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With Matey Mwalag Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. O. FRIDAY.February 18, 1948 The Evening Star Newapapar Company. ' *n£%b1\a&: no Chicago Office 43ft North Michigan Art, Price* Effective January 1, 1948. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Reralar Edition. Eronlng and Sunday.7Be per mo. or 18c per week The Evening Mar_45c per mo. or 10c per wed The Sunday Btar ... _ ..... 10c per copy Night final Edition. Night Final and Sunday Star...,85c per month Night Final Star_ _60c per month Knral Tube Delivery. So Evening and Sunday Star_85e per month o Evening Star-86c per month a Sunday Star_10c per copy Collection made at the end of each month or each week. Orders may be sent oy mail or tele phone National 5000. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Slly and Sunday..1 yr.. 812.00: 1 mo., 31,00 lly only-1 yr.. $8.00: 1 mo.. 75« aday only_1 yr., $5.00; 1 mo. 60e Entered as second-class matter post office, Washington. D. C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republlcatlon of all news dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited In this paper and also the local news published herein. All tights of publication of soesla] dispatches herein also are reserved. For Liberty The righteousness of Finland’s cause is acknowledged by the world. But the ideals for which the Finnish people are fighting perhaps are only imperfectly comprehended in America. They are not merely those of resistance to Russian aggression. Copies of the Finnish Trade Review for December, received In Washing ton yesterday, contain an exposition of Finnish philosophy which merits quotation. Under the title “Sources of Strength and Self-Confidence,” an unsigned editorial explains: “It has been said of the war which the Soviet Union forced on Finland that it constitutes the second and final phase of our War of Independence. This inter pretation of the present struggle is certainly true so iar as me msi pari, of It goes, and no Finn can wish any tiling more fervently than that the second part should prove to be true as well; in other words, that the fighting now proceeding on our fron tier will set the final seal on our right to live in freedom. We do not only hope, but we believe that this will be so. Our belief is based in the first instance on our own selves. It1 is based on the character of 'our people, on their firmness and tenac ity; it is based on the creative power which in two decades of perfect liberty has raised the tiation from poverty and privation to a relative prosperity; and finally, it is based on Finnish democracy and on what this democracy has achieved in the brief period mentioned in the way of con solidating the social structure and strengthening the national sense of solidarity.” Finland, the same pronouncement continues, “was in many respects a backward country” at the beginning of her national career. “Now mat ters are different.” The arable area of the country has been increased by a third since 1919, the harvest by two-thirds. “Industry has expanded at a rate unparalleled, barring a few exceptions, anywhere in the world. The value of industrial output has multiplied three and a half times over. New opportunities for work and new wealth have been created on a corresponding scale * * * Every one of us knows that Finland can offer an honorable and constantly improving livelihood both to her present population and to coming generations.” Politically, it is affirmed, the people of Finland are “no longer divided, as during the first phase of our War of Independence twenty-two years ago into opposing camps of citizens, sundered by class warfare, but a nation united by a living and strong bond of solidarity. In two decades the Finnish community has been reborn. The classes which, still in our first war of liberation and be fore that had reason to cry for social justice, have obtained it. Hun dreds of thousands of families for merly subsisting on leased land or casual work on the land have been helped to become farmers of their own soil, or have found a steady in come and every opportunity for a healthy life in the service of the expanding industries or of the new enterprises in our cities and indus trial centers. Poverty and distress as widespread social phenomena have vanished." It follows that “the liberty Finnish labor is fighting to protect is real liberty for the worker; the democracy Finnish labor defends is a real democracy * • • These are the sources from which our self-confi-* dence springs. In addition there is the belief, unquenchable in the hearts of our people in all circum stances, that right will prevail.” t Democracy everywhere 'must in dorse a faith so humane, so rational, so amply justified. Unless the con science of mankind be utterly mori bund, there will be universal acknowledgment of the truth ex pressed by the President of Finland when he said to representatives of the world press assembled «at Hel sinki: “You know that we are de fending our common western civil ization, thus also your liberty and the future of your homes.” The Job Situation An Interesting contrast in methods of approach to solution of the unem ployment problem is afforded by the current issue of State Government, a publication devoted to govern mental affairs, which presents the views of Corrington Gill, assistant commissioner of the Work Projects Administration, .and Walter D. Fuller, president of the Curtis Publishing Company, who wrote as the chair h man or the Pennsylvania Job Mobili zation Campaign. Mr. Gill sees no prospect of indus try being able to absorb the jobless load, and argues that hope lies only in a public employment program, shorn of relief aspects, and estab lished on a permanent basis. Mr. Fuller, on the contrary, con tends that private enterprise is equal to the task of rehabilitation, and that It is possible to reverse the “un happy circle” of increasing taxation for relief needs that grow because taxes stifle production and create unemployment, if local communities properly will assume responsibility for their individual relief problems. He cites the Pennsylvania Job-find ing effort as a case in point. Such localized campaigns may be of limited value because of the re stricted sphere in which they oper ate, and further, because their results may be only temporary. At the same time, Mr. Fuller’s views on the tax relief cycle are entirely justified in the light of the experience of the past seven years, and certainly lend no encouragement to Mr. Gill’s proposal for a “permanent” public works pro gram that would be a form of tax supported relief, no matter in what guise it appeared. The conflicting views demonstrate forcibly once again how far apart representative Government officials and business leaders are on this issue. The Cafeteria Row After two weeks of charges and counter - charges, proposals and counter-proposals, the Welfare and Recreational Association tangle is just about back to the starting point, with the future of the organization which is performing a useful func tion for Federal employes still very much in doubt. Acting Controller General Elliott contends that the association, a non profit corporation directed by under officials of the Government, has been operating illegally, and says its con tract with the Government should be canceled. Secretary of the Interior Ickes, defending the corporation, holds that a “simple law” to permit the occu pancy of Federal buildings by asso ciation cafeterias will dispose of any legal questions that may exist. Federal Works Administrator Car mody, under whose jurisdiction the buildings come, would have his office take over the association and main tain cafeteria operations virtually on the present basis, but turn certain other association activities, including some recreational facilities, over to the Park Service. The association rejects the Car mody proposition in toto; spurns any suggestion that it “has acted in an illegal and unauthorized manner,” and plans to seek settlement of the difficulties into which it was plunged by the Elliott report through confer ence with Mr. Carmody on the space question, and with Mr. Ickes on the park facilities. Whether the “simple law” will turn the trick, or whether something more elaborate may be needed, the conclu sion is inescapable that definite legislative provision should be made for the functions the association directs. Mr. Ickes says there already is statutcyy authority for the park activities, and that may be. The confusion surrounding the status of the cafeterias, however, demands clearing up. It is to be hoped, too, that what ever is done finally will be accom plished without further displays of feeling such as were evident in the letter in which Mr. Ickes took excep tion to the report of Mr. Elliott. If the latter believed that conditions existed that should be remedied, it was his duty, in the interest of the Government, to say so. Mr. Ickes did not make anjr constructive contribu-» tion by impugning the motives of the acting Controller General. The Shifting Pole The south magnetic pole, reports Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, has changed its position by a few miles. This is entirely in accord with what now is known concerning the mag netic field of the earth. Neither of the poles will stay fixed. The field itself constantly is changing its orien tation. This was illustrated strikingly at the annual exhibit of the Carnegie Institution of Washington a few weeks ago, where it was shown that, had Columbus’ compass in 1492 pointed to the “north” as it existed in 1939, the discoverer of the New World would have landed somewhere on the coast of South America. scientists stui are puzziea oy tne nature of the earth’s magnetism and its causes. The, field, it Is known, is generally north and south. It is believed, however, that it has varied over many degrees within the time of man and even since tho phenome non of magnetism received its first rational explanations. The variation times is spasmodic. This necessi tates a constant program of observa tions all over the earth in order to keep the table of corrections up to date for the service of navigators. The chief center of these observa tions is in Washington at the ter restrial magnetism laboratory of the Carnegie Institution. This is its fun damental problem. In efforts to throw light upon it the staff has pioneered in many directions and some of the by-products of the inves tigations are among the great triumphs of modern science. The central question, however, remains unanswered. Our earth behaves like a great magnet. The sources of this magnetism are known to lie within the globe Itself. Not only the orien tation but the strength of the field l> ▼ary from time to time. The reasons' constitute one of the knottiest prob lems now faced by scientific investi gators. It is a conundrum that can be solved only by the constant, uni fied effort of many experts in many lines. , Mr. Blum Speculates In song and story it has been writ ten "-that fifty million Frenchmen can’t be wrong, but not until yester day did a spokesman of our sister republic put the reputation 6f his countrymen definitely on the block. Then flying in the face of con tinued failures by our most Ingenious journalistic speculators, Leon Blum, top man gmong French Socialists, former Premier, editor and publisher, wrote in his newspaper, Le Populalre, that President Roosevelt’s third term decision will be grounded in the in formation brought baek from Europe by Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles. Mr. Blum’s reasoning, insofar as it has been casually translated and documented by the American press, seems to be that if our special reporter to the war continent brings back word that Rooseveltian inter vention for peace would be successful it will be a signal for the ^Chief Executive to dig in for a third term. In Mr. Roosevelt’s own words there have been “some grand wisecracks’’ during the give-and-take between him and the press over his third term Intentions but the fine edge of spon taneity had worn a little blunt recently. If foreign Journalists are to enter into the competition, how ever, the whole game should take on new flavor. A “smattering of igno rance,” to coin a phrase, often has the effect of brightening a debate. If Mr. Blum should be right—then lots of expert faces will be red over here. And Mr. Welles would do political circles a favor by hurrying back from his survey, as much will depend on what he reports—and on what certain people do as a result. Speeding Safety Arlington County’s victory in the State Assembly whereby its local authorities are granted the power to fix speed limits within their juris diction is a decided contribution to safety. It is especially important, since the highways of the county probably are the most heavily trav eled in the State. When State-wide authority to reg ulate speed limits was placed in the hands of the Highway Commission, one'of the first results was the stand ardization of the requirements in all jurisdictions. The board cleared up a confusing medley of rates of speed and signs of all description announc ing them. In place of hundreds of small notices scattered along the highways, new billboards were erected at points where roads en tered the State and at other impor tant sites. These listed, at the top, the basic speed limit of fifty-five miles an hour, while below, in smaller letters, were the restrictions of this rate while passing through settled communities and for various types of vehicles. This method was a definite im provement, but Arlington, the only metropolitan county in the State, presented a problem which has grown more serious during the two years the present plan has been in effect. Closely-placed communities, a combined urban, rural, residential, commercial and industrial nature of development, and an unusual con centration of interstate traffic made any generalization of speed limits extremely dangerous. Accident rec ords have borne out the need for a revision. Under the new act these difficul ties are overcome, and, in the inter ests of avoiding delay and confusion, an amendment was voted down by which the State commission would have veto power over the speed rates set by the county. A good many of those who love to read novels concerning Scotland dis cover that even after a hundred years, the more closely they imitate Sir Walter Scott the better they are. Advice to Executives Speaking before the St. Louis Medical Society, Dr. Edward V. Allen of the Mayo Clinic described the sad life of the business executive in such moving fashion that there was scarcely a wet handkerchief in the audience. This quaint subspecies of the genus economic royalist, says the doctor, does not live long enough— a statement violently disputed by the administration, which insists that it lives too long. Dr. Allen further accused the “busy” executive of over eating and over-drinking, short tem per, taking business problems home to his wife, and getting no fun out of life. As an antidote, the physician advised him to work eight hours a day five days a week and to curb his ambition. As soon as certain laws against printing profane language are repealed, it will be possible to report what the executive advised the doctor to do. Just the same, the doctor is at least on the right track. There are certain elementary precautions that should be taken by the executive desirous of getting through the day without blowing up. He should be careful not to expose his ears to casual conversation, which contain the germs of apoplexy, along with remarks about' John L. Lewis, the Labor Board, income taxes, etc. He should lead a simple life, being con tent with only one yacht at a time, and take mild exercise once a month clipping coupons. When Hitler referred to "the athe istic state of Stalin,” It was rather close to a pot-and-kettle conversa tion. Asks Questions About District Institutions Writer Urges Study Of Budget Provisions For Welfare To tbo idltor of Tbo Itor: The Home for the Aged and infirm at Blue Plains and the Receiving Home are both being given considerable at tention and their faults are being aired. Mrs. Roosevelt started it and if "troubles evaporate on being properly aired" it looks as though the troubles of these two institutions are nearly over. But while the discussion is going on it might be well to make sure that all the troubles are brought out into the open. Mr. Bondy, director of Public Welfare, outlined to the -subcommittee of the House District Committee what appeared to be a very comprehensive plan for the correction of the faults and for the future development of the Home for the Aged. But that is only one of 13 institutions operated by the District of Columbia. The entire list includes: Workhouse, Reformatory, Jail, National Training School for Girls, District Train ing School, Industrial Home School, In dustrial Home School for Colored, Home for Aged and Infirm, Municipal Lodging House, Receiving Home, Temporary Home for Fortner Soldiers and Sailors, Gallinger Hospital and Glenn Dale Sanatorium. During the year ending June, 1939, the average population in these institutions was over 6,700 with expenditures of about $4,000,000. That comes near being big business. Here is what some of the money went for: Food, $446,903; fuel, light and power, $282,190; laundry, $36, 448; repairs, 65,986; farm and stable, $88,104; personal service, $1,715,000. In addition to the $4,000,000 which the District spends to operate these 13 institutions there is also spent about $3,000,000 to pay for the care of sick, mentally diseased and delinquents in other institutions. Some of that money goes to St. Elizabeth's, some to the Na tional Training School for Boys operated by the Federal Government. That makes a total of $7,000,000 that the District spends for Institutional care of those who for one reason or another have lost out, violated some law of society or health or as they are sometimes classified, the defectives, dependents tuia delinquents. The total budget of the District, with out trust funds, is about $40,000,000 so that the bill for Institutional care alone is about 17 per cent of the total Dis trict DUdget. And if you care to add to this institutional bill of health and welfare the cost of non-institutional work there is a total of about $10,000,000, as relief, child welfare and other welfare work costs about $2,400,000, and enforce ment of the sanitary code, nursing and other health work costs about $600,000. So the fact is that about 25 per cent of the District budget is for health and welfare. What is to be done about it? At least some questions might be asked, such as: How does that compare with other comparable cities? Are all the inmates of these institutions proper charges of the District? Is there any alternative to institutional care or would another type of institution care for them cheaper? That can be partially answered by say ing that one or more convalescent homes would reduce the bills for hospital care. Are the superintendents of these 13 establishments that spend $4,000,000 able to get the information, the help and the supplies, materials and equipment that will enable them to operate the laundries, steam boilers, farms, kitchens and make the necessary repairs as economically as possible? In other words are these institutions operated properly? Do they develop the proper cost data, records, reports and control data so that those who are responsible can know how the operation is going from month to month? Can the business management be improved? Could there be more co operation between the institutions? Could the farm at the Workhouse supply Gallinger Hospital with vegetable^ the year around by storing onions, cabbage and potatoes that will keep during the winter? Could the women at one of the correctional Institutions make dresses for tlje women at Blue Plains? Is it necessary to operate 13 laundries, 13 bakeries, etc.? Those few questions should be enough for everybody who likes to plan and organize to have a very interesting time going home on the bus or sitting before the fire. And it is possible that a demonstration can be made that “a penny saved is a penny appropriated." It might even help some old woman at Blue Plains. r. M. Comments on Care of Aged and Youthful Poor. To th* Editor ol The Bter: The care of the underprivileged young and the penniless old is very much in the limelight just now. Here is how it was done in pre-Hitler Czeeho-Slovakla (in 1936): "In Prague we went over the fine Masaryk homes for poor children and old people, built on the edge of a forest whither we saw the children trooping out to play. The old men were sweeping and mowing grass, and in great, shining kitchens the old ladles were helping to prepare a tempting meal to be eaten in a cheerful dining room, where flowers adorned the small tables." This appeared in the Manchester Guardian and was re published in the Baltimore Sun. Just about that time a public-spirited Marylander, State Senator Kennedy, in vestigated, on bis own, the Free 8tate’a county "homes.” He found most to be "deplorable.” His report to Gov. Nice re ceived wide publicity in the Washington press. At the same time Baltimore city gave its institutions the once over. A lady of standing had written a letter to a newspaper—and the rest came easy. Plenty of official excitement. Whether anything worth while was accomplished, I have forgotten. Here, due to Mrs. Roosevelt’s person ality, something permanent may result Anyhow, she woke them up. In this con nection credit also goes to the person who caused her to take a hand. As Z note she is a woman of eolor in humble, but self-supporting circumstances. Well, it was a great day for Washington's poor and a bad day for the jobholders! February 16. FRED VETTER. 4 ‘ THIS AND THAT By Charlei t. TraceweU. "ARLINGTON, Va. "Dear Sir: “Cherry blossoms In January! “Yes, this was true. As the pips were so well developed, I brought in some branches Just before Christmas, and by January 15 several clusters of ethereal beauty gave much pleasure. "Then again we filled a vase with small branches and today they were un furling their fragile blossoms much to our delight. ’ “Your column gives us pleasure, as we, too, are bird lovers and have fed them all through these cruelly cold weeks. "We have cardinals, blue Jays, woodpeckers, the titmouse, our little chic fellow of black and gray, starlings galore, and today the first blackbird. * * * a “The tlone mockingbird makes life miserable for all of these as he sweeps down like an eagle driving the birds from pillar to post. "We have three feeding stations and a post upon which ‘mocky’s’ apple is forced through a nail and this he eats leaving the skin cup, which we some times fill with crumbs. "All of the food he cannot eat, but he drives all the other birds to despera tion trying to get a bite. "As yet we have not seen Master Robin but we hope he will arrive soon with his cheery call and fine dress. "Thdnk you for the pleasure your column gives. "Yours very truly, M. E. K.” * * a * A cherry blossom, dried, of course, was sent along for evidence. There it lay on the desk, while out sfde the air was filled with birds and sunshine. The snow had gone. For how long? There was no telling, in such a winter as this. The speaker on the radio a few mo ments before from Chicago had said that it had snowed there "all last night and the afternoon before.” But this day. in Chevy Chase, Md., in Washington, D. C., and in nearby Vir ginia, was fair and clear, with the good green grass showing at last for the first time fully since before Christmas. * * * * How the birds loved ltl There were not as many as usual in the yard. This Is always to be expected after a long-lying snow has melted off. The birds are glad to get a chance at their more natural foods. Surely they must be,a bit tired of dry seeds and grains by this time! No one could blame them. For the bright sun and the higher temperature no doubt caused a stir to run through an the local layer* of crea tion. Inaecta moved, and came up. No sooner had any unwary insect so done, than some sang sparrow, surfeited with seed and grain, pounced upon it. * * * m Some of them had gone to the woods, too, where certain berries were un covered at last. No, there were not as many at the feeding stations as usual, but we were not disappointed. We have noticed this happen <tach time a snow has melted off comp.etely. Some of the old stand-by sparrows are here, and two pairs of cardinals, and a dozen starlings spread over the grass. This interesting bird much prefers grass seed to any you can provide for him, even sunflower seed, or even bread. When*there is no snow on the ground, often as many as 50 or 60 of them will fly down, and spread out over the lawn, much as a band of robins may do later, if we have the good fortune to have them arrive in a group. 'Robins already have been seen In nearby Virginia, as reported here re cently, and in Rock Creek Park. Prom Arlington, Va., B. E. writes succinctly: “A couple of events in the bird world this Sunday morning out here In the wooded section of Arlington County: "!• Three or four cardinals whistling their characteristic greeting for the first time I’ve heard this year. “2. My first robin at 11:30 am., verified and recorded by four of us.” * it * w A resident of Chevy Chase, Md., called up to say that a few days ago while out walking In Rock Creek Park, he had heard what he was sure was a robin'* call. He thought he would try an old boy hood trick on the bird. So he stepped beneath a tree, and began to give the robin’s call, as he had learned it long ago in the South. It had been customary in those days to decoy robins, slay them, and bake them in pies. This could and did happen at the great robin “roosts,” where 4,000, 000 robins annually gather in February in some of the Southern States before separating to fly North. This time there was no thought of killing for pies. But sure enough I the call worked. Almost immediately six robins flew into the tree. Today the South takes better care of its robins, which in a few weeks be come our robins, of course. Conservation , enforcement officers protect the roosting birds during the three or four nights they are together. It won’t be long now before every local garden has its robins. Almost any day you are likely to see them in the yard, as nonchalant as if they had never been away. Letters to the Editor Wants Passport Restrictions Lifted. To the Editor of The Star: Instead of shedding a lot of crocodile tears over "poor Uttie picked-on Pin land" it might be a good idea for our worthy Congress and even more worthy State Department to permit American volunteers to get passports. We don’t ask them to risk their necks or their pocketbooks. We’ll sign any re lease of responsibility that they may re quire, if that is what's worrying them. Let them stay here and go to Finnish relief performances and write checks; we’re fighting men and we. have other ideas about the best way to help Fin land. As it is, we have to sneak around corners and go over on rotten freighters —or else Jump the border and try our luck in Canada or Mexico or Cuba. Some of us haven’t the money for that and Finland is losing the services of expert pilots and passable riflemen, which she might have today if our sympathetic friends would get practical and stop the side-stepping. The President has stated that in his opinion Americans can enlist under the fiag of Finland without losing their citizenship, but any and all persons be lieving that this is equivalent to permis sion to go unmolested are directed to Room 148, State Department. The idea there is: "You can go, but we won’t let you.” Only a politician can unravel it February 6. D. K. Asks for Chance for Those Over Twenty-live. To the Editor of The Star: There is so much talk these days about helping young people to get Jobs—those under 25. So many millions spent the past seven years—for those under 25. But no impassioned appeals, no millions, no sympathy for those over 25. Why don’t they care about us also—the Government officials, public-spirited citi zens, even the young people themselves? Why must we be pushed aside and tram pled upon to make room for them? Why don't we count for anything in life Just because we are over 25? Surely, we need all this help so much more than the younger ones. For they have everything in their favor—hope, am bition, confidence, and the independence, health, good looks and general appeal that goes with youth, while we over 25 (and especially over 30) are losing all these things, with the added disillusionment caused by memories of times when we weYe secure in our jobs and in our out look for an endless future. Besides, the new laws, which are so helpful to the young and fortunate em ployed, are very hurtful to us older un employe*!. The Social Security Act makes it unwise for employers to take the risk of hiring us, since it is expensive, and the wage-hour few makes it necessary for employers to get the most work a day out of their employes, and to eliminate em ployes wherever possible. And once out, It is almost impossible for us over 30 to get work again. There is also plenty of sympathy and money for those over 66. Why is there nothing for the ages between (except for those qualifying under W. F. A.)? Fran 26 to 66 is a long while to live in priva tion and despair (if we manage to sur vive). But then we are not organised to protest Why not reverse the situation for the next seven years and appropriate for us Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. Please be brieft the millions that have been spent on youth in the past seven years? It would be only simple justice—already too long delayed. Besides, we can also produce votes as payment for Government help— and many more than 8,500,000. February 14. BEWILDERED. Questions Seal Ruling On "Domicile.” To tht Editor of The Star: The papers report Mr. Seal, corpo ration counsel, as ruling that Govern ment workers living in Washington mu& pay the new District income tax, • even though they claim a legal residence in a State and go home to vote every year. If Mr. Seal is correctly quoted his interpretation of the word “domicile” as tised in the District income tax law is contra to the unbroken decisions of the State and Federal courts since the estab lishment of governments among us. It is a reasonable and proper assumption that the Congress used the word "domi cile” in the act in the sense and meaning put upon it by the courts, for otherwise it would have been useless and mean ingless. A person may have many resi dences, but can have only one domicile, and the question of his domicile is one of his intention, supported by facts, indica tive of the intention of the person to return to his domicile at some future time. Decisions on the subject, both State and Federal, are numberless. For example the Supreme Court of the United States has held that citizenship or domicile, and the intention of chang ing same, is capable of more satisfactory proof by acts than by declarations, and that the exercise of the right of suffrage is conclusive on the subject. Shelton v. Tiffin 6 How. 162; Utah-Nevada Co., v. De Lamar, 133 Feb. 113. In the latter case the Supreme Court denied a writ of certiorari tp the lower court which had held as above stated, 199 U. S. 605. It is further reported that Mr. Seal has given an opinion that pensions paid to residents of the District are also sub ject to the District income tax. This conclusion of Mr. Seal is in opposition to the explicit and clearly expressed„ exemption in the Federal statures of pensions from every form of taxation and even from' the claims of creditors. ‘ ALEXANDER S. LANIER. February 10. Newcomer Enjoys Local Lenten Services. To tho Ml tor of The Star: Among the "worth whiles” I’ve at tended since coming recently to live in Washington was the initial lenten serv ice last Sunday evening at Ascension Church, Massachusetts avenue and Twelfth street NW. Although not an Episcopalian, several years ago, while abroad, I enjoyed at tending the Church of England, Christ Church, Woburn Square, London. This is where my favorite poetess, Christina Rossetti, used to worship and it has a reredos painting in heV memory. My mind reverted to those pleasant occasions and Ails added to the Joy of the service at Ascension. MRS. MABEL F. DENNETT. February 11 Haskin's Answers To Readers' Questions By Frederic J. Baskin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Eve ning Star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Has kin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply. Q. How many people are paying social security taxes?—J. W. 8. A. The Bureau of Internal Revenue says that approximately 26,000,000 per sons are paying taxes under the old-age Insurance provisions of the Social Se curity Act. Q. In what year did the explosion of the gun Peacemaker occur on board the U. S. S. Princeton?—R. J. 8. A. The bursting of the gun Peace maker on board the United States steamer Princeton took place on Feb ruary 28,1844. Q. How is time computed at the North Pole?—J. L. R. A. Since all the meridians of longitude meet at the poles, any time may be observed there. It is customary for ex plorers in the Arctic and Antarctic to use the time of the countries they repre sent or to use time based on that of Greenwich, England. Q. Where is Anthony Fokker, the famous airplane builder, buried?—E. T. A. His ashes are interred in an urn in Westervelt Cemetery, near Haarlem, in the Netherlands. Q. Please give some information about Goya’s quarrel with the Duke of Welling ton.—R. W. M. A. "The Living Goya,” by Mercedes C. Barbarrosa, says: "The story of Goya’s famous encounter with the Duke of Wellington is historical. The hero of Waterloo, expecting to have his portrait painted in the Van Dyck or Rubens style of English tradition, could not repress his astonishment when he took note of Goya’s original and curious methods. Venturing to comment and perhaps to criticize, the general made some tactless remarks which offended the sensitive pride of the artist. Goya, it is related, lost his head and, in a fit of passion, seized a weapon hanging from the studio walls and made for the Duke, who par ried the thrust in his direction and beat a hasty retreat. King Ferdinand was obliged to intervene, and the fiery painter received orders to leave Madrid. But Wellington, realizing at last that artists must be given a broad leeway to express their art as they see fit, interceded for Goya. The sittings were resumed and the portrait was completed in due course.” • _ Q. Was a Vice President ever elected by the Senate?—R. K. B. A. Richard Mentor Johnson, our ninth Vice President, failed to secure a major ity of electoral votes and was elected by the Senate. Q. Where was the first carillon in the United 8tates?—C. C. B. A. The first carillon in the United States was dedicated at Gloucester, Mass., in 1922 by Portuguese fishermen and their neighbors to commemorate the patriotic service of their fellow sailors. Q. What is the oldest fort In the United States?—L. T. A. Fort Marion, the oldest fort extant in the United States, was started in 1672 by the Spanish to protect St. Augustine, the first permanent white settlement in this country. It guarded the north inlet of the Matanzas River. A symmetrically shaped, four-sided structure, it is con structed in the fashion developed by Vauban, the great French military engi neer. Surrounded by a moat 40 feet wide, its only entrance is across a draw bridge. The great walls are from 9 to 12 feet thick. Q. How many pairs of women’s stock ings are purchased annually?—M. P. R. „A. The National Association of Hosiery Manufacturers says that in 1939 con sumption of women’s full-fashioned ho siery amounted to 43,078,000 dozen pairs, with a retail value of $463,500,000. Q. Was a duel ever fought between Aaron Burr and some one by the name of Church?—T. D. A. On a trivial provocation Aaron Burr challenged and fought a duel with Ben jamin Silliman Church, but after an exchange of shots they reached an amicable arrangement. This duel was fought a short time before Burr's duel with Hamilton. Q. How many radio stations in the United States are owned by news papers?—J. F. A. The 1940 Yearbook of Broadcasting says that 269 radio stations in the United States are owned in whole or part by newspaper or other publishing interests. Q. Who won the prize for the best novel written by a teacher?—L. P. C. A. The $1,000 award made by the Dial Press for the best original novel with a scholastic background was won by Sophia Belzer Engstrand of Chicago for her novel, "Miss Munday.” Q. In what country are the largest number of patents granted?—L. W. S. A. In 1938 the United States led all countries in the number of patents granted, with a total of 38,425. Next in order were Great Britain with 19,314, Germany with 15,068 and France with 14,000. Q. What was the earliest course in Journalism in the United States?—D. D. A. In 1869, R. E. Lee, then president of Washington College, now Washington and Lee University, Inaugurated what were known as press scholarships. Gen. Lee informed the Board of Trustees that June that "a limited number of boys can receive Instruction In the printing office of Messrs. Lafferty & Co., in this town, without charge or cost to the college." The scholarships announced that sum mer, not to exceed 60, were to Include tuition and all college charges, and a condition was attached to the effect that each student-should labor one hour per day In the line of his profession. Q. Is deep mounting always black?— M. A. B. A. Deep mourning may be either all black or all white. Q. How tall was Chaliapin?—W. M. G. A. The great Russian basso was 6 feet 4 Inches in height. Q. How may I obtain a booklet of instructions on fortune-telling?—R. T. R. A. See page A-3 off today's Star.