret station
in Germany, league officials said.
The delegates representing a
membership of 103,00t) German
Americans adopted a resolution
blaming Hitler's “barbarous destruc
tion” for “destroying the good repu
tation of Germans throughout the
State of War Exists,
Hitler Fails to Reply
By the Associated Press.
LONDON, Sept. 3 (Sunday) (Delayed by
Censor).—Prime Minister Chamberlain today
. proclaimed Great Britain is at war with Germany
after expiration of a British ultimatum to Ger
many to withdraw her troops from Poland.
He broadcast to the world a fateful message
a quarter-hour after expiration of the deadline of
his “peace or war” ultimatum to the German
“I have to tell you now,” said Chamberlain,
that this country is at war with Germany.”
“He had evidently made up his mind to at
tack Poland no matter what happened,” Mr.
Chamberlain said of Hitler.
He said the German Fuehrer evidently had
not even showed his proposals to the Polish gov
ernment, and that Britain’s ultimatum had passed
without reply, so a state of war existed.
He said the people of Poland “were so
bravely resisting this wicked and unprovoked at
France, the. Prime Minister said, was joining
Britain in fulfilling her pledges from Poland’s
independence, and “we have a clear conscience.”
The Prime Minister, speaking from No 10
Downing street, said he could not believe there
was “anything more or anything different” that
he could have done.
Up to the last, he said, it would have been
“quite possible to have arranged a peaceful and
honorable settlement with Germany.”
But, he added:
“Herr Hitler would not have it.”
Deadline 5 A.M.
The deadline expired at 11 a.m. Greenwich
Mean Time (5 a.m. E. S T.).
“You can imagine what a bitter blow it is to
me,” the Prime Minister told the nation in a radio
“The actions of this man (Hitler) show con
vincingly that he will never do otherwise than
use force in the attainment of his will
“Consequently we are at war with Germany,”
“I am certain right will prevail.”
“You may be taking your part in the fighting
services,” Mr. Chamberlain told Britons.
He said they may be in trenches or in trans
ports or in other necessary services.
The Prime Minister ended the war declara
tion with the prayer:
“May God bless you all and may He defend
“We have a clear conscience,” he told his
people “We have done all that any country
could do to establish peace.”
He said France joined Britain in her resolve
to fulfill her pledge to aid Poland defend her in
“Now that we have resolved to finish it,” he
continued, “I know that you will all do your part.”
Immediately after the Prime Minister’s start
lingly brief announcement, the government
broadcast a series of instructions to all citizens.
Hand rattles, it said, would provide poison
All day schools in the evacuation areas in
England, Scotland and Wales are to be closed,
The public was warned to keep off the streets
as much as possible.
“To expose yourself unnecessarily adds to
your danger,” the annoqncement warned.
All places of entertainment are to be closed
until further notice.
“They are being closed because if they are
hit by a bomb, large numbers would be killed or
Earlier, the British Broadcasting Corp. an
nounced that Britain had given Germany until
11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time (5 a.m. E. S. T.)
to answer satisfactorily Britain’s final warning.
It broadcast a communique from 10 Down
ing street saying that Sir Nevile Henderson, Brit
ish Ambassador in Berlin, had told the German
Government that if assurances were not received
by then a “state of war” would exist between
Great Britain and Germany.
Text of Communique.
The following is the text of the communique:
“On September 2 his majesty’s Ambassador
in Berlin was instructed to inform the German
(Se« LONDON, Page A-5.)
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