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With Sunday Murnlnl Ldltloa. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. FRIDAY....April 28,1940 The Evening Star Newspaper Company. Main Office: l'th St and Pennsylvania Ava , New York Office: 110 East 42nd Bt. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ava. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Regular Edition. Evening and Bunday 76c per mo. or 18c per week The Evening Star 45c Der mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star _ 10c Der copy Night Final Edition. Night Pinal and Sunday Star 85c per month Night Pinal Star _ 60c per month Boral Tube Delivery. The Evening end Sunday Star 86c per month The Evening Star .65c per month The Sundey Star_ _10c per copy Collection made et the end of each month or each week. Orders may be sent by mall or tele phone National 6000. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Dally ar.d Sunday 1 yr.. S12.00; 1 mo.. SI,00 Daily only .I yr„ *8.00: 1 mo.. TSe Sunday only-1 yr„ *5.00: 1 mo.. 60e Entered ae second-class matter oott office, Washington D C. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Preae is exclusively entitled to the use for republicatlon of all news diapatchee credited to It or not otherwise credited in this »,M.r,»t1?d *!“ Mi?, loc,*1 "eye Published herein. 1 rights of publication of special dispatches herein aleo are reserved. Campaign Charges The early stream of complaints, prompting the Senate Campaign Expenditures Committee to send investigators to look into presiden tial and senatorial primary fights in widely scattered States, is not an Unusual nor surprising phenomenon. It is just one of the signs that the campaign is on, and that it is going to be a hard-fought battle from the 6tart, both for the presidency and for congressional seats. Two years ago, even without a presidential race, a 6imllar investigating committee was kept on the jump all summer and fall, running down all sorts of charges and counter-charges of opposing factions in senatorial contests. Recent announcements, therefore, that the 1940 committee already has undertaken investigations in Mary land, Nebraska, West Virginia, Mis souri and Kansas probably are only forerunners of more to come. It will be reassuring to the average citizen, watching the battle from the sidelines, to know that the Senate has its investigating eye trained on the arena, to see that no “low blows” are struck by either side, nor by one faction against another within the same party. In any election year the Senate Campaign Committee has an oppor tunity to render valuable service to the Nation by doing all in its power to insure fair elections. At the same time, a heavy responsibility rests upon it to sift all complaints care fully, to make sure that they have real basis and are not prompted by the desire of one side to throw sand in the machinery of an opposing group. The present committee has shown that it recognizes this respon sibility by not revealing details of the matters brought to its attention until they have been investigated. If substantial evidence of improper campaign practices is found in any State the public should, and no doubt will, be fully informed. But to air ex parte allegations in advance would be unfair. If investigation failed to substantiate them, the harm could not be undone completely. Incidentally, while the Senate is looking into specific campaign abuses, the Housg has an opportunity to take a long step toward eliminat ing some of the possible sources of complaint by passing the Senate approved Hatch bill. This measure would not only prohibit the use of thousands of State employes as cam paign workers, but would limit the amount of money any one individual might contribute to a campaign fund. German Advances From day to day, as the war develops In Europe, the fortunes of each of the belligerents will rise and fall, so that too much importance should not be attached to the suc cesses—remarkable as they were—of the Germans in Norway the past few days. In the light of British achieve ments the past two weeks—the losses inflicted upon the German surface fleet and transports, the landing of troops at no less than four points on Norway’s west coast and the pene tration into Eastern Norway—the reverses suffered north of Trond heim, at Lillehammer, and in Eastern Norway do not appear so drastic. The German successes, although admitted, are only half victories, meaningless unless the movements of which they are a part are com pleted. Thus the Germans, driving up the railway from Oslo through Roros, will not have accomplished their mission unless they succeed in reaching Trondheim to reinforce the Nazi garrison there. After that the German task will be to maintain control of the railway line. But the German units which entered Roros yesterday have been forced to with draw. More tangible is the German suc cess north of Trondheim, where, Leland Stowe reported yesterday in another dramatic account, British territorials, lacking planes and artil lery, were smashed by German in fantry supported by planes, artillery and the guns of destroyers in Trond heim Fjord. The allies’ chief need in carrying out the envelopment of Trondheim and throwing the Germans back upon Oslo is large quantities of artillery—anti-aircraft and field— and establishment on Norwegian soil^ of fighter plane units which can take the sting out of the German bombing attacks. This need was brought into sharp relief by Mr. Stowe's story of the battle around Steinkjet. The V f. British force there, unprovided with any of this,heavier fighting equip ment, was at the mercy of the German planes. Explanation of the deficiency is awaited. But the conclusion that the London high command made a tragic blunder may be a little too hasty, in view of the necessity of getting an expeditionary force on Norwegian soil promptly. Adequate equipment may have had to be sacrificed for speed of action. The landing of the men was in itself a major feat, carried out in many cases under heavy bombing attacks by air. Norway a Belligerent President Roosevelt’s proclamation recognizing Norway as a belligerent in the European war is a logical move, the principal effect of which at present will be to place all trade with the embattled Scandinavian nation on a strictly cash-and-carry basis, as provided under our Neutral ity Act. It does not mean that Nor way will be unable to obtain the war supplies she may wish to order from the United States, for the “come and get it for cash” principle works to the advantage of belligerents' who control the seas and to the disad vantage of those who, like Norway’s adversary, Germany, are blockaded. Since Norway now is allied actively with Great Britain and France, she can look to her partners to bring her urgently needed implements of de fense. Norway already has substan tial credits in this country upon which, presumably, she may draw to buy planes and guns and other materiel. Upon direction of the President, this Government previ ously had taken steps to insure that these credits did not fall into the hands of the Nazis nor of the regime which Germany has attempted to set up in invaded Norway. Yesterday’s proclamation was sup plementary to the ban which the United States Government already had put on operations by American shipping in the Scandinavian combat zone. The President did not await actual determination of Norway’s status as a belligerent to throw the commerce and travel safeguards about the danger area in Northern Europe. One effect, apparently, of the declaration will be to suspend the $10,000,000 credit which the Export Import Bank had allowed Norway for non-military purposes. A similar credit to Denmark remains available, since that Nazi-overrun country has not been recognized by this Govern ment as a belligerent. The formal recognition of Norway as a belligerent, of course, carries with it no stigma. Rather, it is a status of which every Norwegian may well be proud, for it signifies an honorable determination by Norway to resist totalitarian aggression by every means at her command. Nor way has shown the world her con tempt for ruthless invader and shameless traitor alike. Scott Circle Renewed hope for elimination of one of Washington’s worst traffic barriers is given by Senator Over ton’s favbrable reaction to the com munity’s plea that fifteen thousand dollars to provide plans for the Scott Circle underpass be restored to the District appropriation bill. That some important details of the tentative plan are opposed by Secre tary Ickes and the Planning Com mission should not stop the appro priation. These matters can be solved before the final draft is made and properly should meet the esthetic standards of park officials. At present the city is going through what amounts to a period of transi tion. Within the past two or three years efforts have been made to correct by engineering methods various dangerous, confusing or delaying conditions, most notable of which have been at Thomas Circle and Union Station plaza. It is a period marked by a shift from plain stop and go traffic lights, which were introduced some fifteen years ago, to methods which facilitate the flow of pedestrians and vehicles to an ex tent undreamed until recently. But as yet the program is incomplete. Union Station plaza’s channelization simplifies and speeds traffic at that point, only to have it slowed again at the intersections of North Capitol street and Independence and New Jersey avenues. Thomas Circle’s tunnel undoubtedly has removed a confusing and dangerous condition at Fourteenth street, which is made the more annoying two blocks west ward. Facilitating projects which are voided because of contiguous barriers fail in their purpose. Hence the pressing necessity for the Scott Circle project. Preliminary plans for this work, revealed in detail for the first time this week, offer a congestion solution even more advanced than at Thomas Circle. Sixteenth street is to pass under the intersection, the circle is to be redesigned into an elongated oval, near the ends of which Rhode Island and Massachusetts avenues will enter as simple intersections. Resulting will be a grade separation more direct than at Thomas Circle. Traffic congestion is one of the most costly forms of urban waste. And if the ultimate minimum of danger on the streets Is to be achieved facility of traffic, as distinguished from mere speed, must be promoted. Takoma Park, Md. The typical American community probably is not a great city. Rather, it may be supposed that it is a little town, perhaps an independent suburb of a metropolis. Takoma Park, Maryland, might be cited as an example. Celebrating the fiftieth If anniversary of its incorporation, an assembly of neighbors on Wednesday evening reviewed five decades of as sociation. Half a dozen speakers agreed that slow but steady progress was the characteristic feature of their experience as fellow-citizens. They had little to regret, much to be happy and proud about. A certain improvement in the conditions of life was mentioned. Electric lights, for instance, have replaced oil lamps in the streets. Muddy roads have become paved highways, a modern water system is functioning, fine new schools and churches have succeeded temporary frame structures; most important of all, a great number of homes have been built and paid for through the years. But there is nothing startling in these developments. They so nearly conform to the patterns of similar advancement elsewhere as to be taken for granted. Ten thousand other empty landscapes in the United States have been peopled in like manner and to like effect since 1890. Presumably the routine will be con tinued during the next half century. More than that few can expect or desire. The Nation is content to prosper naturally. It does not ask for miracles. All that it wants is the freedom to exist constructively and peacefully. Let it be conceded that different views prevail in countries under more provocative flags, the population of Takoma Park, Maryland, would not exchange places with the inhabit ants of any suburb of Berlin or Moscow. Democracy, it seems, may belong to “the horse and buggy age,” but Mayor John R. Adams and his public have no intention of abandoning it for any less comfort able doctrine. ^——— Genius Misused Not long before his death in Paris recently Edouard Branly complained that wireless telegraphy, to the per fection of which he contributed the invention of the coherer, had been put to base and wicked uses. He referred specifically to propaganda broadcasting, but with equal logic he might have protested against the misuse of the facilities of the air by the sponsors of programs of degen erate music and drama. So sensitive a man certainly must have objected to swing bands and to the horror stories poured Into the ether for children each evening just prior to bedtime. It would have been his judgment that radio ought not to be perverted for any purpose. But inventors invariably are dis appointed, it seems. Alfred Nobel left a large part of his fortune to reward constructive endeavors to ward world peace. He had been hor rified by the application of his high explosives to war. Similarly, the naval architect Simon Lake deplores the employment of his submarines in undersea attacks upon merchant shipping. The Wright brothers never dreamed that their flying machines eventually would serve as models for engines of destruction which would launch death from the skies upon defenseless towns and cities. Neither did Sir Rowland Hill im agine that the time would come when the postage stamps he first suggested would be a matter of con venience for kidnapers threatening the parents of infants they had stolen and for blackmailers prom ising ruin to helpless victims of their malignant spite. Both the telegraph and the telephone likewise have been enlisted by criminals in their cam paigns against society, and the auto mobile, it is widely believed, has made the task of law enforcement Increasingly difficult. Samuel F. B. Morse, Alexander Graham Bell and Henry Ford, however, were not re sponsible for developments which represent the antithesis of their Ideals. Unique Profession The census'taker on his rounas is somewhat in the position of a fisher man trying blind waters with un known bait. He may get almost any thing, and occasionally the catch may be the only one of its kind. Already a hundred-and-twenty-six year-old citizen has been uncovered, and many other odd characters that delight any connoisseur of curiosities, although no one has yet been found who is entirely satisfied with the Government, and no one who is genuinely neutral in the war. One of the queerest specimens was taken in Waco, Texas, the other day by an enumerator who questioned a family about the employment of an absent member. At first he was greeted by an embarrassed silence, and later by the answer “unem ployed.” Sensing something amiss, he persisted, explaining that if-the man in question worked even inter mittently at a trade, it should be listed. The family, not wanting to withhold from the Government information to which it was entitled, went into a huddle, and reckoned that the absent member was a cow thief, if anything. As evidence they alleged that he was at present en gaged in reaping the reward of his profession, and was about halfway through his second sentence for cat tle rustling. The enumerator, im mensely pleased at his luck, there upon called it a day and hastened back to his office to brag to the rest of the boys about catching the entire admitted American membership of one of the oldest professions in history. “How old is the song, ‘Sweet Ade line’?” inquires a correspondent of an information column. In the •opinion of many Americans, much too old. !\ k Doubts That Italy Will Fight Allies Correspondent Holds That Italian Economic Plight Is Big Factor To the Editor of The Start I have been following with great In terest Mr. Constantine Brown's articles in the Star and I have read with particu lar care the one dealing with Italy's position in your Sunday issue. While Mr. Brown's explanation of the Italian position sounds plausible in theory, in actual practice the situation is en tirely different. <r In the first place, Greece will not prove so easy to conquer. Greece will fight to the last man for her inde pendence and freedom, aa she has done in the past. The Hellenes will certainly put up real good resistance on land and on sea. On land they have the moun tains to help them, and on sea they have their skill and seafaring ability to help them, not to mention the British and French Navies. The Hellenes are used to this sort of thing—fighting for their independence and freedom. They have been doing this for the past 3,000 years and they will do exactly that now, if necessary. In the second place, the allies will come immediately to the assistance of Greece simply because they cannot af ford to have any other nation take control of Greek territory, which is of paramount importance to the security of their Mediterranean possessions. In the third place, Italy is not ready to participate in a long war against the allies. The economic position of Italy is more vulnerable than that of Ger many so far as raw materials and oil are concerned. While she may have stored supplies to carry on a short war, the question of securing adequate sup plies for a long war remains unsolved, so long as England and France control the Suez Canal and Gibraltar. Should Italy entertain any hopes that she, together with Germany, could inflict a quick knockout of the allies, an attempt may be undertaken, but the war of the past seven months and especially the campaign in Scandinavia proves other wist*. I would like to point out that Italy is j not likely to do anything that will give ! Germany a quick and complete victory . over the allies. Her position, in this ! respect, is very similar to that of Russia, i Many observers here overlook the fact that if Germany wins this war, Italy will be reduced to a German province, whether Mussolini helps Germany or not—and Mussolini knows this. Italy has more to lose in the long run from a victorious Germany than from a vic torious England or France. The position and future of nations are not determined by the friendship of any two men. Economic needs determine national policies and Italian and Ger man interests clash in the Mediterranean and elsewhere in Europe. It is Mussolini j who always feared the Germanic races ! more than any other contemporary Ital- | ian statesman, deriving his lesson from i history. The Roman Empire of old was never left tranquil by the Germanic races, which were always harrying its frontiers. And so, today, Italy fears Germany more than any other European nation and this simply explains the fact that while Mussolini pronounces friend ship for Germany and wishes Hitler well in his war against the allies, he fortified the Brenner Pass as never before. Is it hard to understand the reason for this? April 22. B. C. RODES. Suggests Plan to Preserve Western Civilization. To the Editor o 1 The Star: May I submit a plan designed to bring about ‘'World Peace” which, though it might appear a bit facetious, is predi cated upon a policy of common sense and might afford a little mental stimula tion for some of your readers. A glance at the map of the Eastern Hemisphere will show that it has more •mail states than the average person realizes. Each has its own culture, its own language, its own traditions, etc. which are in conflict with those of other states. In my opinion, all those small states will have to be amalgamated sooner or later and become attached to the orbit of some major power. Who that power will be remains to be seen. Cream invariably rises to the top so I presume that the strongest power will eventually swallow them. Chaos and strife have ever been prevalent on the Eastern Hemisphere and no doubt will continue to be the case until a workable status for the future is established. My suggestion is to have the English, Irish, Scotch, Australians apd all others who speak the English language, lin guistically as well as politically, sell out to the highest bidder and settle In the United States and Canada. This would infuse good blood among us, give us brains and capital and they together with the people of the United States and South America, also Canada, could work out a feasible form of government and make this hemisphere a civilized conti nent. Of cpurse I would have the English bring their fleet with them to act in concert with ours and preserve the Monroe Doctrine intact. Complete co-operation between North and South America would be necessary and it is understood that South America would re tain the status quo or alter it them selves to conform to the best advantage with the aforementioned setup. Of course it might seem silly to a great many persons but the alternative of a futile ‘‘world war” every twenty years with its resultant repercussions seems a bit silly to me. April 24. CHARLES J. SULLIVAN. Atlantic Held to Be No Defense Against Hitler. To the Editor of The Star: Many Americans who bellowed for the Kaiser s blood in 1917 are now deliber ately closing their eyes to the world menace of Hitlerism. These isolationists are certain that the broad Atlantic will forever protect this country from in vasion. In 1914 the English people had similar ideas about the protective virtues of the English Channel. Today millions of Americans believe that the proper time to fight is when this country is attacked. More than any at tack by an enemy is to be feared; that is, possible world domination by Hitler and his cohorts. In 1917 many Americans boasted that they were “too proud to fight.” Can it be possible that these same Americans are now afraid to fight for the same ideals that led to our parti cipation in the first great war for democ racy? BENJAMIN DUCK. April 23. A THIS AND THAT By Charles E. Tracewell. “HYATTSVILLE, Md. “Dear Sir: “I have been Interested in bird life since I can remember incidents when I was a boy on a Nebraska farm. "For some years I have made notes on our birds. Among my list of ‘bathing beauties’ is the cardinal redbird. "I mean by that it took a real bath in our homemade bathtub—a garbage can lid mounted upside down on a pile of bricks. "During the heavy snow this winter two starlings were ‘wallowing’ in the snow as birds do In the dust. I think that was unique. * * * * "A few days ago I found a dead bird badly mangled lying in the street. On investigation I think it must be a woodcock—probably Philohela minor. On reading over my extensive lists of birds, made in Nebraska, it does not appear. But it is listed in ‘Birds of Kansas,’ N. S. Goss, 1886. "I am interested in ‘firsts’ for the season and have quite a list for Hyatts ville. "Today (April 10) was first for the brown thrasher and yellow hammer. 3:10 p.m.—A female cardinal just fin ished with her beauty bath. "Success to your column, “Very truly yours, C. J. P.” • * * * * The only form of woodcock listed in May Thacher Cookes "Birds of the Washington, D. C„ Region,” is the American woodcock, Rubicola lobatus. Of it she says: "Summer resident, now rare; fairly common locally in late summer, possibly sometimes wintering for there are records to the end of December, but none in January. "Coues and Prentiss mention a number of localities as good for woodcock, where none would be found at present. “In recent years it has been known to breed in Rock Creek Park, near Dyke and Four Mile Run. “It begins to breed about the middle of March; young about a week old have been found April 18 (1897). Eggs have been found late in February when there was snow on the ground. “Earliest, February 6, 1916 <E. A. Preble); average, March 8 to November 20.” * * * * This must be the same as Philohela minor universally listed as the Amer ican woodcock. What a list of common names it has, in various parts of the country! Here are some of them: ' American woodcock, woodhen, big headed snipe, big mud snipe, blind snipe, whistling snipe, wood snipe, night partridge, night peck, timber doodle, hookum pake, Labrador twister, bog sucker, pewee, whistler, big-eyes. Almost everything right and wrong is included in these popular or com mon names, given by the people. The bird is anything but blind; on the other hand, big-eyes is a good name. The name night peck comes from its nocturnal habits, and its pecking in mud. For this activity it is equipped with a fine long bill, good and solid, but that is not all; in addition, part of the upper .mandible can be raised, permit ting the woodcock to twist at a worm while it still keeps its bill firm in the mud, hence the names bogsucker and Labrador twister. It is now a vanishing species. In recent years it has been afforded long periods of protection, in an attempt to restore it to its former plenty. This bird, unfortunately for it, is about the "best eating” to be found, according to experts. Its eyes are extremely large, set well back and up on the head, so that it can almost look directly behind it, prob ably it can, and thus it detects its ene mies Ornithologists tell of seeing a wood cock strike a limb in flight. They were unable to tell whether this happened because the bird was excited, or be cause of the position of the eyes, it looking backward at the enemy while flying forward, and, not being able to look both ways at once, striking the branches. * * * * The nest of the woodcock is on the ground, among fallen leaves, and diffi cult to find. , The color pattern of the bird is so nearly that of leaves and dried grass that it is almost Impossible to see it except when it is "flushed.” R. I. Brasher, in "Birds of America,” states: "One of the best woodcock covers I have known was within the limits of the city of Brooklyn. Fortunately this knowledge was noli shared by others, so the birds were little hunted. “Into this retreat the birds would come silently some April night, and from it they would disappear some October day as mysteriously.” Retreat from man, of course. How to day many men of good will wish they could retreat, like the woodcocks, from men of evil will, but where is the re treat? Only in the sanctity of the spirit. jk 4c * $ Popular names of other birds of this group are interesting. Take Wilson's snipe, as it is most commonly called. In various places it goes by these names: Common snipe, English snipe, American snipe, meadow snipe, marsh snipe, bog snipe, gutter snipe. Jack snipe shadbird, alewife-bird, shad spirit. The dowitcher goes by these names: Robin snipe, sea pigeon, driver, red breasted snipe, brown snipe, brownback, gray snipe, grayback. These latter names denote seasonal changes in coloring. The red and brown phrases refer to summer and the gray to winter. The knot, smaller than the woodcock, but looking something like it, has this formidable list of common names: Red sandpiper, red-breasted sandpiper, red breasted plover, freckled sandpiper, ash colored sandpiper, Canute's sandpiper, gray-back, silver-back, robin snipe, white robin snipe, robin-breast, beach robin, red-breast, buff-breast, buff-breasted plover, horsefoot snipe, white-bellied snipe. May-bird, blue plover and silver plover. No wonder there are scientific names. Letters to the Editor Criticizes System Of Selecting Jurors. To the Editor of The Star: In the interests of Justice end fair play, I enter this protest as a citizen and taxpayer of the District of Columbia against the unfair system employed by the courts of the District in the selection of jurors. I personally know any number of citi zens of the District who have never even been summoned for jury duty, whereas on the other hand there are some of us, myself included, who can expect to be summoned every two years or more often even than that. During approximately the past 10 years I have been summoned 5 times for jury duty and was only excused once and then only because the panel was completed before my name was reached. My opinion of a good citizen is one who willingly performs his civic duties and has a healthy respect for the law, but I find it hard to keep alive a respect for law when it is so unjust in the man ner in which a comparatively small num ber of citizens are regularly called upon to perform the jury duties of all of the citizens of the District. Whenever I have had the opportunity, I have discussed this matter with mem bers of the juries with which I have served, and they all agree that they have had to serve any number of times and have become resigned to it. I cannot resign myself to the injustice of the whole thing and shall leave no stone un turned to have it rectified. The government of the District of Co lumbia seems to have no trouble in find ing out who is liable for payment of taxes and I feel that, if called upon to do so, they could build up a list of these who were eligible for jury duty, call them in turn and in this way insure that a citizen will not be persecuted as many of us are at present. M. J. FRAILE. April 22. Relates Experience With Panhandlers. To the Editor ot The Star: Tonight as I was strolling down Con necticut avenue I hSd an opportunity to observe as pretty a piece of artistry as I have ever seen. I had just passed up a chance to take a gentleman of leisure to dinner, and another to "say yes or no—" and thanks, Just the same, and was en tering the shadowy forest of Dupont Circle when I felt the presence of an other "opportunity.” Out of the mumbo jumbo emerged the words: “Of course, If you can’t, you can’t," which in spite of myself provoked the question, “What?” That led to the inevitable separation from a quarter (15 cents more than my customary conscience quieter, because I was caught without tip money). With the usual admonition of see his Con gressman and the rejoinder that he had just about given that avenue up—we parted. An hour later, having occasion to mail a letter and stop around at a friend’s, I spied my knight of leisure pickin' up the trail and spilling the routine mumbo-jumbo, “of course, if you can’t, you eant,” and sure enough Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address o) the writer, although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. Please be brief! it works. Of course, you have to keep a little in the shadows—just to hide that late Miami tan. But it's a good Cherry Blossom Festival line. Try it sometime. But too much of it isn't funny to those of us who live around here. Where are the police? BERNARD B. EDDY. April 20. Disagrees With Sentiments Of Representative Thorkelson. To the Editor of The Star: The letter from the member of Con gress from the first district of Montana which appeared in your very excellent newspaper on April 22 was very inter esting, but as I see it, cut no ice. He said to start with, that this is an ‘‘un necessary and foolish war,” but I main tain that to the Czechs, Slovakians, Austrians, Poles, Danes, Finns, Norwe gians and every other freedom-loving nation of our world, it is even more vital than was our war, fought when we were a small Nation, for the principle of no taxation without representation. This war is unquestionably for the principle of the maintenance of inter national law, as necessary to the well being and happiness of all peoples as are national and State laws and for the principle that large nations do not have the right to make slaves of other nations merely because they are too small to prevent it. The fact Is that Germany is inflicting far worse than slavery upon, subjugated peoples. Never in recorded history have there been such coldly calculated efforts to depopu late conquered territories as practiced by the Nazis. If our Civil War, fought for the principle of abolishment of the slavery of a comparatively few Negroes, was not “unnecessary and foolish,” cer tainly this war to prevent the subjec tion of whole nations and even the whole world to conditions far worse than slavery, is wise and necessary. Con querors of Hitler's fanatical type are not satisfied until they have Inflicted their will upon the entire world and we should not lose sight of this fact. If we today were as ready to fight for freedom as were our hardy pioneer forefathers, we would be in the front ranks of those who fight Its necessary battles, instead of being far back in the rear as is our custom. We would be ashamed of the circumstances that made it necessary for the employment of propaganda to induce us to open our eyes. There are two kinds of propa ganda, truthful and untruthful. We should not with wilful prejudice refuse to accept any of the truthful while ac cepting much of the untruthful with open arms. I am an A. E. F. veteran and, loving freedom as much now as I did then, I would be glad of an opportunity to finish what we started and help, as Pershing said, “secure world peace on terms that would insure permanence," which we failed to do the last time. April 33. ERNEST E. OSWALD. Haskin's Answers To Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Eve ning Star Information Bureau, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C. Please inclose stamp for reply. Q. Please give the complete quotation and author of the poem in “Ah. Wilder ness,” which includes the line "I am too young to live without desire.”—L. 8. A. The following lines are from “Pan thea," by Oscar Wilde: "Nay, let us walk from fire unto fire. Prom passionate pain to deadlier delight—I am too young to live without desire. Too young art thou to waste this summer night.” Q. Who was the first aerial photog rapher?—O. 8. M. A. On October 4, 1863, Nadar, a pho tographer ot Paris, flew over the city in a large balloon and photographed it from the air. He predicted at that time that a day would come when every house in Paris would quarter a dark room and a camera fan. Q. Was it Jay Gould’s daughter who gave a large sum of money to the Gov ernment during the Spanish-American War?—R. c. D. A. The late Helen Miller Gould (Mrs. Finley J. Shepard) gave $100,000 to the United States Government to help de fray the expenses of the Spanish-Ameri can War, and personally tended sick and wounded soldiers at Camp Wikoff. Q. Are both odd and even numbers used in designating United States high ways?—C. F. A. The highways running from East to West are identified by even numbera and those from North to South art identified by odd numbers. Q. How was Samuel Insull, the utili ties magnate, finally apprehended?— J. T. G. A. To avoid extradition, Insull fled from Paris to Athens, Greece. Twice the Greek courts denied the United States’ demands for his extradition, but later twice ordered him to leave the country. On March 10, 1934. five days before the final date of expulsion he fled secretly In a Greek tramp steamer he had chartered, intending to seek a haven at Abyssinia. The ship finally cast anchor at Istanbul, where the Turkish government seized Insull and surrendered him to the United States. He was tried three times at Chicago on charges of fraud and embezzlement and acquitted each time. Q. How long can any one hold a Gov ernment check before cashing it’_ S. L. T. A. A person may hold a Government check until the end of the fiscal year In which it was issued. Q. What is the name of Gov. O Daniel's newspaper?—E. F. I. A. The paper published by the Gov ernor of Texas in the interests of his candidacy for re-election is the W. Lee O'Daniel News, a weekly, at Fort Worth. Q. Who owns the largest automobile manufacturing establishment in Eng land?—R K. Z. A. Lord Nuffield (William Morrisi owns the greatest car-producing factory in Britain, a vast plant which can as semble 600 complete cars a day. It is a large industrial center, affording em ployment to thousands of men and women. Q. Please describe an ivory gull —S. H. W. A. The plumage of an adult ivory gull is of a striking snowy whiteness, witnout spot or mark of color. Its legs * and feet are black and its beak is chiefly dark with a bright orange tip. Ivory gulls frequent the most northerly parts of the world, nesting on Melville Island, Northern Greenland, and Spitz bergen. A beautiful specimen is now on exnibition at the Quebec Zoological Gaiden. It is said to be the only one of its kind in captivity in North America. Q. How many students attend public schools in the District of Columbia? —H. K. S. A. There are 93,094 pupils enrolled in the public school system of the District of Columbia. This includes students from kindergarten through teachers' colleges. Q. Was Gabriele d'Annunzio a Fascist?—T. D. A. D'Annunzio was an ardent Fascist and is said to have given Mussolini the idea of the Fascist corporate state. Q. Where is the Blue Water Inter national Bridge?—H. T. P. A. This bridge Joins Port Huron. Mich., and Sarnia, Ontario, and is 8.120 feet long. Q. Does the United States produce any garnet?—T. B. C. A. The United States output of 5,000 to 6.000 short tons of garnet an nually comes mainly from the Adiron dack regions of New York and New Hampshire. Q. From what musical comedy is the song “The Easter Parade’’?—T. McK. A. “The Easter Parade" was sung In the production “As Thousands Cheer." The words and music are by Irving Berlin. Q. How many calories are there In a piece of tenderloin steak?—J. S. A. A pound of broiled tenderloin steak contains 920 calories. Breath of Spring Last fall I planted breath of spring A neighbor brought across the way. I set the sprig out by my door, And watched it tenderly each day. I scarce could wait until the winds Of March breathed on this fragile thing. And fanned its fragrant buds In bloom To be the first sweet flower of spring. God sent the sun to shine on It, And rain to water spreading roots; And oh, today I was amazed To see it sending out brave shoots! Now breath of spring with its white bloom Gives out its perfume by my door, And I am glad I planted it Where beauty had not been before. , t A robin saw it too, and sang The sweetest music I have heard, And I rejoice anew because I helped bring joy to this small bird. WILLIAM ARNETTE WOFFORD.