Newspaper Page Text
With Sanday Mornlnv Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON. D. C. TUESDAY.-..April 16, 1940 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office: l)th St and Pennsylvania Ava. New York Office: 110 East 42nd Bt. Chicago Office: 43ft North Michigan Ava. Prices Effective January 1, 1940. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Regular Edition. Evening and Sunday Tftc per mo. or 18c per week The Evening Star _ 45c Der mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star _ _ 10c Per copy Night Pinal Edition. Night Pinal and Sunday Star . 85c per month Night Pinal Star _ fiOc per month Rural Tube Delivery. The Evening and Sunday Star __ 85c per month The Evening Star _65c per month The Sunday Star _IOC Per copy Collection made at the end of each month or each week. Orders may be sent by mall or tele phone National 6000. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. gaily ard Sunday.. 1 yr.. $12 00; 1 mo.. $1.00 ally only _1 yr„ $8 00: 1 mo.. 75u Sunday only.._1 yr.. $5.00: 1 mo.. 50e Entered as second-class matter post office, Washington D. C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republicatlon of all news dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publication of special dispatcher herein also are reserved. Pan-American Message President Roosevelt’s message to the nations of the Western Hemi sphere. delivered on the fiftieth anniversary of the Pan-American Union, contains a realistic analysis of the world of today and points with clear vision to the course which the American republics must follow if they would maintain their Integrity. For the benefit of those Latin Americans who may have flirted with totalitarianism, the President warned that illusions can have no place in New World thinking. “Old dreams of universal empire are again ram pant,” Mr. Roosevelt declared. “We hear of races which claim the right of mastery. We learn of groups which insist they have the right to Impose their way of life on other nations. We encounter economic compulsions shrewdly devised to force great areas into political spheres of influence.” The force of these doctrines al ready has been felt on this side of the Atlantic. At the moment an other great war is occupying the major energies of Europe, but we may be sure that when the conflict is over, if not sooner, the enemies of democracy will be back, seeking with every means at their disposal to penetrate and undermine our way of life. It was to meet this menace—a threat that only the foolhardy can Ignore—that Mr. Roosevelt urged the Pan-American countries to put their own house in order and to be pre pared. If necessary, to meet force with force to maintain its invio lability. Mr. Roosevelt’s words were not the product of an overwrought imagina tion. They simply take appropriate account of the ghastly fate which has befallen half d dozen peace loving peoples of the Old World and recognize in all candor the inescap able fact that our immunity can be assured only through our own united efforts. The lesson of present-day history, as presented by the President, is plain: The peoples of this hemi sphere must stand together now and in the years to come or resign them selves to the very grave danger that they will lose that freedom which Is the cherished heritage of the New World. Economic Basis of Peace Nazi Germany has been off the gold standard so long and has com batted economic liberalism so relent lessly with an entirely totalitarian economic philosophy—of which the barter system is but a segment—that it is more than strange, but refresh ingly welcome, to hear a German economist calling for restoration of the gold standard and liberation' of world trade from its present throt tling restrictions. Dr. Gerhardt A. Westrick, new Commercial Counselor of the Ger man Embassy, presumably was not voicing the official view of his gov ernment in his New York interview Saturday, but his private opinions are important for the emphasis they place on the fact that economic lib eralism, although presently eclipsed by a radicalism which puts war needs above human needs, is not completely dead in the Reich. Dr. Westrick thus stands with Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, erstwhile German Economics Minister and Reichsbank president, who in spite of creating the monster of German barter has denounced it as barbarian and a thing to be rid of as soon as possible. Schacht has always contended that barter was forced upon Germany by her tremendous debt burden growing out of the war, and he left his influ ential posts only because he could not countenance the Nazi leaders’ radical financial policies. A return to liberalism, however, is no part of Nazi economic philosophy, which has as its objective the crea tion of the German state as a com pletely self-contained unit within its “Lebensraum.” Thus Dr. Westrick would appear to be out of step with the long-range economic objectives of the Reich’s ruling powers by ad vocating a return to the gold stand ard and unrestricted world trade. Dr. Westrick’s private expressions do, however, pose a vital question for the United States with respect to gold, namely: How can the gold standard be restored internationally when the United States holds most of the world’s yellow metal? The prob lem which the United States must solve for itself in the months—and perhaps years—before peace returns is how the metal it is now hoarding can be redistributed as a contribu tion to permanent peace. Two methods appear to be avail able: Either accept an increasing amount of foreign goods and services with the consequence of an unfavor able balance of payments which in the long run will diminish America’s golfi hoard, or loan the gold—to the extent of flve billion dollars, Dr. Westrick suggests —to European nations. Either method is certain of encountering strong resistance in this country. The British in Norwdy While it is still too early to know exactly what has happened in Nor way since Germany /occupied Oslo and strategic coastal points a week ago, it is clear that British sea power has altered the situation rapidly and materially to the Nazis’ disadvan tage. The tables have not been com pletely turned on the invaders, nor is their dislodgment imminent. But there is persuasive evidence that the Germans have lost the initiative, and, with it, warships, transports and thousands of troops and trained naval personnel. It must presently dawn upon Hitler’s propaganda-dosed people that the day of unresisted German assaults on weaker neigh bors has gone. The demonstrated allied capacity to aid the victims of aggression has suddenly given the European situation a new and more hopeful aspect. From it the Dutch and the Belgians and the menaced Balkan states are certain to derive encouragement to stand fast against German threats, or even German Russian-Italian threats, should Hit ler, balked in the north, now attempt to goad his Moscow and Rome part ners into supporting Nazi adventures in the east and southeast. It was years before the veil of his tory was lifted sufficiently to supply an accurate picture of what hap pened when Britain and Germany previously grappled for supremacy in the North Sea, at Jutland, or in the adjacent Skagerrak, by which geographical designation Germans prefer to call the naval battle be tween Jellicoe and Beatty and Scheer and Hipper. Even today, twenty four years afterward, naval experts are at odds over details of the great est encounter at sea since Trafalgar. Britons claim Jutland was a decisive victory for them. Germans are taught to believe that Skagerrak was a triumph for the Kaiser’s Navy because British losses in ships and personnel were considerably heavier than anything inflicted upon the Reich’s fleet. The all-dominating, indisputable fact is that the Ger mans made their supreme throw for mastery of the sea, and that it failed. The outside world probably will not be able to judge for some time to come who has won the day in Nor way. Even a roundup of successes and failures on either side thus far is hazardous, because rival claims in. ; many instances lack irrefutable con firmation. But the weight of the evi dence supports Britain’s conten tions that the fluctuating tide of bat- ! tie has flowed steadily in her favor. ; The Royal Navy’s reported feat in sowing a vast mine field across the lower Baltic, just south of Denmark, from the Kattegat to the coast of Lithuania, is an accomplishment of immense importance in the allied plan to cut the Gulf of Bothnia Baltic Sea road for iron ore transport from Northern Sweden and the water route for supplies of guns, ammunition and food from Germany for the Nazi forces operating in Den mark and Norway. Of even greater magnitude than this interference with the Germans’ lines of communication is the land ing of British armed units at various points along Norway’s jagged coast. Narvik is said in London to be one of the places to which the British, under protection of their naval guns, have penetrated this week, as a pre liminary to driving out or compelling the surrender of the German in vaders. With great ironclads like the pocket battleship Admiral Scheer torpedoed and probably out of action, though not yet reported sunk; with the battleships Gneisenau and Scharnhorst apparently also serious ly damaged; with the cruisers Bluecher, Karlsruhe and Emden re portedly lost, and with the sinking of anywhere from seven to a dozen de stroyers and a unknown number of submarines, Nazi adventures at sea off Norwegian and Danish waters during a week of blitzkrieg have proved extremely costly. There were, of course, British losses, too. The Royal Navy has had its first, eagerly awaited chance to measure its strength against Hitler’s fleet. It has taken advantage of the oppor tunity with devastating effect. To date, the “silent service” has fully justified the sailors’ contention that a surface navy is not at the mercy of an enemy marshaling great air power, but the supreme test of the bombing plane against the battleship is still to come. Fighting off Norway may bring about the historic decision before many more days or hours i have passed. Community Asset The Greater National Capital Com mittee of the Washington Board of Trade mo longer is an experiment. When it first was established in 1931 there might have been skepticism concerning the success of its efforts, but it now has so completely demon strated its utility that there can be no question about the desirability of the continuance of its work. It is the motive power behind the city’s tourist trade, an Industry which brings into the District of Columbia approximately sixty million dollars a year. Certainly, It might be argued that visitors would come to the Federal seat of Government without being invited. Yet even after generous allowance has been made for the natural attraction of the Capital It still is evident to the fair-minded observer that “it pays to advertise" in this as in other fields of enterprise. The committee "publicizes Washing ton all over the United States by means of circulation of motion pic tures, distribution of pictures, con tacting by correspondence and per sonal canvass several hundred radio stations and several hundred news papers, mailing out about half a million pieces of literature each year.” That the service is wanted and that it is appreciated has been proved by thousands of letters from strangers who have graduated into friends. If the committee were to suspend operations, the demand for its revival would be universal. It has attained the status of an indis pensable institution, not only in the judgment of the local business com munity but quite as definitely in that of people in other localities who gratefully have availed themselves of its facilities. The funds required for financing the committee's endeavors during the twelve months beginning May 1 amount to but seventy-two thousand dollars—a small sum as compared with the profit which such an in vestment returns. Surely, there should be little difficulty in obtaining subscriptions sufficient to meet so modest a budget for so important a purpose. Nazi Propaganda The attempt by German news papers to distort two articles of opin ion, published in The Star last week as speculative discussions of the pos sible destination of an allied expedi tionary force, should give Americans a revealing insight into the workings of the Reich’s propaganda machine. These articles, printed in The Star on Friday and Saturday, stated that a British transport fleet carry ing from 50,000 to 80.000 allied sol diers was reported to be on the high seas. After stating that their desti nation was unknown to him, the writer of the columns then engaged in speculation, which was plainly labeled as such, concerning two pos sible landing points. First, he said, the troops might be landed in Nor way—their actual destination, as dis closed by later developments. As a second and “more likely’’ possibility, the writer expressed a belief that they might be destined for Holland. In support of the second theory, the writer argued that, in view of the German attack on Scandinavia, it “is possible that the Netherlands government, realizing the grave danger it is running, will consent to British troops being landed as a pro tection against a German onslaught.” Erroneously presenting these col umns. as having been written by the London correspondent of The Star, the Berlin press on Saturday pub lished highly distorted versions of their content. One “scare” head line said: “America Reports: British Invasion of Holland Imminent?” An other asked: “Is It the Netherlands’ Turn Now?” The Voelkischer Beobachter, which often expresses the views of Adolf Hitler, said: “The report of The Evening Star is based on the experi ence that Britain, since the war be gan, has spared no efforts to draw the small neutrals into the wrar.” The fact is, of course, that the report of The Star’s columnist was not based on any such “experience,” but represented logical speculation based on the theory that should Germany attempt another lightning stroke through the low countries, the allies would be prepared to meet force with force—and not wait for a repetition of Finland or Norway. As everybody knows, an attack on Holland and Belgium by Germany has been the subject of speculation for months. Another interesting German com ment was made by the Lokal-An zeiger. Stating incorrectly that The Star’s articles had been received from Britain and had been passed through the British censor, that pub lication added: “In Washington no body entertains any doubts that the report of British transports Is true. Obviously American circles have long known of such plans.” The misrepresentation and wide exploitation of the original articles by Germany’s controlled press are significant. Here is an obvious at tempt on the part of Berlin commen tators to misrepresent the import of the articles as they appeared in The Star and a studied failure to make it clear that the possibility of a landing in Holland was frank speculation on the part of the columnist. Clearly the Berlin distortion of the original stories were the work of a propa ganda machine more interested in effect than in fact, and this incident should serve as a warning to take all of its efforts with several grains of salt. The interned crew of the Graf Spee do not seem to like it in Buenos Aires, several of them having tried to escape to the hinterlands of Ar gentina. They may well ponder the fact that they might easily have gone to a far worse place, namely, Mr. Jones’ well-known locker. Britain seems to have a double objective in Norway; getting the Nazis out of Scandinavia and keep ing the Italians out of the war. The Russian Army never seems really to get into high speed, but just the same it is a menace in low, I or even in neutral. Of Stars, Men And Atoms ‘ Notebook of Science Progfess In Field, Laboratory And Study By Thomas R. Henry. Between the Meta and Vichada Rivers in Eastern Colombia lies an al most unexplored and uninhabited never never land along whose western edges is developing a new "last frontier,” where ways of life of the old Wild West re appear with the coming of the cattle men. m It Is a region at least 100,000 square miles in area. Hills with dry, flat tops a mile wide are interspersed with deep, wide valleys, where grass grows 6 feet high and is so dense that it is difficult to push one's way through the tangle. Through the land flow forest-lined tributaries of the two rivers, which in turn flow into the Orinoco. The explorer breaks through the grass upon gigantic anthills, as much as 6 feet high and 20 feet in diameter, and acres upon acres of sharp-pointed, 4-feet-high termite hills. The land is a paradise for the anteaters. The valleys, at least, are well watered and fertile, says O. L. Haught, Standard Oil Co. geologist and plant collector for the Smithsonian Institution, who is one of the few Americans familiar with this hidden land, where riversides are fragrant with strange orchids and whose nights are luminous with the flashing of fantastic insects. Among the latter is an enormous beetle with two red headlights and one green taillight as well as rows of porthole lights along each side. There are scattered villages of agri cultural Indians along the streams. Elsewhere there are wandering tribes of almost ghostlike Indians who have no settled abode and are seldom seen by while men. They represent, Mr. Haught believes, nearly the lowest cultural stage of any New World people. They are timid folks who fly into hiding at the approach of white men—especially if the visitors carry surveying instruments which the nomads consider bad and powerful magic weapons. Although the richness of the region generally is recognized, Mr. Haught says, settlement there has been practically impossible in the past because of inac cessibility and the hostility of these wraithlike nomads against Intruders. The country is best adapted to stock raising. The Indians are adept at killing the stock and setting Are to ranch houses. From time immemorial they have had the custom of setting grass fires during the dry season. These have swept the broad, dry hilltops, but seldom have been able to clean out the valleys. It is for this reason, he be lieves, that vegetation is so sparse in the high places and so luxurious in the lowlands. But now, he says, civilization is spreading out beyond the "last frontier." I At the western edge is the boom town ; of Villavicencio, which now has about i 10,000 inhabitants and in many ways I resembles the old cattle towns of the i United States. The cattle ranches now I are spreading out from Villavicencio on all sides. The interior of the country i still remains essentially uninhabited by ; white men. Nobody penetrates it un armed. Hidden in the valleys or wander ing with the Indian tribes may be found occasional refugees from all over the earth, secure from pursuit in the inac i cessible land. Only the courses of the rivers, the geologist says, have been thoroughly mapped up to date. A few miles away from the streams and the explorer is in unknown country where, it is very likely, no white men ever has been before. For the observer on the ground, he stresses, it is not a particularly colorful country but is seen to its best advan tages, with its interspersed plains, arid hills and narrow lines of luxurious forest, from an airplane. This is the only means of rapid exploration. A little to the south of the land of grass is the even less explored selva thousands of square miles of dense, tin broken, luxuriant forest. The flyer passing over it sees a crown of orchid tinted treetops 150 feet high through which one can scarcely discern the courses of mighty rivers. Mr. Haught himself has been chiefly concerned in exploring the two regions for oil but has occupied his spare time in plant collecting. The real agricul tural wealth of the country, he believes, has barely been scratched and many of the trees, fruits and flowers are un known to botanists. One of the most impressive features of the country, he says, is the enormous variety of plant life, especially in the jungle stretches. In all the Appalachians, he says, there are probably 30 to 40 generally recognized varieties of trees, while nearly anywhere in this region it would be possible to recognize about the same number in a few acres. The plains region, he says, is relatively free of dangerous animals. Besides the great anteaters there are pumas and ocelots and those giant rodents, the capybaras. These he describes as guinea pigs big as sheep. Opposes Alaskan Refugee Plan. To the Editor of The Star: “Unemployment Is a continuous prob lem,” says a member of Congress. Prom information gained by his congressional committee, more immigrants than any other country on earth have already been received by America. In recent years the total aliens admitted to the United States of America exceeds number of unemployed. The writer, a former legislator from San Francisco, knows how cumulative legislation will work if the plan to admit 2,500,000 refugees to Alaska is adopted. The first snowfall would find bills intro duced to let them enter here. “Hard ship cases," would be the argument. Later, such hardship cases would turn out to be 2,500,000 unemployment-relief folk. E. E. GRANT. San Francisco, Calif., April 7. Praises Articles by Jesse F&nt Evans. To the Editor of The Star: I want to express my pleasure in Mrs. Jesse Fant Evans' articles, which I read with increasing interest. The one in a recent issue of your paper about Dr. Cushing I liked so much I sent it to one of Hopkins’ most distinguished doctors. April S. MARY B. ARMAT. THIS AND THAT By Charles E. Tracewell. •‘PARK ROAD. “Dear Sir: “I note in your column This and That a notation which states, ‘This is, it must be kept in mind, the famous devil down head, the only bird except the chickadee which can walk down a tree, head down.’ You are referring to the white-breasted (or red-breasted) nuthatch. "I wonder if you have not perhaps for gotten the black-and-white warbler, often called the black-and-white creeper. “I have often watched the comical antics of these very active and extremely attractive birds in nearby Maryland and also in a large cherry tree in my own yard and have seen them more often upside down than right side up. “In verification I quote from Chap man’s ‘What Bird Is That,’ page 92: ‘This species (the black - and - white warbler) and the nuthatches are the only birds that creep down as well as up.’ ‘‘Also from ‘Birds of America,’ section 3, page 113: ‘That bird (referring to the brown creeper) does not attempt to come down a tree trunk head foremost, nor to circle a horizontal limb, feats which are managed with nuthatch-like ease by the black-and-white warbler.’ “So it seems that this latter bird, as well as the nuthatches, may well be put in the category of upside-down birds. read your bird lore regularly and have greatly enjoyed it over a long period of time. “Sincerely, V. L. K„ sr.’’ There seems to be some difference between being upside down, on a tree, and walking upside down, down a tree! Some of the books seem to contradict themselves, or at least are not at all clear in making a distinction. The one fact which emerges clearly is that the nuthatches are the champions in really walking down, head-first. Most of us are not so fbrtunate as to see the black-and-white warbler do It. The only glimpse we have had of this beauty in 10 years was about 5 minutes, as the creature flitted around in the branches of a locust tree. In that time he made no move what ever to walk head down. * * * * For most of us, the white-breasted nuthatch will remain the champion of this sort of thing. It really does it! The chickadee mostly poses upside down, that is, like a woodpecker, it leans head down, to get at insects and the like, but probably does little real walking downward in that position. # * * * Put suet out, all winter, if you want the chickadees to nest in your yard. They have begun to nest already. The choicest bird seed will attract them but of itself it does not seem sufficient to make them feel that home I I Letters to the Editor I Praises Editorial on William Faversham. To the Editor of The Star: Many old-timers must have appreci ated the graceful tribute to William Faversham that appeared in The Star’s editorial columns last Monday. He was one of the last of the old line of actors that 45 or 50 years ago made up the famous stock companies directed by Au gustin Daly, A. M. Palmer. Daniel Froh man and Augustus Pitou and which in cluded such favorite actors as Ada Re han, John Drew, Maurice Barrymore, Herbert Kelcey, Georgia Cayvan, Wil liam Faversham, Nelson Wheatcroft and a host of others of whom the present generation of theatergoers have no knowledge. Was not Herbert Kelcey, for instance, as much of a matinee girl's idol 50 years ago as the Clarft Gable or Robert Taylor of recent years? Of these companies Mr. Daly's was the best known—as popular in London as in New York—and what a band of players it was! John Drew, George Clarke, James Lewis, Sydney Herbert, Charles Leclercq, Ada Rehan, Mrs. Gil bert, Adelaide Prince, Kitty Cheatham, Isabel Irving and Edith Kingdon were just a few of these delightful artists, and their repertoire ranged from the broad comedy "A Night Off” to "As You Like It.” Maurice Barrymore, father of the present-day Barrymores, was the leading man of A. M. Palmer’s Madison Square Theater Company, and Herbert Kelcey, Nelson Wheatcroft. Georgia Cayvan and Henrietta Crossman were a few of the players that made up Daniel Frohman's Lyceum Theater Company. About 1891 Augustus Pitou organized an excellent stock company that in cluded William Faversham, Nelson Wheatcroft, W. H. Thompson and Min nie Seligman. In looking over my old programs I find that this company, with Mr. Faversham, played twice in Wash ington during the season of 1891-92— in October and January—both times at the “New National Theater.” While sitting through some of the modern noisy, garish, “marr.moth” screen productions and really enjoying them, too, still we old-timers occasionally find ourselves sighing for something like the quiet, simple, perfect artistry of Joe Jefferson's “Rip” or one of those old time stock companies. April 12. BENJ. M. CONNELLY. Fears Revival of Foreign Propaganda. To the Editor of The Star: Now that both England and Germany have carried their war into the North Sea and neutral territory, alert foreign propagandists have hit upon the idea that now is the opportune time to sow the seed of fear into the minds of the American people and so organize public opinion that it will be deceived into favoring revocation, first, of the John son Act, which bars American loans to foreign debtors, and, second, of the American Neutrality Act, which would place the United States directly into war, as an ally. In 1916, the English propagandist had no obstacle like the -Johnson Act. It was easier to con jure up the spectre of a flood of Huns with spiked helmets and long-range guns descending upon the Panama Canal. Hudson Maxim aided the British cause by having published under his signature, an article in an American newspaper warning of a German attack on the Americas. “There must have been more deliberate lying in the world from 1914 to 1918 than In any other Is just around the comer—of the house. What they want Is that memory of tasty suet. Here is one of the finest of all birds which come to local suburban gardens. It comes, too, to city gardens, occasion ally, but no way near as often as to the yard in the suburbs. Building operations tend to make city out of suburbs, but if there are plenty of trees, along with the lesser amount of traffic, the wild birds are more likely to come than to crowded city streets. * * * * Another visitor to the yard in recent days has been a big brown rabbit. The fresh stands of grass, Just get ting greener, are what appeal to him, it seems. After a few preliminary capers, the creature settled down to eating. This is the first time we have seen him since last fall. Rabbits on their own in the suburbs manage to keep out of the jaws of dogs very well. * * * * • Another interesting early spring hap pening in one garden was the method of building a new nest used by a mother squirrel. She happened to be walking across the yard, when she spotted an old nest, blown down. It had fallen, a mere heap of inter twined grass, stems of locust leaves, and corn husks. The moment it came to this, the rodent stopped, smelled, and then seized a large amount of the old nest in its mouth. It began to ram this material with its paws, making it smaller and smaller, until it could keep a good hold. Swiftly it ran across the yard, up a maple, out to the tip-end of the branches. There it launched itself into space, and just managed to make the tips of other tree boughs, from which it ascended to the selected site, about 40 feet high in a locust. It patted the material down. Now came the time for another trip, and a like procedure. The Inclusion of the corn husks was , Interesting. No doubt they had been 5 secured from somebody's compost pile, i It worked very hard at this for 15 minutes or more, but after that it seemed to lose interest, and never again went back to the old nest, or to the newly begun one, as far as we could see. Two or three robins are to be seen in the yard at all times now. This is good, because there is no finer bird in a garden, and do you know why? Not only because of the general cheer which the very sight of him brings, but mostly because of his song, morning and eve ning. Sometimes one tends to forget how much a part of the real spring song this melody of the robin is, how it furnishes the background music, as it were, for the entire bird chorus. Letters to the Editor must hear the name and address of the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. Please be brief! period of the world’s history," was Sir Arthur Ponsonby's comment after the Armistice. Apparently the propagan dists who are repeating the fears of the first European War (1914-1918) think the American people have poor memories. A well-prepared Army and Navy is America’s best insurance against in vasion by any nation or combination of nations. America will defend her own land to the very last drop of blood. April 14. F F __ Urges Civil Service For W. P. A. Workers. To the Editor of The Star In your editorial of April 7, indorsing the Ramspeck bill to extend civil service, you rightly criticize the provision bar ring civil service benefits to employes hailing from States which have more than their quota of civil service employ ment. You fail to mention another and even more arbitrary provision, which bars some 30.000 administrative em ployes of the Work Projects Administra tion from the benefits of the bill. The provision regarding State quotas has a theory—even though it is a bad theory — behind it. The prohibition against putting W. P. A. employes under civil service was that it was improper to put an emergency agency under civil service laws. But the present bill itself refutes that argument; it covers a num ber of emergency agencies—in fact all except W. P. A. Every one familiar with the civil service laws knows that there is no con nection between civil service and agency permanence. It is simply not true that to put W. P. A. employes under civil service would thereby perpetuate the W. P. A. It would merely insure that as long as the W. p. a. exists its workers would receive the same treatment which civil service provides for Government employes in other agencies. Civil service benefits the Government worker and the public. It protects the worker against arbitrary dismissal, and in the event his particular job is term inated it allows him to transfer to a similar job when a vacancy occurs. It also allows the worker to contribute part of his salary in a system of old-age retire ment. These elementary protections en able the civil service employe to do better work and safeguard the public service from the dangers of political manipula tion and political favoritism. W. P. A. administrative employes have a record of faithful and efficient service extending over the past five years. The magazine Fortune wrote of tli# W. P. A. administration that it “functions with an efficiency of which any industrialist would be proud.” A Gallup poll on the question showed the public, both Demo crats and Republicans, to be overwhelm ingly in favor of putting W. P. A. under civil service. On the basis of their record W. P. A. employes have a right to ask that the discriminatory provision in the Rams peck bill (which was put in against the sponsor's own desires) be removed, and that they be given the opportunity to serve the public better under civil service. KENNETH DECKER, President, W. P. A. Union, Local 1, United Federal Wprkers of America. April 12. ■Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. A reader can get the answers to any question of fact by writing The Eve ning Star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply. Q. What are known as the 15 de cisive battles of the world?—E. T. H. A. Sir Edward Creasy's “Fifteen De cisive Battles of the World” describes the following: Marathon, Syracuse, Arbnla, Metaurus, Teutoburg Forest, Chalons, Tours, Hastings, Orleans, the Spanish Armada, Blenheim, Pultowa, Saratoga, Valmy and Waterloo. Q. Who was the famous tatooed man exhibited by Barnum many years ago?—H. T. A. In the 1870s P. T. Barnum exhibit ed George Constantine, whose skin was covered with what is still considered the most elaborate and extensive tat tooing ever seen in either Europe or America. It is said that there was not a quarter of an inch of his body free from designs. Even his eyelids and the skin between his fingers was tattooed. Q. How many windows has the Em pire State Building in New York City?—C. S. D. A. There are 6,500 windows in the building. Q. In what part of Pennsylvania is Drake Memorial Park?—R. T. L. A. Drake Well Memorial Park is on Oil Creek, north of Titusville. It marks the spot where Col. Edwin L. Drake drilled the first successful oil well in the world in 1859, Q. What is a printer's widow?— S K. H. A. This is a newspaper term meaning a short line at the top of a column completing a paragraph which carries over from the bottom of the preceding column. _______ Q. Where did Gwen Bristow, author of “This Side of Glory,” go to college?— J. A. A She attended Anderson College, Anderson. S. C, and Judson College, Marion, Ala., from which she secured her A. B. degree, and the Columbia School of Journalism from 1924 to 1925. Q. When did the Government take over the railroads?—P. R. H. A. By a proclamation dated Decem ber 26 1917, President Wilson took possession and assumed control of the railroads effective at 12 o'clock noon on December 28. 1917. He appointed Wil liam G. McAdoo as director general of the railroads to have charge of the possession, control, operation and utili zation of the railroads so taken over. The director general of the railroads created an organization designated as the United States Railroad Administra tion to perform the duties arising from Federal control. Q. Is it correct to use the fingers in eating crisp bacon?—H. C. A. Authorities differ in regard to whether or not bacon may ever be regarded as a finger food. Mrs. Post in her book "Etiquette” says definitely that bacon should be eaten with a fork. Q. Which of the ancient philosophers said that he could lift the world If he had a place to rest his lever?—E. P. A. Archimedes said, “Give me a lever long enough, and a fulcrum strong i enough, and single-handed I can move ! the world.” J Q Who hit Dizzy Dean on the toe in i the dream game?—J. V. F. A. It was Earl Averill of the Cleveland ! Indians w'ho hit Dizzy Dean on the toe 1 with a line drive in the dream game of , 1937 Q. Where was the Field of the Cloth of Gold?—W. B. A. This was located in the Valley of Andren, between the old English castle of Guisnes and the French castle of Ardres. It is celebrated for the meet ing in 1520 of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France and their ret inues. The conference, planned by Cardi nal Wolsey to give the two monarchs an opportunity to discuss an alliance against Charles V of Spain, was remarkable chiefly as a magnificent historic pageant. Q. What kind of wood is used In making violins?—R. P. A. Bachmann in his “Encyclopedia of the Violin” says, “Several varieties of wood are used in the construction of a violin; maple or plane wood, fir or spruce, ebony or rosewood. The back, neck, ribs and bridge are made of maple or plane wood; the belly, the bar of the corners, the molds, linings and sound-post are made of spruce. For the finger-board, nuts, pegs, tailpiece and tailpiece button ebony or rosewood is used.” Q. When did Currier and Ives become partners?—R. B. R. A. In 1850, Nathaniel Currier took into partnership J. Merritt Ives, an artist, and after 1857, all the prints published hy this firm of lithographers bore the imprint “Currier & Ives.” The Old Sailor The flame and the reek of the fires of youth are over; Draw in your seat, and sit at my hearth side. The wild desire that made me once a rover Has vanished like the flame; It Is ebb tide. The warmth and the glow are still alive in the embers To fill my days with oomfort and g'»d cheer; And the glory of the strife a mm re members Although his pipe and fireside hold him here. I can close my eyes and see the white foam breaking, And hear the roar of the waves upon the shore; I can feel my boat as she staggers for ward. quaking— Alas, those things will come to mo no more. I’m an old done man, and my sailing days are over; My legs and my eyes are not what . they used to be; But deep in my soul, I am still a gay young rover— Held here in my chair, my heart is far at sea. BESSIE SCHENCK BUNTEN.