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With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WAS HINGTON, D.C. TUESDAY..April 9, 1940 The Evening Star Newspaper Company, Main Offlce: l'tb St and Pennsylvania Ava. New York Offlce: 110 Eaat 42nd St. Chlcaco Offlce: 4.15 North Michltan Ava. Prices Effective January 1, 1940. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Rerular Edition. Evening and Sunday 75c per mo. or 18c per week Hie Evening Star 45c per mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star __ 10cDercopy Night Final Edition. Night Final and Sunday Star 85c per month Night Final Star _ fiOc per month Rural Tube Delivery. The Evening and Sunday Star... 85c per month The Evening Star ... 55c per month The Sunday Star ... _ lOcpercopy Collection made at the end of each month or each week. Orders may be sent by mall or tele phone National 6000 Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Daily ar.d Sunday..1 yr.. $12 00; l mo. $1.00 Dally only ..i yr.. $8.00: 1 mo.. 7»e Sunday only...l yr.. $5.00: 1 mo.. 50c Entered as second-class matter post offlce, Washington D. C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press 13 exclusively entitled to the use 3or ■‘'Publication of all news dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited in thia ^.per. IT3 »1?° tocaI news published herein. Ail rights of publication of special discatchea herein also are reserved will be dispatched with all possible speed to Norway. How Russia would react to the arrival of Trench and British troops in Scandinavia cannot be foreseen, but it may be doubted whether she is any less disturbed by the prospect of German domination of Sweden and Norway. The allies were prevented by purely physical considerations from lending any effective aid to Poland or to Finland. But that is not true of Norway’s case, and it must be assumed that the allied high com mand has anticipated and prepared for just such a move as Germany is making. If that is true, and in the absence of the gravest sort of negli gence it could hardly be otherwise, it may be predicted with certainty that Norway, as she makes her stand against the invader, will not have to fight alone. Victory for Labor The National Labor Relations Board and the C. I. O. chalk up a notable triumph in the refusal of the Supreme Court to review the board order requiring the Republic Steel Corporation to reinstate work men and compensate them for time lost in the bitter “little steel” strike of 1937, and to cease interference with the efforts of the Steel Workers’ Organizing Committee to unionize Republic plants in Ohio. The effect of the Supreme Court ruling is to affirm the findings of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals in Philadelphia, which had rejected the application of Republic to set aside the order. At the time the de cree was handed down by the board in October, 1938, it was estimated to call for the reinstatement of five thousand workmen and to entail a cost of seven and one-half million dollars to the company for back pay. According to a later statement from the company, however, the sum in volved is but a fraction of that amount, and the reinstatement ques tion also is said now to be of no consequence, as a large part of the workmen involved are back on the job. If that be true, the principal issue remaining is that having to do with the unionization of the Republic employes. The Supreme Court, as is custom ary, made only the bare announce ment that the review had been de nied, and the reasons prompting the action therefore are uncertain. Pre sumably, however, the court felt that no constitutional issues were pre sented, and that no new legal ques tions were raised. There is the added circumstance, too, that there was no disagreement between the Labor Board and the Court of Ap peals on the facts in the case, in which the board held the corpora tion entirely at fault. In passing on this litigation, the Supreme Court presumably has sanc tioned the broadened definition by the Court of Appeals as to what constitutes unlawful acts by strikers. The Labor Board had ruled that only eleven workmen were not en titled to reinstatement because of acts in connection with the strike. Ten were excluded for possessing ex plosives and one for property dam age. The appellate court added to this list, however, forty more against whom were such charges as pos session and discharging of firearms, interfering with the mail and ob structing railroad operations. Dr. Cyrus Adler Washington knew and esteemed Dr. Cyrus Adler long before he be came famous in the outer world. He was librarian and for a time assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Insti tution between 1892 and 1908. His neighbors and colleagues remember him as he was in those years—a man quietly but keenly enthusiastic in the pursuit of all useful and helpful knowledge, a scholar yet never a pedant. He had been reared in the traditions of orthodoxy, but his mind and his heart were progressive in the sense that they reached out for truth wherever it might be found. Much of Dr. Adler’s work'neces sarily was quasi-political. For exam ple, he represented the Columbian Exposition to Turkey, Egypt and other Mediterranean countries. Sub sequently, he had more than a little to do with organizing the exhibits of the United States at the exposi tions at Atlanta and St. Louis. He participated in scientific congresses, was a biographer for such great leaders as Solomon Schechter and Jacob H. Schiff, served as an editor of the Jewish Encyclopaedia and of the Jewish Quarterly Review, wrote for the Dictionary of American Biography, acted as chairman qf the Board of Editors for the new Jewish translation of the Bible and as chair man of the Publication Committee of the Jewish Publication Society, went with Louis Marshall to plead the cause of the Jews at the Ver sailles Peace Conference. As presi dent of Dropsie College and of the Jewish Theological Seminary he was an inspiration as well as a successful administrator. The distinguishing characteristic of his career from start to finish was activity. He was an individual to whom toil appeared to be as necessary as breath. To be Idle, In his concept, was to be unhappy. But there was Invariably a con scious sense of direction ifi his labors He attempted pothing adventurously. Instead, he planned with a marvelous skill each enterprise in which he engaged. Thus it might be said of him that he was a practical idealist. He loved books yet he did not permit them to lure n’m away from the duties and the opportunities of his own period of history. Likewise, he was devoted to his fellow citizens of this troubled earth, yet he did not allow their Immediate requirement! i to blind him to the fact that the future of the human race is Im portant. He went back into the past but he just as truly went forward Into ages still to be. For the Jews he vi3ioned their fulfillment of an historic religion. Geography had but scant significance in his dream for the rebuilding of Zion. He sought particularly a nearness to God, a oneness with God in which all of His ch'ldren would be at peace. Prosecutor's Discretion In theory, at least, United States Attorney Edward M. Curran is on sound ground in instructing his as sistants not to Initiate prosecutions in certain types of cases, including negligent homicide charges, when in their judgment the evidence is in sufficient to warrant placing a de fendant on trial. A public prosecutor has a dual re sponsibility. Primarily, he is the representative of society in bringing offenders to trial and in striving with every lawful means at his com mand to secure their conviction when the evidence indicates their guilt. But he also has another and vital obligation—that of shielding inno cent persons from prosecution when, in his sound discretion, they have been unjustly accused. Basically, the functipn of the prosecuting at torney is not to establish a record of convictions, but to see, to the best of his ability, that justice is done. The obvious danger, of course, is that discretion will be abused and that the guilty may go unpunished because a prosecutor in charge of a given case may underestimate the quality of the evidence pointing to guilt. This is particularly true of negligent homicide prosecutions, in which the evidence is usually con flicting and in which convictions are difficult to obtain under most favor able circumstances. Another factor, which Mr. Curran did not mention, presumably because he felt there was no occasion for it, concerns the possibility that his as sistants may be subjected to strong political pressure to quash certain types of charges. This has occurred in the past and there is no reason to suppose that it will not happen in the future. The instructions is sued by Mr. Curran, however, clearly rule out any nol prosses except in cases where the evidence is inade quate, and it may be assumed, there fore, that his assistants, with his support, will turn a deaf ear to any plea for special favors. In a matter of this kind the proof of the pudding necessarily must be in the eating. Theoretically. Mr. Curran’s position is sound and the community will not suffer in the mat ter of law enforcement unless there should be an abuse of discretion. Safety Methods Disclosures of special Interest to Washington are contained in the National Safety Council’s report on its traffic contest for cities and States, details of which have just been compiled. All the States and twelve hundred and thirty-six cities, including the Capital, participated. Rhode Island led the States, Kansas City topped all cities, and in addi tion was first in the division for com munities of from two hundred and fifty thousand to five hundred thou sand population. Cleveland haa me best record among the larger cities. Washington was far down the list. Rhode Island reduced its traffic deaths from seventy-four to sixty six, Kansas City from sixty-nine to thirty-two, and Cleveland from a hundred and thirty to a hundred and fifteen. Washington’s improve ment was one life saved. What is significant is that all State policemen in Rhodqi Island had spe cial training in traffic and accident prevention work, new men being re quired to take a three-month course. In Kansas City nearly a hunarea ana fity men assigned to traffic had spe cial instruction, and in Cleveland the same applied to three hundred and fifty, with eighty-four being specifi cally trained in accident investiga tion. This was reflected in convic tions of accused drivers. In Rhode Island only two out of more than twelve hundred were acquitted, in Kansas City acquittals were less than five thousand out of fifty-two thou sand, and in Cleveland about three hundred out of thirty-seven thou sand. These arrests did not include parking violations. Each of the three jurisdictions employed a full-time traffic safety engineer aided by part-time staffs. And the two cities had special traf fic courts which handled no other types of cases. Washington is doing well so far this year in reducing accidents. If the average can be maintained it will rank high among cities improv ing such conditions. This is due mainly to a sustained educational campaign, aided by improved en forcement methods,. which include the beginnings of a trained staff of police officers. The city has no full time safety engineer and Its Traffic Court is conducted by a different Judge each month, resulting In dif ferent standards of enforcement. These factors alone are not re sponsible for the showings made by Kansas City and Cleveland. But they contributed in each case. The British Embassy now rejoices in a sentry’s pill box for the police officer on duty at the entrance. Gilbert and Sullivan fans will regret that it was not possible to install therein Private Willis of the Cold stream Guards. No theme song has yet been se lected for the 1940 session of “The World of Tomorrow.” A new one might be written and entitled, “Fair and Cheaper.” Of Stars, Men And Atoms Notebook of Science Progress In Field, Laboratory And Study By Thomas R. Henry. CINCINNATI, April 9.—Chemists are demolishing apples and making new things out of the building stones in an effort to save the great Virglnia-Mary land apple belt—a few years ago one of the richest orchard lands In the world. The plight of the apple growers was described to the American Chemical So ciety, meeting here today, by Drs. P. C. Vilbrandt and R. D. Sieg of the Vir ginia Polytechnic Institute at Blacks burg, which has undertaken to find new uses for apples and their constituents in American industry. The growers, they said, depended pri marily on exports to Europe. These have dropped off badly with the almost continuous depression since the first World War. At the same time the fruit tastes of the American people have been turning steadily to the orange, grape fruit and pineapple. Said Dr. Vilbrandt: “The average an nual commercial apple crop for the United States has been estimated to be 90.000. 000 bushels, with 31,000.000 bush els diverted to apple products industries. This has left in recent years a variable surplus of from 117,000,000 to 211,000,000 bushels. In peak years more than 4.000. 000 bushels have not even been harvested due to market conditions. “The cull fruit graded out at the pack ing plants may approximate more than 5.000. 000 bushels. The increase in in dustrial and food utilization of surplus and cull apples seems to be the only means of obtaining a stabilized apple market. The apple products industries at present possess approximately 20 per cent of the apple crop. Ten per cent goes for cider and vinegar, 4 per cent to dried apples, 3 per cent to canned apples, l'j per cent to canned apple sauce and about 1 per cent to brandy. Unfortu nately these same industries introduce a waste problem of their own with nearly 70.000 tons of wastes, which at present find an outlet in ensilage, mixed feeds, fertilizers, etc. “The nutritional and therapeutic value of apples and apple products, the cor rective value of apples on intestinal disorders, the germicidal action and vitamin value and the soluble iron con tent have been set forth by research men.” One of the results already achieved in the infancy of the work, Dr. Vil brandt said, is a practical way of mixing the complete mashed applp. including the core and seeds, with skim milk to produce various forms of candy for which a market may be built up that will care for some of the surplus. The effect on plants and animals of poisonous gases found in the air over industrial cities was reported by Dr. Carl Setterstrom of the Boyce Thomp son Institute. The gases studied in cluded ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Hydrogen cyanide proved to be the most toxic of the industrial gases. A concentration of 10 per cent In air killed four of eight rats in a little over a minute. The same amount of hydrogen sulfide killed an equal number of rats in 14 minutes, chorine killed them in slightly less than an hour, and sulfur dioxide in 15 hours. All the rats survived a 15-hour exposure to 10 per cent of ammonia. The only one of these gases which is generally present in the air, Dr. Setter strom said, is sulfur dioxide. Litigation and settlements regarding injury to plants from this gas coming from smelters alone run into many millions a year, he said. Plants and fungi proved most susceptible to sulfur dioxide and ammonia, while animals resist these gases more successfully than any of the others. Said Dr. Setterstrom: “In Industry these gases constitute an increasing health hazard. In the metal industries data relating the cessation of respira tion, brought about by these gases, are of considerable value. To students of vital metabolic processes in plants these results will furnish a new method of approach. The data are of importance to biologists in general because of their bearing on the mechanics of toxic action. “Concentrations as high as three parts' per million of sulfur dioxide are en countered In centralized Industrial cities such as St. Louis, Pittsburgh and New York. It is likely that concentrations as high as 10 parts per million are en countered occasionally in the lee of power houses and other large coal con sumers. Workers engaged in the manu facture of refrigerants are frequently exposed to concentrations varying from 30 to 100 parts per million. High con centrations also are met with in the many industrial processes which use sulfur dioxide as a bleaching agent. "Ammonia is formed by the distilla tion of coal gas. Chlorine is widely used to disinfect the water and sewage of cities. Hydrogen cyanide Is present in small amounts in blast furnace gas and impure coal gas. Hydrogen sulfide is liberated in the course of many reactions used in manufacturing chem icals and is sometimes encountered in various processes in the gas, coal and petroleum industries. “Of all the organisms tested, animals were the most susceptible to hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide, bacteria and seeds the most resistant. Animals and seeds were the most resistant to ammonia and sulfur dioxide, plants and fungi the most susceptible." "Fellow Passenger" Voices His Discontent. To th« editor of The flUr: The reasoning of your correspondent, Mr. W. L. White, becomes very tiresome. He plays up trifles or Incidents, common or unavoidable, to make the German people appear a most disreputable lot. Luckily we do not all think like Mr. White, who seems to have a weakness for small talk. Newspapers are very un important anyway except for advertise ments. So many of us have lost faith in so many things. We know the kind of world we live in and discontent consumes us. We have no time for small talk. The “era ot exploitation” has come to an end; the former victims are unwilling to play that role any longer. Lock up the warmongers and talk common sense. April 6. FELLOW PASSENGER.‘' THIS AND THAT By Charles E. Tracewell. "CHEVY CHASE, Md. "Dear sir: “Some of your readers have wondered if the cardinal likes a bird bath. "I can say that he does. •‘When I lived in Audubon Park, on Linnet road between Dove lane and Cardinal drive, Louisville, Ky., I had plenty of birds all summer and the cardinal occupied my bird bath as often as the other birds. "It was a very shallow one, the pedestal not used, and I kept the hose nozzle over the rim with enough water to have it always full and cool. “My pet cardinal would come to the kitchen or sun parlor window and call to me if the feeding tray was empty. “Later he would bring his babies to the plum tree just outside the sun parlor window and both parents would feed them. Once in a while the male bird fed the mother. “The brown thrasher came each spring and was so tame she would flutter around my head as I put the food outside the window. “I had a small shelf suspended by brackets about half way up from the window sill. This I kept for peanut hearts which most birds fike. Another station for sunflower seeds and a shelf for raisins and apples. “The suet was fastened under the seed box so I had several different kinds of birds feeding at the same time. We have a beautiful color film of the cardi nal and one of the thrasher sitting on the half apple. * * * * “I have a mockingbird here with a broken wing. "He chases all birds during the winter but each spring he becomes very mild and now the cardinals, titmouse, chicka dee, purple finch and blue jays come as often as the mockingbird. "During the winter he sat in a pine tree near one window so he could watch the shelf on that side. "One snowy, stormy day I saw him peering through the window and sud denly dart away. "He had seen a cardinal at the shelf on the opposite side of the house, there being another window directly opposite where he was sheltering in the pine tree. "The goldfinch loves the seed of the coreopsis. If you grow them and the old-fashioned yellow' flower so much like them, you will have plenty of gold finches during the summer. "Your articles in the evening paper have been a great pleasure to me. "Yours sincerely, G. S. F.” * * * * Goldfinches are supposed to like small breadcrumbs, too. Their preference, of course, is for seeds on the plant. They will eat the seeds of most of our popular annual flowers, as grown in millions of gardens. The reason most people do not see them eat these seeds is because they (the humans) are In too big a hurry to tidy up the garden In the fall. They pull up all the dead annuals, rake up all the leaves, aiming to leave everything neat for the winter. This is all very well, but it deprives many of the migrating seed-eating birds of good food. Dead annuals, if left alone, provide real food for hundreds of birds on bad winter days, since many of them are tall enough to stick up over the snows. There is a certain picturesque quality, too, tn old annuals and other dead plants being left alone until spring. Certainly few things, even gate posts, make prettier pictures when the snow is on them. We should be keeping an eye open this month for two of our finest birds, the wood thrush and the catbird. In normal seasons, the catbird arrives here about April 22, and the wood thrush about April 28. We fear this hasn't been an altogether normal season, in any re spect; maybe the arrival of popular migrators is “off,” according to usual standards. There is no telling what effect the snow and freezing weather through the South had upon many of the birds. Certainly the robin arrived on time, or even ahead of time, although there are always some specimens seen long before the majority. * * * The house wren is another migrator which returns to our gardens this month, usually along toward April 15, Often the birds which have just flown in seem very much done up by their trip. Many persons have called this column to learn what to feed r.ewly arrived robins, which for some reason or other do not seem to be able to get their favorite food, worms. Bread moistened in milk is good, also raisins. Persons particularly interested in cat birds have reported that they will eat mashed or boiled potatoes, suet, raisins, apple, hemp seed, in particular. The way to feed apple to birds is to cut the fruit in half and place it, cut side up. on the ground or feeding table. Catbirds also are fond of raw peanuts, chopped fine. No doubt they would like various fruits, either natural or canned, just as mock ingbirds do. Finely ground raw beef, put through the next to the finest setting in the average meat grinder, would be worth trying on many of the new arrivals. If care is taken in the handling, meat so ground can be taken from the ma chine in long, worm-like pieces. Surely these ought to appeal to robins, too, and many others. Bread crumbs, fine, are good for many migrators, and birds which stay with us all the year around. Birds liking crumbs include the cardinal, chickadee, nuthatch, song and tree sparrows, Eng lish sparrows, starlings, grackles, junco, fox sparrow, catbird, purple finch, blue jay and goldfinch. Letters to the Editor Comments on Plan to-Curb Martial Church Music. To the Editor ot The Star: A recent Associated Press article from Los Angeles informs us that a Latter Day Saints' speaker at the Music Edu cators’ Conference states, "Onward, Christian Soldiers,” is "too militant in spirit for these troublous times.” Christian soldiers wearing the uni form of great Christian nations are as sembled on the battle line in Europe— ready to give their lives in order to up hold their faith in Christian principles. When one reads of this brave British and French expeditionary force abroad, we have a feeling that this vanguard of Christianity will perhaps need the re enforcement of entire Christiandom. Today there are those who shout “Peace! Peace!”—but there is no peace. Redemption sooner or later must come— unfortunately by the shedding of blood. We, too, may be called upon to make a sacrifice and help battle against oppres sion and wTrong. Redemption of this world will likely come the hard way. As I read and reread, sing or resing that beautiful, inspiring marching song of our church militant, I am convinced that we need more, not fewer, martial Chris tian Sunday school favorites. Our modern-day infidels are a hard lot to do battle with—and the inspira tion of militant songs will help to arouse any discouraged Christians there may be. The Rev. S. Baring-Gould in 1865 gave to the Christian church a great battle hymn which, in my humble opinion, will forever live and be sung in the music of our Christian churches. At the approach of Ascension on May 2, thousands of Christian knights, pledged to uphold the Christ, will march under the banner of the cross all over this great Nation—and the bands will play “Onward. Christian Soldiers.” ERNEST CHARLES RICK. April 5. “Silent Treatment” Urged For Fox Hunters. To the Editor ol The Star: Let us hope the press gives the "silent treatment” to the so-call sportsmen of the "hunt clubs,” who crave publicity in their Sunday "sport.” Surely intelligent people can find some pleasure more con structive than hounding some poor ani mal to death. A little thought for the lower forms of life might produce more respect for mankind. NATURE LOVER. April 2. Writer Sees America At Crossroads. To the Editor of The Ster: The Star, In Its report of the Presi dent’s press conference of April 5, states: “He made clear that he feels there are certain objections to submitting ad ministrative agencies of the Govern ment to continuing restrictive action by the courts,” and that he is opposed to the Walter-Logan bill providing for broadened judicial review of the opera tions of certain quasi-judicial Govern ment organizations. It is evident that Mr. Roosevelt is an uncompromising opponent of the courts., •tod that if he had his willful way hs Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address oj the writer although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. Please be brief! would abolish them as a hindrance to his socialistic schemes. This attitude was indicated by his attempt to pack the Supreme Court, thereby destroying the balance of power in our govern mental system and making the courts subservient to his dictatorial and auto cratic will. Now he wants to make free from the jurisdiction of the courts the multitudinous agencies created at his demand so that the liberties and prop erty rights of the citizen will be subject, to these agencies without protection or redress at the hands of the courts. No man in the history of the Nation has done more to break down the safe guards of our liberties and the security of our property rights than Mr. Roose velt, nor has any one done this Nation and our people a greater disservice. America is at the crossroads. To the left with Roosevelt lies social disintegra tion, bankruptcy, repudiation or inflation and ultimately national ruin. Repudia tion of the New Deal and Mr. Roose velt by a turn to the right will indicate a return to national sanity, to constitu tional government, to honor and decency in government administration, and to the re-employment of our idle people and to prosperity. Which will the Amer ican people choose next November? April 6. ALEXANDER S. LANIER. Appraises Significance Of Pan-Americanism. To the Editor ol The Star:f On April 14 the Pan-American Union will celebrate its 50th anniversary. History tells us that South American civilization predates that of the Egyp tian Pyramids. Great and glorious em pires existed and apparently took the course of all tyrannical empires where wealth and luxury belonged to the few and slavery to the many. Perhaps the Americas will take a lesson from these Inca and other empires. Let us nope that the 21 countries of the South American union will retain their separate governments as do the States in our United States. May the future of the Americas be based on peace and a democracy of the people, for the people and by the people, where an en lightened, educated populace will build a government upon truth, liberty and Justice, with malice toward none and equality for all. C. J. ANDERSON. April 5. Wants Underpass Opened to Walkers. To the Editor of The Star: I should like to know why pedestrians are prohibited from the Thomas Circle underpass when there are walks therein for pedestrians. The original plans called for pedestrian walks, but now there are “Pedestrians Prohibited” signs at both entrances. A good many people living in the Dupont Circle area walk to town and the underpass would save time and steps if it were opened to pe destrians as originally planned. » A PEDESTRIAN AND MOTORIST. April i, Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Hasktn, A reader can get the answer to any Question of fact by writing The Eve ning star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply. Q. How many persons are employed on W. P. A. work?—N. L. A. As of March 8, 1940, there wert 2,223,321 people on Work Projects Ad ministration rolls in the United States. Q. What is the frequency of multlpla births?—M. B. W. A. Medical statistics show that quin tuplets are born once in 41,600,000 times; quadruplets once in 747,000 Instances; triplets once in 7,103, and twins once in every 87 cases. Q. Why is it so dangerous to be hit in the solar plexus?—J. T. O. A. The solar plexus is an Important center of the sympathetic nervous sys tem, situated in the abdomen, behind the stomach and in front of the aorta. It contains several ganglia which dis tribute nerve fibers to the stomach, liver, kidneys and intestines. If this nerve center is severely shocked, tem porary suspension of the vital functions or even death may ensue. Q. What is the meaning of the word* conurbation?—P. C. A. The word was coined by the late Sir Patrick Geddes, town-planning ex pert, to describe the crowding of people into industrial areas. Q. Please give the rest of the quota tion from Robert Ingersoll beginning “Love is the only bow on life's cloud.” —J. G. A. “Love is the only bow on life's cloud—It is the morning and evening star—It shines upon the babe and sheds its radiance on the quiet tomb—It is the mother of art, inspirer of poet, patriot and philosopher. It is the air and light of every heart—builder of every home, kindler of every fire on ■ every hearth: it was the first to dream of immortality.” Q. What is the musical composition which is used on the radio program Life Begins?—K. H. A. The theme song of the program is Rubinstein's "Melody in F” Q. Please give the date of the Rotary International Convention—C. R. D. A. The 1940 convention of Rotary In ternational will be held in Havana, Cuba, June 9-14. Q. What was the motto of the late Ralph Hitz, the hotel executive?—B. V A. His motto was "Give ’em value and you get volume.” Q. Please give the population of the world —T. M. M. A. Tire estimated population of the world is 2.102 600.000. Q. Is Opie Read, the humorist, living? —W .H. A. Mr. Read died on November 2, 1939, at the age of 86. Q. Who was the first Secretary of the Navy?—E. M. C. A. President John Adams appointed Benjamin Stoddert Secretary of the Navy on May 3, 1798. Q. In what cities are there Federal Reserve Banks?—H. J. A. The Federal Reserve Banks are lo cated in the following cities: Boston, New Yoik. Philadelphia, Cleveland, Richmond. Atlanta. Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Kans.; Dallas and San Francisco. Q. When was the Portland sunk?— J. S. A. The steamship Portland was sunk off Cape Cod on November 26-27, 1898. Q. What is a Boston ledger?—R, C. K. A. It is a columnar ledger in which the accounts and money columns are vertically arranged to facilitate record ing and the calculation of daily or peri odical balances. Q. What is the automobile speed record?—R. B. A. The world's speed record for auto mobiles was made by John R. Cobb of England on August 23, 1939, at the. Bonneville salt flats (Utah) when he drove his car 369.7 miles per hour. Q. On what occasion was a Burns Johnson bout stopped by the police?— R. F. A. On December 25, 1908, Tommy Burns and Jack Johnson met in the stadium at Sydney, Australia. Johnson whipped Burns so brutally that the police interceded and stopped the light in the fourteenth round. Q. Please give some information about Ida Lewis, the lighthouse heroine.— M. P. A. Ida Lewis was born at Newport, R. I., in 1841. By a special act of Con gress she became keeper of the Lime Rock Lighthouse, near Newport, R. I, of which her father had been keepsf for many years. Expert at the oar and in swimming, she saved 22 lives between 1867 and 1904, receiving medals from the United States Government, the Hu mane Society of Massachusetts and the Life Saving Benevolent Society of New York. Her boat the Rescue, presented to her by the citizens of Newport, was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. She was married to William H. Wilson in 1870, but lived with him only a short time, and is commonly known by her maiden name. Her death occurred in 1911. The Old Home In retrospect I see Grandmother's place: A small white house among the locust trees: Its doorway smothered in the fragrant lace Of honeysuckle, boon to golden bees; Its clapboard kitchen, airy, cool and clean. Where palls of foaming milk stood am the table, With homemade bread, fresh buttafc strips of lean Smoked ham. and lucious jama, each with Its label. The meadow land, sweet with the haunt ing scent Of mint, quince blossom, grasses and wild plum; The garden, where perfume of clover blent With spice of Mother's rose geranium. Yes, I can see her now, as she knelt there, Smiling, a sprig of larkspur in her hair. H. P. STODDARD. War in Scandinavia Germany’s violent invasion of Nor way and Denmark and her mining of Swedish ports bring to a tragic end the uneasy neutrality which the Scandinavian countries have sought to preserve by every means at their command since the outbreak of war In Europe some eight months ago. Through the veil of censorship speedily imposed by the invading forces have come only the most meager reports of what is happen ■ ing in the new war zone. But cer tain facts stand out. Norway has elected to fight. Early reports of air raids at Oslo, the evacuation of civilians and the flight of the Norwegian government from that exposed capital suggest that Goering's bombers already may have struck. Denmark, virtually helpless by virtue of her geographical position, apparently has offered no resistance to the Germans. Her non-aggression pact with the Reich apparently has become another scrap of paper. Co penhagen is reported occupied, but if there has been any fighting in Denmark, no reports of it have leaked through the censorship. Sweden as yet presumably has not been involved beyond the mining of her ports on the Skagerrak and the Kattegat, but, with fighting under w?ay in earnest in Norway, the Swedes would have little chance to remain at peace. Attempting to justify her invasion of the neutral countries, the German government has announced from Berlin by radio that "in order to counteract the actions against Den mark and Norway iby Britain and France) and to prevent a possible hostile attack against these coun tries, the German Army has taken these two countries under its pro tection. The strong forces of the German Army have therefore in vaded these countries this morning.” So far as any known acts on the part of the allies are concerned, this flimsy pretext appears to be directed to their action in mining three areas along the Norwegian coast yesterday In an effort to intercept shipments of Swedish iron ore bound for Ger man ports. But the published facts are all against Germany. Obviously, the invasion of Norway and Denmark was not organized overnight. It must have been in process of preparation for some time. Today's developments clear up the mystery of the German troopship sunk four miles off the Norwegian coast yesterday by a British submarine. This transport *W’as sunk at about the time the “allied mines were laid and it is a reasonable assumption that the German soldiers had embarked be fore the mines were laid. Certainly they were organized for the advance Jon Norway prior to the mine laying. These facts destroy Germany's at tempt to justify the invasion as an s^act of retaliation for the laying of the mines. That claim, as has been Nthe case with so many German as 4*»rtions, obviously is absurd. There ga. of course, no way of demonstrat ing factually the truth or falsity of i'^the Reich's further claim that she ^struck to ward off a ‘‘possible inva sion” of Norway by the allies. But on the falsity of her other premise, and on her whole unsavory record for mendacity, the attempt to im ;--pute hostile designs to France and ^Britain surely will be rejected by - world opinion until such a time as -convincing evidence to the contrary 7ks forthcoming. * Just what course France and S Britain will elect to take, now that the scene of action has shifted to > the Scandinavian theater, is for them “ to decide. But that they must act decisively or face the probable loss -of the war is apparent, even to the amateur strategist. A German occupation of Norway in 'force would bring the Reich airmen to within a scant three hundred miles of Scapa Flow as compared to the six or seven hundred miles which • < they must fly now to reach that U target. Almost equally as disastrous -• for the allies would be the seizure by - Germany of the Norwegian naval base at Bergen, which would greatly 4-facilitate the operations of Hitler’s - submarines and other commerce ^raiders. In fact, unless the British move promptly and effectively to Norway’s assistance, they must resign - themselves to facing a very serious challenge to their superiority in the entire North Sea. If the allies still have Intact the expeditionary force that was not Taent to Finland’s aid, largely because of Norwegian and Swedish objec tions, It is a fair assumption that it