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With Sunday Morninr Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. MONDAY..April 15, 1940 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. limn Office: lith St and Pennsylvania Ave. New York Office: 110 East 47nd St. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ave. Prices Effective January 1, 1940. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Regular Edition. Evening end Sunday 75c per mo. or 18c per week The Evening Star . 45c per mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star _ 10c per copy Night Final Edition. Night Final and 6unday Star R5c per month Night Final Star _ BOc per month Rural Tube Delivery. The Evening and Sunday Star_85c per month Tha Evening Star .. ... 55c per month The Sunday Star_ _... 10c per copy Collection made at the end of each month or each week. Orders may be sent by mall or tele phone National 5000 Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Dally and Sunday.. 1 yr.. $17 00: I mo.. $1.00 Dally only _1 yr.. $8 00: 1 mo.. 75e Sunday only_1 yr.. $5.00: 1 mo.. 50e Entered aa second-class matter post office, Washington D. C. Member of the Associated Press. . The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of all news dispatehea credited to it or not otherwise credited in thla paper and also the local news published herein All rights of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved. Danger in the Balkans The Balkans today appear closer to the danger of an actual German military invasion than at any time since the European war began. A number of circumstances growing out of events of the past week in that sector clothe the situation of Rumania, Hungary and Yugoslavia with gravity. Since last Monday, when it was revealed that Rumania had seized a number of barges loaded with dyna mite and Germany charged a Brit ish-French plot to destroy the Danube Channel at the Iron Gate, Rumanian-German troubles have assumed a. more serious aspect as the result of Bucharest’s virtual em bargo against shipment of a number of commodities—chiefly oil and wheat—to Germany. The blasting of three Nazi boats on the Danube added fuel to the fire, leading Germany to call upon the countries of Southeastern Europe for more strict policing of the river which is vital to Germany’s wartime commerce. It was even reported that Germany went so far as to demand permission for the Reich to police the river as far as the Black Sea. But, although apprehensions in Berlin over the security of traffic on the Danube may yet provide the basis of a German drive to “protect” the river, more importance attaches to Rumania’s growing resistance to Germany, as signified in the restric tion against loading of freight cars and barges destined for the Reich and in fhe aggressive tone of the Rumanian press. Since the war began last Septem ber Rumania has concluded with Germany several trade agreements designed to stimulate the export of vital raw material to the Reich. Rumania in the case of several com modities, particularly oil, has failed to ship the increased quantities. The Rumanian action was taken as a consequence of Germany's notifica tion that export to Rumania of a number of products—notably metal lurgical coke, which is vital for Ru manian industry—was to be discon tinued. Germany’s policy toward the Balkans hitherto has been to pre serve peace as long as the allies show no disposition to spread the war to that quarter. Only in peace could Germany hope to get out of her southeastern “Lebensraum" the raw materials her war machine re quires. But if it proves impossible for her to harness the Balkans to her economic chariot the chief rea son for avoiding warlike action there disappears, and the likelihood of an effort, however unpromising, to ob tain by war what she has not been able to obtain by peace increases immensely. It seems that the chances for con tinued peace in the Balkans depend now more than ever before upon Germany's ability to patch up her troubles with King Carol, whose patience appears to be near exhaus tion. If Rumania stands firm against greater subservience to the Reich the peril of war in the southeast will become acute. D. A. R. The forty-ninth Continental Con gress of the Daughters of the Amer ican Revolution assembles in a time when once again the world is rife with war. It therefore will not be remarkable if problems of national defense are subjects of discussion. No other patriotic organization than that which most directly traces back to the founders of the Republic can be more intensely interested in the survival of the United States. But it also is part of the purpose of the D. A. R. to preserve the fun damental institutions of our country unajjanged. Since 1940 is a year which necessarily will see a great national campaign in which im portant economic and sociological issues will be debated, the annual gathering at Constitution Hall ap propriately may be concerned to re affirm a traditional devotion to the principles of freedom threatened by the influence of foreign doctrines hostile to democracy. It would be a mistake, however, to suppose that the D. A. R. is opposed to rational processes of development. Unthinking critics occasionally have charged that it is “too conservative,” yet the record of the past shows that ft constructive liberalism has been characteristic of the society from its start. The educational work which it has fostered, especially in the field of training for citizenship, is proof of its progressive ideal. Certainly, the D. A. R. Is welcome ft In the city where It first was estab lished and where It has maintained its home ever since. Washington as the Nation’s Capital and also as a community in which, as perhaps nowhere else, patriotic service is the only business of thousands of men and women is the proper place for such a convention as that which opens tonight. Lax Inspection A coroner's jury and a special committee of inquiry appointed by the District Commissioners have agreed that the recent fatal fire at the White Court Apartments was due to faulty construction and lax building inspection. The jury ab solved those involved of criminal negligence and the coroner an nounced that the case is closed. But while the case may be closed insofar as criminal action is con cerned, it is far from closed in the minds of citizens shocked by the amazing evidences of slipshop meth ods and inefficiency in the city’s in spection system as revealed in testi mony at the inquest. There surely was inexplicable negligence—non criminal though it may have been— and it was not confined to a par ticular phase of the inspection work nor to a particular period. It be gan in 1925 when original plans for converting a stable into an apart ment house were passed on by the building inspector’s office and it con tinued through the period of con struction, after completion of the job and, most serious of all, when enlargement of the building’s chim ney was undertaken in 1937. Both inquiries apparently left un itiioWcicu me queauuu tu wiiy tiic original remodeling plans were ap proved, after slight revision, over the objection of an engineer in the build ing inspector's office. Witnesses tes tified, moreover, that the construc tion did not follow the plans as finally approved—yet two building inspectors assigned to check on the project did not discover the varia tions. Failure, of the inspectors to observe or report such building code violations as the substitution of wooden doors for metal-clad ones, use of inflammable partitions and ceilings instead of fireproof or fire resistant materials and improper construction of stair wells and cor ridors remains unexplained, as one of the inspectors designated to watch the work is dead and the other, an elderly man. has no recollection of the apartment job whatever. Later on, the building inspector's office permitted reconstruction of the chimney on the basis of a rough sketch drawn by someone in the smoke inspector’s office, who may have been thinking more of draft and smoke than of fire hazards. At any rate, the completed chimney was inadequately lined with makeshift tiles and a crack extended vertically the full length of the brickwork. The jury found that this defective chim ney was the direct cause of the fire. Even more astounding is the fact that, through another admitted breakdown in the inspection system, this chimney patchwork was never inspected by any one at any time. It may be argued that collapse of the inspection service at the White Court Apartments iS*an isolated case. The coroner’s jury emphasized the need for additional inspectors, and undoubtedly the building inspector’s office is understaffed—but the fact remains that the inspection slipup in the White Court instance was due not to any lack of inspectors but, in the words of the Commissioners’ committee, to “failure of the inspec tors to detect violations." That is a grave charge, even though it has no criminal implications. And if such a failure could have occurred in one case, it is not unreasonable to sus pect that it could have occurred in others. The findings of the two in vestigating bodies lead to the In escapable conclusion that what Is needed right now is an inspection of the District’s inspection department with a view to correcting its own flaws. It would be tragic, indeed, if more lives were to be sacrificed be fore Washington receives the type of building inspection to which a large and growing city is entitled. Crystal City, Texas, heart of the spinach belt, rejoices in a statue of “Popeye.” How would one of “Little Orphan Annie” do for the National Capital? Leave of Absence Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator, is following the proper course in applying for leave of ab sence from his official duties for the presumed purpose of devoting all of his time to furthering his presiden tial ambitions. There is no hard and fast rule governing the conduct of political campaigns by public office holders, but it is obvious that Mr. McNutt could not make a real effort to secure his party’s presiden tial nomination and, at the same time, attend properly to his duties as Security Administrator. That being the case, he deserves com mendation for requesting that he be separated from the public pay roll while he is campaigning. In some quarters Mr, McNutt’s move is interpreted as indicating a strengthened belief on his part that President Roosevelt will not seek a third term. But there does not ap pear to be any very persuasive basis for such a belief. Mr. McNutt has maintained throughout that he will be a candidate for the top place on the Democratic ticket only in the event that Mi-. Roosevelt does not seek re-election. He is undoubtedly still of the same mind on that score, but the race for the vice presidential nomination still is wide open and there Is no reason to suppose that Mr. McNutt would be uninterested In the second place on the ticket. And If he has ambitions in that direction he certainly has reason to be en couraged by the unimpressive show ing made by Mr. Garner in the Wisconsin and Illinois primaries. Mn McNutt, if he is abbut to begin an intensive campaign, starts under a heavy handicap, however, and it is one that should ^>e removed. For some months agents of the Bureau of Internal Revenue have been in vestigating Mr. McNutt’s income tax returns and the financial affairs of Indiana’s “Two Percent Club.” So far as is known, the agents have found nothing which reflects in any way on Mr. McNutt. But the mere fact of the investigation, in the ab sence of any clarifying statement from the proper authorities, makes it extremely difficult for him to pursue his legitimate political objectives. The situation in which he finds him self is alien to the American sense of fair play, and the Bureau of In ternal Revenue, ip justice to Mr. McNutt and the voters whose support he is seeking, should make public the findings of its investigators with out further delay. A Backward Step The numerous expressions of alarm and dismay which have greeted the President’s executive order transfer ring the independent Civil Aeronau tics Authority to the Commerce De partment and abolishing the Air Safety Board indicate a strong be lief throughout the aviation Indus uj' uiau sucn a iransier would be a disastrous step backward. Fresh in the minds of those con nected with American aviation is that period from 1933 to 1938 when the Civil Aeronautics Act went into effect. During those five years the predecessor of the Civil Aeronautics Authority, the Bureau of Air Com merce, was a branch of the Com merce Department, subject to de partmental politics. The results were most unhappy; the whole pe riod is considered one of the blackest in the history of air transportation and civil aeronautics generally. One congressional investigation followed another. The lack of a general Federal policy for handling civil aviation development and a lack of confidence in a politics-ridden Federal agency prevented proper air line development. All of the airlines were operating at deficits and many suffered financial collapse. The situation became so intoler able that Congress, with the support of virtually every responsible avia tion organization, finally enacted the Civil Aeronautics Act, intended pri marily to take aviation out of the Commerce Department, to free it from politics and political pressure, to give a continuing policy of Federal regulation and to build up an expert “career” personnel to handle civil aeronautics development. The results were successful beyond the most sanguine expectations of supporters of the legislation. As sured of a sound, non-political, con tinuing policy of Federal control, the airlines confidently began expansion programs and air transportation en tered into a period of tremendous growth. Within a year most of them were out of the red and recently the domestic airlines completed a year of operations without accident. A feeling of stability and complete con fidence spread through the entire industry. The effects were felt not only by the air transport systems. Private flying began to increase to an un precedented degree, even prior to the Inauguration of the very successful civil pilot training program of the C. A. A., now in progress at more than 400 centers throughout the Na tion. In view of the great benefits which have followed the creation of an independent, non-political agency to control civil aeronautics, it is difficult to understand why the President now is proposing transfer of the Authority back to the Commerce Department. Announcement of the proposal has come as a bombshell to the aviation industry and, appar ently, to officials of the C. A. A., who do not appear to have been consult ed. The plan is widely denounced and there does not appear to be a voice raised in favor of the transfer, which, it is feared, was worked out^ along completely theo retical lines without any considera tion of the real needs of aviation. It is certain that a real fight against the proposed transfer will be made in the Senate and it is to be hoped that approval will not be given to this change unless persuasive rea sons for it can be advanced. Mr. John L. Lewis says that in the formation of his threatened third party he intends to marshal Labor’s Nonpartisan League, the American Youth Congress, the Townsendites and a number of other highly in dividualistic organizations. To make such a parade stay in line he will need a marshal’s baton between each two fingers. This plan to combine the Biological Survey and the Bureau of Fisheries into one agency called the Fish and Wildlife Service seems logical. It was a curious situation when the ducks and geese resting on a body of water were under one jurisdiction and the shad and perch just under the surface were under another. i —— One of the latest declarations of scientists is that grass is chock-full of vitamins and that twelve pounds of it contains more than three hun dred of fruits and vegetables. Pos sibly King Nebuchadnezzar was not so asinine as the Old Testament would Indicate. ▲ Questions Posed For All Voters Believes Election Will Turn On Probability of War Involvement * fo th« Editor of Hi* Star: In the last two weeks the primaries in Wisconsin and Nebraska and the in tensification of military movements in Europe have seemed to crystallize the presidential campaign. The candidates appear now to hate narrowed to Frank lin D. Roosevelt and Thomas E. Dewey and the issue to keeping the United States free from involvement in the war. That's fine. Assuming that such are the candidates and the issue in No vember, the American voter will have but two questions to ask himself when he goes to the polls, to wit: First, “Do I want to cast my vot* to send more American boys to European battlefields?” Second, “Which of the candidates, Roosevelt or Dewey, will be most likely, if elected, to carry out my desire?” It is needless to observe that probably 99 per cent of the answers to the first query will be “no”—firmly and unhesi tatingly. Naturally, the second answer will not be arrived at by any such a preponderant majority, nor with the same swiftness. To select the prudent answer will call for all the thought and discernment of every voter It will be a gravely impor tant decision. In surgery, the slightest error of judgment or unsteadiness of hand may cost a human life. In the election, an error in judgment may cost many hundreds of thousands of human lives. From wnere we sit, it would appear today that most Americans are suspicious of the (President s motives and that the election would go to Dewey. We can be permitted to believe that the same am bition which would lead Franklin Roose velt to seek a third term may cause him to seek supremacy on the stage of world power politics. Inherently and tempera mentally he seems too much a fighter to rest in contentment as a peace-time President in a war-torn world. Not withstanding his smiling visage, his every act and very nature imply belliger ence. He has declared more than 65 national “crises” and •'emergencies” since March 4. 1933. He is holding the Nation today under the suspension of a “limited na tional emergency.” So fond a lover of national fire alarms can hardly be con sidered a peaceful person. As President he has broken precedent upon precedent, apparently gleeful at possessing th^t questionable ability. To his enemies he has sounded warning upon warning—hardly once in defense of an ideal but always in defiance. In his own words of 1936, he has “just be gun to fight.” Mr. Dewey is a fighter, too, but he has fought quietly, forcefully, effectively, to crusn crime. We may be led to be lieve he would, as President, fight just as quietly and effectively to prevent America's participation in the interna tional crime of war. Moreover, from the very nature of party politics in America, the mantle of peace does rest upon the shoulders of the Republican party. It can be called the peace bloc. A Republican President may confidently be expected to recog nize and accept a greater responsibility to keep the peace of America intact than a Democratic President. In the Demo cratic party, Wilson set the example— if not intentionally, then certainly in fact—of gaming re-election on a plat form of "he kept us out of war,” only to sign a declaration of war one short month after his re-establishment in the White House. It must be evident that that one per formance of Wilson's mav sometime serve as a convenient excuse to the Democrats, but will stand forever to the Republicans as a challenge. April 12. MARLAND MAHAFFEY. Urges Trial of “Brotherhood.” To the Editor of The Stir: If the time spent by theologians In teaching fables concerning “Adam and Eve,” “Joshua,” who controlled the sun, and “Jonah and the whale,” not to men tion those fiery depths, where sinners simmer eternally, had been utilized in seeking ways and means to outlaw war, it is at least conceivable that peace would prevail today. With so-called Christian nations en gaged in still another death struggle, it would seem that the time has ar rived for churches to discard age-old superstitions and make a concerted effort to check “mass murder” if, indeed, civ ilization hopes to survive. In other words, let us make religion more work able-more practical. The last World War, fought to make the world safe for democracy, was in dorsed by the vast majority of Chris tian organizations, who held the opinion 'that an allied victory would bring last ing security. They discovered, to their sorrow, that peace is not promoted by savage conflict. As “bombs” have been tried and “found wanting,” why not give “brotherhood” a trial? EDMUND K. GOLDSBOROUGH. April 12. Government by People Needed, He Declares. % To the Editor of Tha Star: May I not express disagreement in part with the letter of Mr. Alexander Sidney Lanier published on April 9? Turning the New Dealers out is desirable, but only if we can restore self-government and economic freedom so people can again earn a decent living. But if we are to continue government by decree and propaganda, why should we change rulers? I know of no one who could be expected to be a better ruler. If we are to restore self-government, government by legislative processes, re publican government such as was origi nally established here in 1789, then we must look to Congress. If we, the people, the root of all power, are unable to govern ourselves by electing a Congress that will govern by legislative processes, then we must be governed by decree, or, in other words, we must be ruled. If we must be ruled then let’s stick to Roose velt and let him All the job to his choice, as did Hitler. It would be a futile gesture to elect a new President, a presiding officer, unless we can have a functioning Congress. WALTER JOHNSON. Arlington, Va. April 10. A ^__/ THIS AND THAT _ By Charles E. Tracewell. “ARLINGTON, Va. “Dear Sir: “Since you have been publishing the letters on the subject of whether cardi nals take water or dust baths I have been watching our bird bath with more than usual Interest. “This morning about 8 o'clock a male cardinal lit on the rim of the bath-and took a drink or two. “‘Gosh,’ he thought, ‘that tastes so good I think I'll just get in all over.’ “So he jumped in and splashed with evident enjoyment. “His girl friend was hopping around at a discreet distance, and when he flew to his favorite perch in a Viburnum bush to dry himself she hurried into the bath and splashed and splashed. “The bluebirds have been back for some time looking over the house they had last year, and this morning the male picked up a bit of dry grass from the driveway and flew toward the house. "It must be spring at last. “Sincerely yours, E. R. D.” * * * v Yes, spring must be here. The mice in the garage have filled an old discarded wrenhouse with sunflower seed, after carefully gnawing out the entrance way to mouse-size. Wrens, evidently, are somewhat smaller than mice, if we may judge from the neat job of enlargement done by the rodent or rodents. Can’t you picture him there, all huddled up in the wrenhouse, enjoying a good meal of sunflower seed? Men, birds, and mice, all enjoy these seeds. The mouse had gnawed around the hole in the wrenhouse, until he had enlarged it from its original "* of an inch to at least 1V2 inches. This was done with a sort of outward bevel, so that ingress would be easy. Just why the animal wished to cart away a good handful of the seed from the bag which contained 10 pounds, we do not know. You might think, off hand, that he would prefer to eat from the enormous store, instead of lugging off, seed by seed, a choice store of his own. But then, the ways of mice and men are not alike —or are they? In the presence of plenty, at least from the mouse standpoint, he vent to the trouble and work of providing himself with a choice little treasury all his own. * * * * Our mice are very well behaved. They seldom if ever come Indoors. Usually one tries it, in the fall, just when cold weather begins. He can be heard running up the north wall of the house. A rat could make no more noise. The attic is his objective, which he attains easily enough. Aloft, he makes as much noise as a dog would. He finds no food, however, and soon we hear him no more. No doubt he decides that cold, with plenty of sunflower seed, is preferable to warn.th with nothing to eat. Then, too, he may not like Penny’s smell. Penny is the cat. Penny is a female cat. That means a great mouser. She has never caught any yet, prooaDly never having seen one in her life, but she would know what to do. You can tell that by the way she plays with a string. The string she likes best is a knotted affair in led. She rather prefers wool, with its elasti city, and its easy bite-ability. You see, Penny likes to bite off a length of wool, and swallow it. This cannot be said to be good for her, so the knotted wool had been discarded for an ordinary piece of red string carefully knotted about every 2 inches. Just what these knots add, in the cat mind, is hard to say; that they do make the piece of string more enjoyable, there can be no doubt at all. * *• * * Most of the mice in the garage are of the field variety, rather shorter than ordinary house mice, and much better looking. Not quite so slinky. They hop, rather than glide. This gives them, in the minds of those who are acuately mouse-conscious, a not so sinister character. It's that gliding motion, we believe, which gives ordinary household mice their somewhat ruthless character. They seem to go, like snakes, without legs, although the legs and feet are there, all functioning in a perfectly normal , manner. mere was one tremendously fetching little fellow who lived in a hole at the north end of the garage—outside—at the end of a bed of violets. He would permit you to. come within 2 or 3 feet of him, before making one of those tremendous hops. This was a ‘hole in one,” as the golfers say. And he never missed. If you kept 2 feet behind him, he was not in the least afraid, but if that un written distance was violated—pop! In he would go. His ordinary course lay around the east side of the garage, to the bird feed ing station placed near the frcnt beneath a maple tree. This must have been a long journey, for such a small animal, at least equiva lent to a trip downtown to a human being. He would creep along ov the ‘ garage, behind the old stones laid there, over the grass and leaves, emerging into the great clearing, where the birds hopped around, and Master Squirrel ( lorded it over all. But he was not afraid. ■ Carefully he selected a seed, and care i fully be bore it home. We have not seen him for a long time, but we hope he is alive and well. If men had as much sense as mice, they would stay alive and well, instead of wounding and ; killing each other. Letters to the Editor Comments on Realism in War. To the Editor of The Star: "Realism In War Attitude,” I note, Is demanded in a letter in The Star or April 10. The author is Mr. De Witt Snell, Schenectady, N. Y. Writing of the war, he goes away below the surface. Ascribing to Hitler supernatural powers, he declares him to be "the common enemy of all mankind.” Firmly con vinced that it is this country’s solemn duty to save England and France in the interest of our own threatened way of life—he issues a call to arms. He may be right. And so it is up to the traffic officer who works the "stop” or “go” sign. Now, as the man in the street sees it, England and France de clared war on Germany. The reason doesn t matter. The ostensible cause was the defense of Poland. But back of that there was their own threatened su premacy in Europe. Both are rated as powerful nations. Maintaining many alliances, both have remained fully armed on land, on sea and in the air since the end of the World War. Ger many, up to the spring of 1936, was de fenseless. And so it stands to reason that these two ought to be able to handle the Nazis by risking their own hides in their own—as they see it—just quarrel. "Cheap John” methods, like a hunger blockade, by themselves will not turn the trick. In this world, so it has always been held, the fittest survives—unless ganged up on. If they should lose out, why, this would simply mean that, in a mili tary sense, they have “demoted” them selves with the "lesser breeds,” second class. Now, as always, war is still “the final showdown." In the meantime Mr. Snell’s worth while letter opens a way for much dis cussion. And, of course, it behooves this country to be prepared for anything. By the way, Mr. Welles ought to know, April 12. FRED VETTER. Says Germans Fighting For Raw Materials. To th( Editor of The Star: What does all this hullabaloo about Germany’s invasion of Denmark and Norway mean, anyhow? There are two raw materials that are so vital to any nation’s economy—be it a peacetime or wartime economy—that nations will go to any extreme to ob tain them, particularly so under the present war conditions. They are iron ore with which to pil> sinews into a nation’s mighty war machine, and oil* with which to keep this machine going. Germany has been getting these two commodities from Sweden and Rumania. The iron ore was being shipped to Ger many through the only trade route open at this time of the year—from the At lantic ice-free port of Narvik, Norway. The other trade route, through the Gulf of Bothnia, directly from Sweden, is frozen over. When England stepped in recently and by aggressive submarine warfare under took to destroy this vital, all-important trade route, was it strange that Ger many took steps to safeguard it? After all, Germany is fighting for its life, too, much more than England and France, as a matter of fact. Under the existing circumstances, with England in full con trol of the seas, the only way to achieve this was by Invading Denmark and Nor way in order to establish bases that would decrease the effectiveness of the British, fleet. Naturally, England knows that this Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. Please be brief! rodte must be closed If Germany Is to be starved into submission, be it literally or in actual fact. Hence, it will fight to the limit to oust the Germans from Norway, at least. Exactly the same situation applies in the case of Rumania. Precious, life-giv ing oil is flowing by the tons from the oil wells of that little Balkan country to the Nazi war machine. England and France are doing all in their power to destroy this trade route. Germany is fighting back. So far the battle is being fought on the diplomatic front only. However, every day a showdown drawls nearer. Germany will fight to get that oil, even if it has to invade Rumania. England and France will have to stop the Ger mans there, too. Regardless of what the outcome may be in the future, the present situation is more unfavorable to Germany than it has been in the past. The Norwegian iron ore route has been seriously crip pled by hostilities, if not destroyed. Hence. Germany has lost another round. If Germany attacks Rumania it will be only because the loss of this vital oil is imminent. When Germany attacks Rumania it will mean that England and France have won still another round in their fight to destroy Hitler. Naturally, we grieve for the innocent neutrals, but what can anybody do? This is war. April 11. EDWIN A. KAMPMANN. Reviews Background of Primary Elections. To the Editor ot The Star: o.v w ny ui un^iuuiiu as w primary elections: Around 1910, there was agitation for the passage of State primary laws, some since repealed so that now only fifteen States have primaries regularly and two more optionally. In no case where there was a real race for the Republican nomination have the results of primaries been a deter mining factor. 1912—Theodore Roosevelt won in all but three of the States where primaries were held. Taft was nominated. 1916—Hughes was not running but was drafted from the bench. Primary re sults were scattered between several can didates, including Henry Ford and the elder La Follette. 1920—Wood, Lowden and Hiram John son struggled in primaries and killed each other off. 1924—No real race against Coolidge. La Follette, with a few delegates from primaries, split off in his third-party movement. 1928—While primary votes were scat tered among Lowden, Curtis, Watson and Norris, Hoover won on the first bal lot and the primaries he won were In cidental to his nomination. 1932—No real race against Hoover. 1936—Borah ran in nine State pri maries. won in five and lost in four, in cluding Ohio, where Robert A. Taft car ried most of the delegation by a heavy vote. Landon ran in only three pri maries, winning over Borah in New Jer sey and winning through a write-in campaign in Massachusetts, but losing to an uninstructed slate in California. But Borah got nowhere in the conven tion. FORREST DAVIS. April 10. Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Batkin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The tve ning star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply. Q. How fast does Paul Sullivan, the news commentator, speak on the radio? —R. B. A. Mr. Sullivan speaks approximately 185 words per minute during his 15 minute broadcast. Q. For whom is Newport News, Va., named?—J. C. A. The name was derived by uniting the name of Christopher Newport, an English sea captain, with that of Sir William Newce, on whose advice the site of the city was selected. Q. What are the six largest steel companies in the United States?—M. D. A. The American Iron and Steel In stitute says that the six largest com panies in order of their respective capa cities to produce steel Ingots are as follows: United States Steel Corp., 71 Broadway, New York City; Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa.; Republio Steel Corp. Cleveland, Ohio; Jones <te Laughlin Steel Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa.; National Steel Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa., and the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co., Youngstown, Ohio. Q. Is it true that, in Washington, D. C., there is a copy of every book, maga zine and newspaper published in the United States?—G. B. C. A. Under the provisions of the copy right law, two (in some cases one) copies of every book, pamphlet, magazine cr newspaper copyrighted in this country must be deposited in the Library of Congress. Q. What countries will be linked by the Dnieper-Bug Canal?—M. R. A. The canal will link Germany and Russia by way of Poland. Q. How many words are there in the English language?—A. B. A. The Oxford Dictionary gives 725, 000 words in English. Q. What famous orator was ridiculed when he first addressed an audience? —T. B. S. A. When Demosthenes ventured to address the Athenian assembly, his feeble voice and ungraceful gestures ex cited general ridicule. Determined to succeed, he subjected himself to the most rigorous training in voice culture and rhetoric. The story of his declaim ing by the sea with pebbles in his mouth in order to overcome an impediment m speech has passed into tradition as the classic example of persistent and ener getic application to self-improvement. Q. Please explain the chant of th* tobacco auctioneer.—J. A. F. A. The chant of the tobacco auc tioneer consists of numbers, the word* ‘dollars” and “bid.” The auctioneer opens the bid at the price set by th# owner of the warehouse in which he is to conduct the auction and then as the various buyers, representing the differ ent tobacco companies increase the bid, he raises the price. The buyers do not speak their bids audibly, but bid by certain signs such as a glance, a wink or a gesture. As each bid is received and accepted the pitch of the chant is raised or lowered to denote the acceptance of the bid. Therefore, if a pile of tobacco is started at $39 and a bid of $40 is received, the chant of the auctioneer will raise a pitch. When the bid of $41 is received and accepted, the chant will go up or down, depending upon the original chant. In this way each buver knows that his bid has been received and accepted, and being able to under stand the chant, knows exactly the price at which he is buying the particular pile of tobacco in question. Q. What poem is said to have made the Italian language?—L. C. B. A. Dante's “Divine Comedy” is eaid to have made the Italian language, which before was so rude and unformed that the poet, hesitating to emplov it on such a theme, is said to have begun his poem in Latin. Probably no work in the world, except the Bible, has had more influence on literature. Q. Who won the Metropolitan Audi tions of the Air?—G. B. S. A. Arthur Kent, bass-baritone of New York City, and Eleanor Steber, soprano, of Wheeling, W. Va., were selected as the winners of the auditions. Q. What became of the “Kronprinz Wilhelm”?—R. T. A. The “Kronprinz Wilhelm,” which was interned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard at the time of the World War. was later named the "U. S. S. Von Steuben.” She was scrapped in 1924. Q. Where is the Celery City?—S. H. C. A. Kalamazoo, Mich., is known as the Celery City. W now many nations are represented at the Vatican?—P. W. A. According to information received by the Department of State from the Vatican, there are at present 37 em bassies and legations represented at tha Holy See. Q. What vitamins does milk contain? —C. H. F A. The principal vitamins found in milk are A, B, C, D and E. The Spring Gives Back I still can see you by the ancient oak, The sunlight’s shifting gold upon your hair; You hummed a low refrain. Beside your chair Soft kittens chased the wind-blown leaves. When broke Your laughter like clear chiming bells, I spoke To see your mirthful glance . . . How deft and fair Your slender, busy hands . . . The worn old stair Once anew your foot, Old Bhep your gentle stroke. You are not gone. Though once a quiet room Held your still sleep, the clustered flowers, the trace Of your glad smile brought back a Joyous hour . . . The day you stood beneath the dogwood bloom And showering petals touched your lifted face ... The spring gives back your eyes in each blue flower. IVY UND6LIY.