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Seen Helping Employer Peaceful Picketing Decision May Give Free Speech to All By DAVID LAWRENCE. Henry Ford wasn’t before the Su preme Court of the United States this week with his case arguing the right to discuss freely the issues of unionism with h i s employes, but another case bo clgsely paral lels nis cop.ten-. tion that it would seem to apply hereafter when the high est court is asked to pass on the manner in which the Na tional Labor Re lations Board has sought un der the Wagner law to abridge David Lawrence, freedom of speech. The Supreme Court—in holding an Alabama statute unconstitu tional because it interfered with the right of employes to engage in peaceful picketing—said some perti nent things about public discussion of the merits of labor disputes, as follows: “In the circumstances of our times, the dissemination of infor mation concerning the facts of a labor union dispute must be re garded as within that area of free discussion that is guaranteed by the Constitution. It is recognized now that satisfactory hours and wages and working conditions in Industry and a bargaining position which makes these possible have an Importance which is not less than the interests of those in the busi ness or industry directly concerned. Discussion Held Indispensable. Free discussion concerning the conditions in industry and the causes of labor disputes appears to us indispensable to the effective and intelligent processes of popular government to shape the destiny of modern industrial society. The" is sues raised by regulations, such as are challenged here, infringing upon the right of employes effectively to Inform the public of the facts of a labor dispute are part of this larger problem. • * » “Every expression of opinion on matters that are important has the potentiality of inducing action in the interests of one rather than an other group in society. But the group in power at any moment may not impose penal sanctions on peaceful and truthful discussion of matters of public interest, merely on a showing that others may thereby be persuaded to take action incon sistent with its interests.” Now the National Labor Relations Board has developed the doctrine that an employer has no right to discuss mutual problems with his individual employes but must dis cuss them only through a designated bargaining agent. Even when the employer feels that the bargaining agent is misrepresenting the truth concerning the employer’s position with respect to wages and hours and other pertinent facts, the board has held that the employer cannot i transmit any documents directly to Individual employes, or argue his case over the head of even an un truthful bargaining agent. Intimidation by Inference. The board has gone so far as to declare that an employer who ad dressed his employes on the merits of collective bargaining could, under j certain circumstances, be held to be Violating the Wagner law by com mitting an unfair labor practice. It is true the board has consistently sought to tie up the expressions by the employer with alleged intimida tion or coercion on his part, but this has been read into the cases by in ference rather than by direct proof, and, of course, the board has felt It had the power to base its con clusions on impression rather than testimony, anyway. When the Supreme Court, on the other hand, declares invalid an anti-picketing ordinance on the ground that “peaceful picketing" cannot injure the employer and that free discussion can do nobody any harm, it is in effect saying that the employer has a right freely to express his opinions, too. The Labor Board has maintained Built by CADILLAC and Cadillac Builds Best! For almost as long as the automobile industry has existed, Cadillac engineering and manufacturing have been Standard of the World. Cadillac introduced precision engineering and scores of basic innovations besides. And LaSalle is a Cadillac product. That’s why two out of three medium-price car buyers who try it buy it. LaSalle perform ance is Cadillac performance—and that’s the best there is. For proof take a ride—today. r the ^ries Fifty Coupe, delivered at Detroit. Sedans start at ■ ■ 91280. Transportation based on rail rates, state and local taxes (if any), optional equipment and accessories—extra. Prices subject to change without notice. 1222 22nd St. N.W. CAPITOL CADILLAC CO. NAtional 3300 F. D. AKERS. President SEE YOUR NEAREST GADILLAC-La SALLE DEALER The Capital Parade War Orders Likely to Give Trade Balance of $200,000,000 Monthly By JOSEPH ALSOP and ROBERT KINTNER. » On the dark day when news came of Germany’s brutal invasion of Scandinavia, the Treasury’s able economist, Harry White, happened to encounter Edward H. Foley, jr„ the young, New Dealish general counsel. Both had been watching the state of domestic business with concern, and after they had talked over the news from Norway, White remarked to Foley that it “took a world tragedy to save the business index.” This is no more than tha unpleasant truth. War buying in the previous period of siege-warfare was not enough to keep the war boom going, witn tne assault on Den mark and Norway, the period of siege-warfare has been abruptly and shockingly ended. The Gov ernment economic experts foresee war buying on a much larger scale. And consequently they are begin ning to exude a somewhat grisly optimism. It is simplest to see what is happening in terms *of the balance of trade. Three years ago the trade A MILLION SACK’S OF . BEANS 'ETC .ETC. 1. balance was slightly unfavorable to this country. We bought a little more than we sold abroad. Two years ago the trend changed, fhiefly because of the need for our goods created by preparation for’ war In Europe. A year ago we had a favorable balance of trade running to $850,000,000 annually. With the beginning of the war, even In the siege warfare period, the favorable balance was almost doubled, so that the excess of exports over imports amounted to $145,000,000 for the 29 days of February. And as new war orders come in, the balance will increase still further. Leverage Spending If February was an average month of the siege-warfare period, and if orders increase only comparatively moderately, it seems reasonable to ■ suppose that by the year's end the favorable trade balance will be well | above $200,000,000 monthly. It may be much higher than that, end, of ■ course, if the war continues to close normal American markets, it may also be somewhat lower. The point is, however, that money for American goods will continue to pour in. The expenditures will be extremely substantial, and they will be of the sort best calculated to stimulate business. Much of the money will go to heavy industry. A very large percentage of it will be used for constructing new plants. In other words, the war will produce what the New Dealers used to call “leverage spending.” At the same time, the congressional economy drive has collapsed, and Government spending will also continue at an immensely high level. Thus if there is any truth in the theory that spending is a stimulant to business (and even the most conservative economists agree that it is a temporary stimulant), business is due to improve handsomely in the next year. Dire Prophecies To those who have watched the shifts and veerings of New Dem economic policy, the new situation is another proof of spending's irresisti ble attraction for the President and the New Dealers. When the war began, the President was positively convinced that it would produce a tremendous boom. Among the New Dealers and especially among the economic experts who form so important an element in the New Deal group, the President’s conviction was accepted with a grain of salt. Yet even the most ardent spenders acknowledged that Government spending j might be reduced in amounts equivalent to the war buying. It was said j that all would be well so long as there was no reduction' in “net spending" or the total war buying and Government spending. Because of the President’s ex pectation of a great boom, relief and other appropriations were sharply reduced in the 1941 budget. Then the possibility that siege warfare might be rather prolonged began to sink in. Although war orders were coming in fairly well. me «ew jjeai economic experts Decame alarmed. Richard Gilbert, Harry L. Hopkins’ new Commerce Department economist, was the first to sound the tocsin of warning, predicting that unless the course of the war changed the business index would drop from its December high of 125 to an eventual low of 85. During the winter, the spending forces mobilized, and the President’s mind changed, with the result that the plugs were pulled on economy, and an increased relief appropriation was actually recommended. The idea of keeping “net spending" constant is now out the window. “Net spending" will be far greater than before, for vastly increased war buying will be added to Government spending, which will also be somewhat more lavish. Certainly if the economists’ predictions that the business index is now headed upward should be proved wrong, the entire theory of the economic value of spending will begin to seem extremely dubious and full of ugly holes. (Released by the North American Newspaper Alliance. Ine.) that freedom of speech is a "quali fied right" where the employer is concerned, but the latest Supreme Court case would seem to render such a judgment inconsistent here after. Incidentally, when the House Labor Committee was asked to vote an amendment to the Wagner iaw safeguarding freedom of speech, it was defeated. Justice Murphy, the newest member of the Supreme Court, wrote the opinion which was approved, 8 to 1, by his colleagues. As a former Governor of Michigan where he has had considerable ex perience with picketing laws and ordinances and with attempts to crush freedom of speech, Justice Murphy has written a significant opinion. In the not far distant future, the Henry Ford case on freedom of speech for the employer will be before the same court. The opinion rendered this week may foreshadow the clarification of the rights of employers who have neen wondering how Congress could pos sibly have delegated power to the Labor Board to abridge the free dom of speech guaranteed by the Constitution. (Reproduction Rights Reserved.) New Textile Sought Investigations are being made in the Hague, Netherlands, of the pos sibility of producing a new syn thetic textile fiber from the waste gasses of gasoline cracking instal lations. A large oil company making the experiments is optimistic regard ing the eventual success. Loan for Highway The Mexican government has loaned 4,000,000 pesos to the state of Coahuila for completion of a 270-mile paved highway from Piedras Negras, opposite Eagle Pass, to Saltillo, capital of the state. The new highway will open a new route into the interior of Mexico. Sweden's Pay Boosts Agreements between employers and workers in Sweden's paper, wood pulp, sawmill, textile and machine industries assured labor peace in 1940. The agreements covered small wage increases, as well as certain supplementary wages because of higher living costs. CTHE opinions of the writers on this page are their own, not necessarily The Star’s. Such opintons are presented in The Star’s effort to give all sides of questions of interest to its readers, although such opinions may be contradictory among themselves and directly opposed to The Star’s. The Political Mill Roosevelt Tour Seen as Salesmanship for New Deal, the Foreign Policy, or Both By G. GOULD LINCOLN. President Roosevelt’s plan for a Western trip in June, announced yesterday in Warm Springs, quite naturally set political tongues a w a g g i n g in Washing ton. Two possi ble purposes of such a trip were discussed. The first, to stir the people of the Western country again to sup port the Roose yelt New Deal— and possibly the New Deal Presi dent. The sec ond, to sell to j the country especially the noma Lincoln, administration's foreign policy. And it may be that the President would take a Puckish delight in delivering speeches—bound to make the head lines—while the Republican Na tional Convention is striving the latter part of June to draft a na tional platform and to nominate its candidates for President and Vice President. ' The President’s announced policy is to keep this country out of the wars in Europe and in Asia. But he has spoken of "policies short of war” that should be undertaken in the interests of the democracies of Europe against the dictator nations. ,He has not hesitated to say that his sympathies, like those of the vast majority of Americans, are with the allies against Germany. There are many Americans who view with suspicion the attitude of the administration—and they are not hesitating to say as much. The “measures short of war” have not been put before the people in detail. Generally they are supposed to be measures of economic pressure. There has been no suggestion of loans of money to the allies—yet. But if it becomes evident that the allies must have financial support in order to continue their struggle — loans would be one measure "short of war.” “Our War” Argument Increases. The American people are easy to rouse. Their sympathies are quick. Up to the present there has been an earnest demand on the part of the great majority that America remain out of the war. Neverthe less, there is a substantial number of Americans wrho insist that the war in Europe is America's war on the ground that if Germany wins, the Western Hemisphere will be next on Mr. Hitler's list of con quests. As the war spreads abroad, this line of argument will be de veloped more and more markedly. Mr. Roosevelt's contentions have been that Americans cannot expect to be unaffected by the war abroad; that this country must be prepared to do its part in bringing peace to the world, around the peace table. There are signs the propaganda factory is already at work. Republican speakers, when they ifCTKffl! i have talked of foreign affairs, have Insisted that America remain aloof from the war and one of them at least—Thomas E. Dewey of New York—has frowned upon the idea that America is to participate in the peace terms. Mr. Roosevelt has taken Mr. Dewey severely to task, in his more recent comments, for this attitude. Yet if the allies win—without our participation in the war—will they invite this coun try to help frame the terms of peace? And if the Germans win, will they seek to bring America into the picture as an arbiter of peace? It may be that the President is counting on a stalemate. Seen as Important Election Issue. More and more the belief grows that the foreign situation will play an important part in the coming political campaign in this country. It frequently has been predicted that upon the foreign outlook will depend Mr. Roosevelt's decision whether to run again, for one thing. And whether he runs or not—but especially if he runs—the foreign policies of this country will be brought prominently into the fore ground oy the Democratic and Re publican campaigners. It may be that the President senses that there is not too much time left between now and election day to educate the Ameriqan people along the lines of his own thinking on foreign policies. The Republicans are planning not to let the grass grow under their feet, either. First, along comes a Landon-Knox proposal that key men in the party, Including pro spective members of the national convention’s Committee on Resolu tions, gather in Philadelphia a week before the convention and begin work on drafting a national plat form. This platform will have to deal with the foreign relations of the. country as well as with domestic affairs. Time will be required, and also a careful consideration of all the circumstances that exist two months from now, to give the Re publicans the kind of declaration of policy they desire in their platform. Scarcely is this Landon-Knox idea made public when Chairman John Hamilton of the Republican Na tional Committee announces he has written to all members of his com mittee and all State chairmen urg ing that the State delegations to the national convention elect their rep resentatives on the prospective reso lutions committee, so that they may go to Philadelphia “an appreciable time” before the convention to work out a platform. Have Common Goal. The plans are similar in Intent. But Col. Frank Knox, who talked with Republican House and Senate leaders here last week about the Landon-Knox proposal, did not con- 1 suit Chairman Hamilton. Nor, pre-| sumably, did Mr. Hamilton consult Col. Knox. The chairman, how-1 ever, has had the proposal in mind for months. He stresses the fact that the Republicans already have had submitted to them a most im We, the People U. S. Can Learn Much From History; Syracuse Had Its Isolationists Long Ago • By JAY FRANKLIN. A great land power and a great sea power are engaged In a life-and death struggle. It Is a war of blitzkriegs, blockades, surprises and sudden reverses of fortune. Neutrals are seeing their territory Invaded, social revolution and counter-revolution are in the air; and a whole civilization is breaking up under the pressure of a double war. A great western power—rich, powerful and politically inexperienced— is becoming disturbed by rumors that one of the belligerents has designs upon her and is preparing to invade her territory and there is a debate in which the two sides of public opinion are considering this war and threat of its extension in terms of their own domestic politics. A powerful popular leader has warned of the rising danger and has suggested that his country take some practical military and diplomatic ' precautions against the threat from overseas. Naturally, he has been accused of undue personal ambi tions and of deliberately exaggerat ing the danger in order to frighten public opinion into acceptance of his leadership. It Happened Long, Long Ago In fact, the farsighted proposals of this political leader give rise to a violent isolationist reaction. The argument of his opponents might be set down somewhat as follows: “As to the Athenians, whoever does not wish them to be so ill witted as to come here and fall into our hands, is either a coward or not loyal to the state; as to the men, however, who tell such stories and fill you with fear, I do not wonder at their audacity so much as at their sim plicity, if they fancy we do not see through them. “The Athenians are, I am quite sure, taking care of their own interests, and men from here are fabricating stories neither true nor possible, men whom not now for the first time but always I have known to be wishing by reports such as these to frighten the mass of you and themselves dominate the city. * * * “But if you will only follow me, I will try to see to it that never in our time shall any of these things come to pass. For this city, even if the Athenians come, will ward them off in a manner worthy of herself.” So, at any rate, according to Thucydides, did Athenagoras of Syra cuse reject the proposals of Hermocrates to prepare to defend their city by measures short of war some 2,400 years ago, Nor did the advice of Athenagoras to his fellow Sicilians prevent the Athenian fleet from landing an army and besieging the city of Syracuse. For Hermocrates was right, the Athenians were on the way and the attempt to maintain Sicilian isolation ended in this part of the war being fought out in Sicily itself instead of safely across the sea to the east. No Nation Learns From History . if11 haS. bppn said that history, like an idiot or an old bore, repeats itself mechanically. It has also been said that the lesson of history is that no nation learns the lesson of history. Over the past nine years, war after war of conquest has been suc cessfully waged, revolution after revolution has been successfully staged, Tiojan horse after Trojan horse has been stabled—while every nation hoped that this time would be the last. Yet it is the nature of such a war as that which is now in progress to spread and deeply to affect the life, the institutions and the counsels of every peoole in the world. The men who refused to discuss "the in aivisiDinty oi peace,” lor fear lest it should imply foresight and preven tive action on their part, are now facing the fact of a war which is indivisible. r h iHEtD A LITTLE. 9 QZastiiHb uP on _7ne±£ AvBjtcrs In the meantime, as the issues of Greenland and the Dutch East Indies suggest that we should culti vate our sense of geography, so, too, the events which attend a world war which is also a world revolu tion suggest that we should culti vate our sense of history. For these things have happened before. (Released by Consolidated News Features.) portant report of the Glenn Frank Program Committee, which should be given attentive study by the platform makers in Philadelphia— and that time will be necessary. The Republicans are presenting something new in the way of key note speakers at their national con vention—33-year-old Gov. Stassen of Minnesota. And for permanent chairman they are putting forward Representative Martin of Massa :husetts, Republican House leader. Either the Democrats have no imagination or they are superstitious and believe they should do what they did in 1932 and 1936. National Chairman Farley is suggesting that Senator Barkley of Kentucky take on a third term as Democratic Na tional Convention keynoter, and that Speaker Bankhead preside as permanent chairman. If Barkley becomes either temporary chairman and keynoter or permanent chair man, and Roosevelt should not run, the Kentuckian might emerge as a compromise candidate for the presi dential nomination—or so his friends say. Senator Byrnes of South Caro lina also is being boomed for the job of keynoter. This Changing World Vatican Is Proving Reliable Source of Information for U. S. By CONSTANTINE BROWN. Myron Taylor, the special ambas sador of President Roosevelt at the Vatican, is doing a remarkably fine Job. In these days of rumors and col . ored news it has Become increas ingly difficult for the State De partment to ob tain first-hand Information which could be d e s c r 1 bed as crystal clear. The Vatican has proved so far the best and most reliable source for the American Gov ernment and Constantine Brown. Ambassador Taylor is a perfect reporter. The Vatican’s intelligence service is the best in the world. It gathers news from the four corners of the world. The "intelligence officers’’ are members of the Catholic clergy who are in touch in every country in the world with people of all social strata. They do not seek informa tion in the same way as diplomatic, military and naval officers. In Touch With All Classes. Information comes to the fathers through their daily activities. Peo ple from the highest to the lowest in the land are in daily touch with the Catholic clergy. They hear all kinds of things whether they want to or not. In this manner the social and economic situation in every country in the world is better known to the Vatican than to any other government in the vcorld. Military and naval news is of no interest to the clergy. They don’t get any. But these days an actual picture of the economic, and espe cially moral, situation in every coun try is of greater consequence than the fact thpt one of the belligerents has some gigantic and heretofore unknown w-eapon for future use. There is always an antidote for any kind of poison. There is always a counterweapon to any new means of killing. The last war proved this sufficiently. But there is nothing that can be done to undermined morale which is ready to break down at the slightest push. The Catholic clergy is composed of men of great knowledge of human nature and psychology. Hence they are capable, in many instances bet ter than a diplomatic or military officer, of gauging a situation based more on psychological factors than on troop movements. Reassured on Italy. The Vatican is apparently willing to pass on to the American Govern ment most of its useful information. In this manner, for instance, last Friday, when the situation in the Mediterranean seemed most pre | carious and it was believed that Italy was reads' to enter either Greece or Dalmatia, the State De narfment had reassuring informa tion. It received reports in the morning to the effect that Musso hni was reedy to slow down and that an attack against either Yugo slavia or Greece must be discounted for the time being, at least. Ambassador Taylor, in turn, is not a career diplomat, but a business man. This is his first diplomatic post. He may ask questions with greater bluntness than a trained diplomat would dare, but apparently he receives the right answers. Of course, there is no rivalry between the official Embassy in Rome and the unofficial one at the Vatican. Ambassador William Phillips—a ca reer man—has his own most reliable sources of information, and he and Mr. Taylor co-operate in an en deavor to keep the State Depart ment as well informed as is possible under present conditions. Italy has become the pivotal point in the Eu ropean conflict. Hence all news from there is of enormous impor tance. Army Gets Ukeleles Hundreds of musical instruments are being sent from London to British troops in France and else where. Among the instruments do nated to the Musical Instrument Fund, headed by Madame Novello Davies, mother of Ivor Novello. the actor-playwright-composer, are uke leles, mouth-organs, accordions, ban jos, mandolins, phonographs and records. She has 16 pianos waiting transport and has been promised a bassoon. Home Law Book Here is a new and valuable addition to your collection of Haskln educational booklets, a compilation of legal facts, interesting to read and im portant to know. You will avoid trouble If you know the law. The 48 pages of text and tables deal with matters of everyday business and family life, namely contracts, prop erty, wills, interest, marriage, citizenship, divorce, notes, checks, patents, trade-marks, copyright and the like. Find out what the various legal terms mean. Order your copy of the HOME LAW BOOK to day. You will find it a good investment. 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