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Revamping Plan Hit High Praise Given Work of Safety Board and C. A. A. By DAVID LAWRENCE. American public opinion will Shortly have a significant test. Can it think penetratingly of anything else but war events abroad? Will il mamiesi uis- , approval of one of the most un fortunate mis takes that has been made in Washington in ► many years and which must be corrected within the next 60 days or else the pub lic interest will "Buffer? These q u e s tions arise out i of an extraordi- * jmitV VI CH - Mnimtl. circumstances in connection with President Roosevelt's reorganization order abolishing the Air Safety Board and placing the Civil Aero nautics Authority inside the De partment of Commerce as a subordi nate bureau. Of all the governmental boards created in a decade or more the Civil Aeronautics Board is admit tedly the best functioning and the Air Safety Board the most valuable. Not only is the personnel of fine quality and integrity, but, the law creating the two agencies is the product of many years of unselfish service by some of the best legal minds of the country. Senator Pat McCarran of Nevada, Democrat, known as father of the legislation, worked over 21 different bills before he finally pressed for passage the one that seemed best suited to ad minister the regulatory powers of Government over the airways of r America and the aviation industry. Few examples are afforded of any better co-operation anywhere be * tween Government and business than between the aviation industry and the Civil Aeronautics Authority. Few examples are afforded also' of keener admiration on the part of students of Government, even inside the New Deal, of the fairness of procedure and efficiency of administration of the C. A. A. But all of a sudden the prestige which this new institution has en joyed as an independent body is to be impaired as it is made the tool of a political department instead of the independent servant of the Con gress. Nobody in the Department of Commerce asked that the Civil Aeronautics Authority be placed in that department. Nobody in Con gress who had any interest in avia tion was consulted, certainly not the leaders like Senator McCarran. Nobody in the C. A. A. itself was consulted either. This may sound strange to persons outside of Wash ington, but it is a fact. . Who then started it and carried It through to President Roosevelt and persuaded him to sign the or der? The answer is that ever since the reorganization bill came before Con , press there has been a group of theorists who have no use for prac tical suggestions about governmen tal operations, but want to fit every bureau and commission into a pat tern of their own designing. They are sincere theorists. They have no ulterior motive. They simply believe that independent commis sions belong in the executive branch of the Government and they have the ear of Mr. Roosevelt, who is so harassed by detail and so pressed for time by public problems that he has assented to a change with out giving everybody concerned a chance to be heard. The President cannot be blamed In a sense for what has happened. He has been warned that reorgani sation orders must be planned in secret and sent to Congress so that R backfire cannot be built to pre vent the order from being decided upon. Congress itself recognized that this might happen when it del egated power to the President to issue such reorganization orders, but legislated a provision that the orders could be disapproved if a majority of both houses so voted Within 60 days. This is an important safeguard, but it may not work because it is not easy to rivet public attention on ft technical order affecting reor ganization of a particular board or bureau. Also people who have other responsibilities and work to do, especially in the aviation industry, now must come to Washington and, In effect, lobby for a change that never should have been ordered in the first place. If the President had given a hear ing to all interests concerned, the order never would have been issued. In the last 24 hours since the order was published Senator McCarran has had telegrams from all parts of the country expressing grave con cern that the Air Safety Board is to be abolished and that the C. A. A. Is to be made a bureau. Representa tive Woodrum of Virginia has taken ft stand against the order in the House. The present executive reorganiza tion law provides that the resolution of disapproval must come out of con gressional committees in 16 days and debate is limited in both houses. The Capital Parade Mrs. Harriman, U. S. Minister to Norway, a Heroine, Rose to Occasion When Blitzkrieg Hit Norway By JOSEPH ALSOP and ROBERT KINTNER. Commonly a woman nearly 70 years old, caught In the midst of a | brutal armed Invasion, forced tr flee from her home and daily menaced by the dangers of modem war, would not l<e expected to rise to the occa sion. But Florence Jaffray Hurst Harriman, known to an incredible number of people as "Daisy,” Is not a common woman. As United States Minister to Norway, she has not only risen to the occasion. She appears to have risen above it. The night the invasion began, she sent the wire which gave the first aiarm 10 uie state Department. Having got off her dispatch, she wisely telephoned Stockholm, to give the news to the Legation there in case of accidents. Then, while most other diplomats were trapped in Oslo, she picked up bag and baggage and followed the Norwegian govern ment in its flight from the capital. In the last days she has been unable to communicate with Washington, but in her last report she indicated uupru to rejoin me Norwegian government, doing her job like a trooper. Woman of the World Whatever hardships Mrs. Harriman may be forced to undergo—and accompanying a government in flight in a rather barren, thinly populated country is not an easy task—she is unlikely to complain. There can be very few people in the world who combine such an equable temper with such inexhaustible vitality and such an appetite for experience. If German invasion of Norway were not so dark a tragedy, one might almost suspect she was enjoying the excitement. Tall, attractive, with an erect carriage, a genial expression and a large, acquiline nose, she has the air of having enjoved excitement all her life. Nor is her air deceptive. Her father, Frank Hurst, was an important New York shipping man. Money was plentiful, and what with dancing, dining, yachting, riding to hounds, going to Europe and similar pleasures, life was very agreeable for young Daisy Hurst from the moment she grew up. Married early to J. Borden Harriman, she seemed for a while to settle comfortably into the easy, busy round of prosperous life in old-time New York. But she was not a woman to be simply satisfied by easy pleasures. Only a few years after her marriage, when it was still thought daring for women to have serious minds of their own, she began to be interested in public questions. She did welfare work. She took a leading part in the civic federation and, through it, became closely acquainted with labor I problems. She was converted to suffragism, and began to be interested in politics. New York’s reform Mayor, John Purroy Mitchel, was her friend, and by 1912 she had emerged as an ardent Wilsonian. That year Wilson made her chairman of the woman s division of his Campaign Committee, and she romped genially around the country, routing out other women ; and infecting them with her political enthusiasm. ! It's Ml Fun In the early years of the Wilson administration, she and her husband moved to Washington. He died shortly before the outbreak of the war. Left a widow, she plunged into war work, ran a canteen in France and watched the Peace Conference in Paris. Then she returned to Washing ton, to spend the next years watching national politics and taking a part in it. Her house was a Democratic citadel in the Republican era. Her friends were innumerable. And she had a wonderful time of it. She had a little bad luck in 1932. for as national committeewoman for the District of Columbia, she was not for Roosevelt before Chicago. It took some time for her party loyalty and frank admiration for the man she had opposed to cause the opposition to be forgotten. Then she was offered the i>urwegian j-iegauon, ana accepiea t with delight. In Norway, before the war came, she enjoyed herself as she had in Washington, and started to learn to ski in the bargain. In her busy life she wa-s perhaps at her best at the Sunday suppers she used to give in her pleasant, un pretentious house on the hill over looking Washingfon. Justices of the Supreme Court, violent New Dealers, * crusted Republicans, Senators, for eigners, pretty women and newspapermen—all would be crowded together into the smallish dining room. After dinner, she would start them talking on an important topic, tossing the conversational ball, now to this man and now to that, with a sort of easy geniality which generally repressed acrimony. But sometimes talk would grow loud and feeling strong She put a stop to one of these disputes with a sentence which might well be called her life motto. It was, “Isn’t it all great fun?” (Released by the North American Newspaper Alliance. Inc.) Senator McCarran has arranged to have the resolution called up on his return from a brief absence from Washington but meanwhile the American people will have an oppor tunity to express their viewpoint to the members of the House and Sen ate on the vital precedent involved. The airways were made safe—not j an accident for a year. The aviation ; industry was making great strides. No longer was there gossip of favor i itism in the award of Government | contracts for carrying mail or for 1 any other regulatory action. Every body was happy—a great experiment in Government by commission was being carried on. Democratic gov ernment was redeeming itself—and then the ax came. Within 60 days the American peo ple must say "yes” or "no.” If they remain indifferent the whole fight to maintain commissions and boards independent of politics, independent of cabinet officer control or of execu tive domination will be lost. If they speak up, and the resolution to kill the order is carried, it will be a sign that the people are vigilant and alert notwithstanding the many things that tend to divert their interest in times like these. It is an issue of transcendent importance. (Reproduction Riihts Reserved ) Women's Club Elects GAITHERSBURG, Md„ April 15 (Special).—Officers have been elect ed by the Gaithersburg Women's Club as follows: Mrs. Bates Etchison, president; Mrs. Vestus Wilcox, first vice presi dent; Mrs. John S. Larcombe, sec ond vice president; Mrs. John Mun caster, recording secretary; Mrs. Samuel Riggs, corresponding secre tary; Mrs. John Small, 3d, treas urer. and Mrs. George A. Chadwick, treasurer. 4% LOANS ON Life Insurance Cash Values Also Automobile and Character Loans on Attractive Terms Bank of Commerce & Savings Main Offica Branch 7th fir E Sts. N.W. H at No. Capitol Member federal Deposit Insurance Corp. ■i ■ i in i - — Mrs. Roosevelt to Speak In Dedication Ceremony Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt will lead dedication ceremonies of the $200,000 addition to the Washington Home for Incurables at 4 p.m. to morrow at the home. Wisconsin ave nue and Upton street N.W. Mrs. Roosevelt will speak briefly and will cut a ribbon stretched acrossed the entrance to the new wing. An invocation by the Rev. Dr. Albert J. McCartney, pastor of Cove nant First Presbyterian Church, will start the ceremonies. Dr. Warfield G. Loncope, physician in chief of Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore, will speak, and the bene diction will be pronounced by the Rev. Dr. F. Bland Tucker, pastor of St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church. Georgetown. Mrs. Henry W. Watson is .chair man of the Arrangements Commit tee, which includes Mrs. Robert S. Chew, Mrs. James S. Taylor, Mrs. J. Harry Covington and Mrs. Hamil ton Fish. The addition to the home was made possible by a bequest of Mrs. Laura Hartman Lisner, who died in 1937. Mrs. Lisner's will stipulated that the wing should be known as the Wilhelmina Cj Hartmann Me morial, in memory of her sister. The board of managers voted to appropriate approximately $25,000 in addition to the legacy for enlarge ment of the old lounge and install ment of a new fire alarm system and certain fireproofing. Construction was begun in July, 1939. cTHE opinions of the writers on this page are their own, not x necessarily The Star’s. Such opinions are presented in The Star’s effort to give all sides of questions of interest to its readers, although such opinions may be contradictory among themselves and directly opposed to The Star’s. Washington Observations Pussyfooting in U. S. Politicians' Attitude Toward War in Europe Charged By FREDERIC WILLIAM WILE. , Pussyfooting, since time Imme morial the favorite pastime of Amer ican politicians, especially in a presi dential election year, was never more rampant than at uii!> criwcai nour in the destinies of mankind. No body seems ready to call spades by their right name. Re publicans— Dewey, Taft, Vandenberg among them — are doing most of the sidestep p i n g. stalling and dodging on foreign policy, but from the Frederic William Wile, standpoint of that considerable minority of Americans who deplore the United States’ “disinterested by stander” attitude, even the Roose velt administration’s moral sym pathy with the struggling democra cies leaves something to be desired. The plight of Denmark and Nor way, for example, finds officialdom concerned exclusively with rescuing 3.000 or 4.000 Americans resident in Scandinavia, though the President’s platonic denunciation of the latest Nazi aggression keeps the record straight. Meantime the unrealistic view persists that Uncle Sam should conserve his energies for the peace conference, as if either Germany or the allies would allow us to help dictate the peace as long as w’e re fused to lift a finger to bring it about. If Europe's war is “none of our business.” is it logical to con sider that Europe's peace is any of our business? ★ * * * Divided Sentiment. Since this column on April 5—four days before the Nazi invasion of Denmark and Norway—ventured to suggest the hour was at hand for this country to take serious stock of the war situation, there has been noteworthy response to that sugges tion. Bouquets and brickbats have arrived in about equal proportion, reflecting what undoubtedly is the Nation's manv-angled state of mind. It is a state of confusion and di vision which clamors for construc tive leadership. It transcends party lines. On the same day last week, for example, Democrat Col. Henry Breckinridge, Col. Lindbergh's close friend and personal counsel, who was Assistant Secretary of War under Woodrow Wilson, vied pub licly with Republican Nicholas Roosevelt, vice governor of the Philippines and Minister to Hun gary, under Herbert Hoover, in ex pressions of bitter anti-Nazi feeling. Lawyer Breckinridge would have the United States declare war on Germany instantly, if Hitler's ma rauding legions set foot on Iceland or Greenland. Author Roosevelt de clared "We can no longer sit by in smug isolation and say the war's outcome does not concern us—that it makes no difference whether Ger many or the allies win.” It con cerns, in fact, he added, “our souls and our skins—our souls, because j the vein' principles of the civilization I we hold dear are being destroyed | before our eyes, and our skins, because if Germany is victorious, we shall face a new world in which we will be the Nazi’s public enemy No. 1.” * * * * Politics “Ueber Alles.” That both President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull personally are passionately anti-Nazi, despite re quired official neutrality, is every body's secret. But either of them may be the Democratic nominee for the presidency in November; if he chooses to run he will wish to be elected. As seasoned politicians, each knows it would be suicidal openly to take any position that goes beyond our cash-and-carry readiness to stop Hitler. One won ders what the judgment of his tory is going to be on the contribu tion of the world's most powerful democracy to the preservation of civilization, if our contribution re mains confined to selling war sinews to anybody who can come and get them c. o. d.? If the suc cessive fates of Austria, Czecho slovakia, Poland, Finland and China failed to jerk us out of our apathy, there is slim prospect that Scan dinavia’s travail will do so. "It can’t happen here" seems for the moment to have supplanted "E Pluribus Unum” as our national motto. Even the condemnatory words the President has just ut tered butter no allied parsnips. * * * * Vandenberg’s Mistake. Where Senator Vandenberg fum bled and stumbled was in not heed ing a well-known axiom attributed to Will H. Hays—that in politics "nothing just happens; things have to be brought about.” Ever since the presidential microbe lodged it self in Vandenberg’s bosom he has ostentatiously proceeded on the theory that the office should seek the man. He has been content to strut up and down the Senate chamber in self-satisfied confidence that if he waited long enough, the G. O. P. would come along and tender him its standard bearership on a silver platter. The Michi gander has eminent White House qualities, far exceeding, in the opin ion of many, the claims of either Dewey or Taft. But the Grand Rapids editor-statesman is discov ering to his dismay that Will Hays is right and that a presidential nomination is not obtainable by default. * * * * Dawes to Speak. Former Vice President Dawes will make one of his rare public reap pearances in Washington on April 30, when he will address the 28tn annual meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States. His remarks, it is announced, will be "a thoughtful address to the Amer ican people and will deal with the job confronting the next President of the United States in averting a national financial crisis.” It was early in 1932 that the R. F.*C. loaned the Dawes bank in Chicago some $90,000,000 to avert a local financial crisis. * * * * Useful Maps. President Roosevelt has just ad vised the country to get oufc its maps and encyclopedias in order to keep abreast of kaleidoscopic war events. A compact 93-paged "War Atlas," containing 45 maps, has just been issued by the Foreign Policy Association. Prepared by expert map makers and elucidated by in ternational specialists, the booklet will help one to follow the war wherever it may spread throughout the world. Map No. 26. though it must have been prepared weeks be fore the Nazi invasion, bears the prophetic caption. "The Threat to Scandinavia." No handier or time lier compendium has left the press in many a day. Six Danish Ships Lie in American Harbors By th* Associated Press. •6AN PEDRO. Calif. April 15.— The Danish motorship Nordpol, chartered to British interests, rode at anchor today beside two other Danish ships, the Erria and the Hulda Maersk. She turned back from a trip from the Orient to Europe when, half way to Panama, she learned of the German invasion of Denmark. Also newly-arrived from the Orient are the Norwegian motorship Sophooles. under charter to Danish interests, and the Norwegian motor tanker Havkong. JACKSONVILLE, Fla., April 15 (>P).—Three Danish vessels were tied up here today awaiting clarification of their status after the German invasion of their tiny homeland. The Caroline Maersk. twin screw 7,691-ton tanker, anchored in the St. Johns River yesterday to await orders from its principals. Already in port were the 3.889-ton Nora, discharging a cargo, and the four masted square-rigged training ship Danemark. Mackenzie King Resting At Virginia Beach By the Associated Press. VIRGINIA BEACH, Va.. April 15. —Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie King of Canada, arriving here yes terday for a three weeks’ rest, said he was delighted to hear of the Brit ish naval victory at Narvik, but de clined further comment on the war. The Prime Minister also vaca tioned here in 1938. L. C. Tubbs, representing the United States Department of State, and Mr. Mackenzie King’s secretary accompanied him here. YOUR FINEST ORIENTAL RUGS will be safe from all possible harm, when sent to Hinkel for CLEANING and REPAIRING. Hinkel Responsibility insures Satisfac tion. Lowest Prices for Finest Work Rugs and Carpets STORED for the Summer and INSURED for Full Value. E. P. HINKEL & CO. 600 Rhode Itland Ave. N.E. Telephone HObart 1171 "The Best Known ... Known as the Best"—Since 1875 _A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A_A A A A A A A A AAA_A_A_A This Changing World Scandinavia Held Likely to Assume Role Belgium Had in 1914; Allies' Task Hard By CONSTANTINE BROWN. Scandinavia is by way of becoming what Belgium was in 1914. Allied expeditionary forces were landed at "various points" in Norway early this morning and it is unknown yet whether contact between the expeditionary corps and the Invading forces has been made. Prom news available here there seems to be no doubt that in the region north of Trondheim—particularly at Narvik—there will be little resistance. The German forces there, estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 men, have no contact with their bases except by airplane. The sea line has been Interrupted by the presence of British naval units. Their situation has been precarious ever since they landed. Narvik, however, is of capital importance to the British. While there is no railroad between Narvik and Southern Norway, there is a modern line* between Narvik and Kiruna in Sweden. Once the British are well established there, important forces and war material could be sent to the Swedish border, thus giving Sweden the assurance that if she resisted German pressure she could count on effective allied assistance. Allies' Task Difficult Military authorities are watching with keen Interest the operations likely to develop in parts of Norway, where the German Army is solidly entrenched, such as Bergen and Trondheim. The allies’ task in those regions will be a difficult one despite the fact that the British and the French are past masters in landing operations. As far as is known here the German forces in Norway by the end of the week reached some 60,000 men and a number of mechanized units. The ports of Bergen and Trondheim have been placed on a defensive basis, but the heavy artillery required to fight ofT warships covering the land i *n8 of troops is not available. A certain amount of coastal artillery at Bergen was left behind by the surprised Norwegian garrison last Tuesday. But it appears that this is of an antiquated type. The railroad from Oslo to Bergen is a narrow-gauge line and passes through a large number of tunnels. This makes it impossible for the Germans to rush heavy artillery to the coast. Troubles racing the Allies The allies’ task is still difficult, in that region, however, because a comparatively small, but determined and well organized force, can make the position of the landing forces a difficult one even if they obtain a foothold. German aviation can harass the expeditionary corps seriously, . The allies cannot count on a too energetic assistance from the Norwegian Army. The Norwegian troops are brave, but lack equipment. The surprise occupations of Oslo and the surrounding cities have deprived King Haakon's army of much war material stored in depots in and near the capital. The mobilization is difficult since the most populous part of Norway is already in German hands. The maximum co-operation the allies can hope for from their Norwegian wards is rear guard actions and ambushes of the German patrols. German Stakes There is no doubt that the Germans will try to overcome all diffi culties put in their way by the British fleet which is endeavoring to cut communications between Germany and Norway. The question of Italy joining the Reich and of the neutrals being cowed into submission depends on the success or failure of the German grab on Norway. Hence, the German general staff will use everything at its disposal to make the expedition in Scandinavia a complete success in the face of any counter move of the allies. The allied high command, however, feels confident that it can punc ture the German plans. In well informed quarters it is believed that before the week is over the neutrality of other nations will be violated by the Reich in an effort to cinch the operations started last Tuesday. There is no doubt now that the German high command was confident that the occupation of Norway would be the same military march as the one on Denmark. Recent de velopments have upset somewhat its calculations, but it would be fool hardy to believe that possibilities of Norwegian resistance and of an allied ; intervention had not been discounted by the German general staff. Escaped Bank Robbers Captured Near Tacoma By the Associated Press. TACOMA. Wash., April 15—Near exhaustion from lack of food and ! rest. Joseph Paul Cretzer. 28. and | Arnold Thomas Kyle, 29. known as I "the Nation's No. 1 bank-robbing team." were captured last night only 2’2 miles from McNeil Island Fed eral Penitentiary. The pair escaped from the prison last Thursday. They were taken without re sistance by a posse of 12 prison j guards after a searching party had ' discovered them hiding in a bushy ! area near the island schoolhouse. ' The fugitives accidentally made their presence known when one rus tled the bushes as he shifted his ! position. Klyle and Cretzer escaped from the penitentiary by driving a deliv ! ery truck, which had been left in the prison yard, through the rear i inspection gate under gunfire from a guard. The truck was abandoned 2 miles from the prison. Both were serving 25-year sen tences for robbing the Bank of America in Los Angeles in 1938. Open House at School The annual open house of the Charles Stewart School of East Falls Church, Va., will be observed in connection with a meeting of the school's Parent-Teacher Associa tion at 8 p.m. tomorrow at the school. Grant Clark of the A. A. A. safety department will show a film on safety. Gov. Dickinson, 81 Today, Eschews Celebration By the Associated Press. LANSING. Mich . April 15.—Gov. Luren D. Dickinson is 81 years old today, but to him the anniversary is just another day in which to “keep moving right along." "Some people make a fuss over birthdays." he remarked wryly, “but I never could see just why." He's looking forward with eager ness to the opening of the baseball season in Detroit tomorrow. A con fessed “nut” on baseball, he will be in the stands if tl^ weather is at all favorable. Furthermore, he'll toss out the first ball if any one asks him to. Gov. Dickinson's health and strength have improved constantly during a year in the office he in herited upon the death of Gov. Frank D. Fitzgerald. Republican Attacks Reorganization Plan Representative Halleck. Repub lican. of Indiana charged last night j that in proposing to place the Civil Aeronautics Authority under the ! Commerce Department “the New Deal is junking the principle that quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial functions should be kept separate from administrative functions." President Roosevelt's regorzaniza tion order of last week provided for the transfer. Mr. Haileck's statement criticizing the order was issued through the 1 Republican National Committee. NATURAL SAND-TAN OF LEWIS & THOS. SALTZ STANDARD QUALITY Fine, hand tailoring and good quality fabric make these Gabardines at $40 a most unusual value . . . The Gabardine fabric is a choice Quality of fine weave . . . The tailoring is done strictly by hand and generally found in Suits ordinarily selling for $$0 or more. We doubt whether they can be duplicated again this season at this unusually low price. We therefore urge an immediate selection. SINGLE AND DOUBLE BREASTED MODELS FOR MEN AND YOUNG MEN . . . ALL SIZES IN REGULARS, SHORTS, LONGS AND STOUTS CUSTOM IMPERIAL GABARDINES_$55 GARNETT GABARDINES from ENGLAND....$75 AZURE ISLE SILK GABARDINES....».$85 LEWIS & THOS. SALTZ 1409 G STREET N.w!NC Sett: Both Lewii Salta and Thoa. Salta are at thia Store on G Street. There are no Salta*, at any other Men a Store in the city. Thia atore haa no connection with Salta Broa. Inc. Big Riddle Studied by O'Mahoney Method of Seeking Answer to Job Question Praised By CHARLES G. ROSS. The temporary National Eco nomic Committee (the O'Mahoney committee) has begun a hearing on “the all-important riddle of our 1/1 in c, nriiiiuiv, why it is that in a world of inex haustible natu i ral resources, in habited by men who know more I about the physi cal and chemi cal secrets of nature than all the generations who preceded them, we still have not learned how to apply me wonaers oi charin G. Rom. technology 1 n such a fashion as to provide de cent jobs for the millions of idle who are able and willing to work.” The words are those of the cb#r man in outlining the study. Why is it that w'ith production hitting the 1929 prosperity level, as it did toward the end of last year, we still had 10.000.000 unemployed0 Why is it that we have 8.000.000 families with incomes of less than $750 a year and an additional 11, 000.000 with incomes between $750 and $1,500? Why is itr—to lump a hundred questions into one—that the genius which has enabled us to solve the problem of production has failed tragically before the problem of dis tribution? Prospectus Admirable. To put the question is to show the profound importance of the committee's inquiry into the social and economic effects of technology Chairman O'Mahoney's prospectus is altogether admirable: “The leaders who have been invited to testify are under no restriction of any kind. We are not trying to prove a case for any remedy or for any approach. We are not seeking to solicit evidence to justify more Government or to justify increased expenditures.” Admirable, too. was the manner in which the hearing was opened by the committee's economic adviser, Dr. Theodore J. Kreps, an economics professor at Stanford. It is possible here only to glance at his paper, for any one who will take the trou ble to go through it and study its charts and graphs, there's a liberal education in the subject. One of the statistical facts at the root of the problem of technological unemployment: From 1924 to 1938, thanks to the machine—by which is meant all forms of improved meth ods of production—the productivity of labor increased 40 per cent. Since 1929 the output per man hour has increased 25 to 30 per cent. Another point brought out by Dr. Kreps: The percentage of available workers from 45 to 64 is increasing rapidly and “finding jobs for men over 40 will in the near future re quire every scrap of ingenuity that leaders in business and Govern ment can summon.” The Brighter Side. On the brighter side, suggesting the infinite possibilities that lie in industrial pioneering: Substantial portons of the output of some of the largest chemical companies consist of products that a few years ago were unknown. For example, the Monsanto Chemical Co. of St. Louis reported recently that products put into commercial manufacture since 1929 accounted for 39 per cent of its sales in 1938. Forty per cent of the business of the Du Pont Co. in 1937 was done in products relatively unknown in 1929. The present needs of industry: Not more capacity but more market. Industry is equipped to produce a national income of 90 to 100 billion dollars. At this point Chairman O'Ma honey summed up: "That is an other way of saying that the prob lem now is one of distribution rath er than of production.” Dr. Kreps: “Yes, I think that would follow.” The question was posed: Who has received the benefits of technology in the last 20 years? The answer, roughly, was that benefits had been distributed to the consumer, in the form of lower prices, but not to the extent that they should have been— not to the extent that they must be if the beneficent possibilities of the machine are to be realized. As the case was stated by Dr. Kreps: “The best argument for, if not the proof and substance of. technical prog ress, consists in the lower prices that are quoted to consumers. These savings from increasing productiv ity, if passed on to consumers, in crease the purchasing power of mil lions of people and thereby give in creased opportunities for employ ment to millions of businesses throughout the country.” Problem Stated Graphically. This is what might happen. It has happened up to now in a degree far from sufficient, to make the ma chine the unmixed blessing that it ought to be. Instead, along with its benefits, the machine has helped to produce “complete absence of em ployment in a quantity we don’t know.’’ Dr. Kreps stated graphically the problem with which the committee is wrestling: “There are some truly gigantic bridges to be built, eco nomic bridges connecting the needs of these families (the 19,000,000 at the bottom of the economic scale! with the goods which our superb machines can produce. “There are, in short, two frontiers —the industrial frontier and the frontier of economic adjustment * • • If we vigorously push advances in technology and refuse to make the requisite economic adjustment we will set up grave tensions In our society. To call a moratorium on the progress of the machine is both unwise and impossible. But the shortsightedness of those who argue that the industrial frontier is gone is only exceeded by the stupid de featism of those who wish to call a halt to economic adjustment." \yhat form should this adjust ment take? Chairman O’Mahoney and the economist, between them, arrived at this answer: There should be no limitation of produc tion, but a building up of the con suming capacity of those 19.000,000 families. It gets the T. N. E. C.'s hearing off to a good start to have the problem so clearly recognized and stated.