Newspaper Page Text
i w lotting plat0
With Sunday Morning Edition. THEODORE W. NOYES, Editor. WASHINGTON, D. C. MONDAY.July 8, 1940 The Evening: Star Newspaper Company. Main Office 11th St and Pennsylvania Ava. New York Office: 110 East 42nd 6t. Chicago Office: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—City and Suburban. Regular Edition. Evening and Sunday 75c per mo. or 18c per week The Evening Star_45c per mo. or 10c per week The Sunday Star.... _ _10c per copy Night Pinal Edition. Night Pinal and Sunday Star_ R5c per month Night Pinal Star _ . __60c per month Rural Tube Delivery. The Evening and Bunday Star_85c per month The Evening Star_55c per month The Sunday Star_ .10c per copy Collection made at the end of each month or each week. Orders may be sent by mail or tele phone National 5000. Rate by Mail—Payable in Advance. Daily and Sunday .1 yr., $12 00: 1 mo.. $1.00 Dally only _1 yr.. $8.00: 1 mo.. 75c Sunday only_1 yr.. $5.00: 1 mo.. 60c Entered as second-class matter post office, Washington. D. C. Member of the Associated Press. Th? Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of eii news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of publication of special dispatches herein also are reserved. e-T- 1. .r1 —. ■■ ... - a Washington Grows Up Washington has grown up. What is more, the city is continuing to grow at a pace which should make traditional rivals in population look to their laurels. Already Washington has forged ahead of Buffalo and Milwaukee and may supplant San Francisco in eleventh place in the list of the Nation’s larger cities. There is nothing artificial nor transi tory about this tremendous growth of the National Capital. The ex pansion has been steady and healthy and permanent. The census figures for the past century and a quarter show that the general upward trend has been constant, with never a suggestion of a leveling off or of retrogression. It is interesting, in cidentally, to note that most of the major wars in the country's history have been accompanied or followed by a spurt in Washington’s popula tion. The period of greatest growth, howpver. was riurine the nast, decade —when the only war was an internal one—against unprecedented forces of economic depression. This was a period of extraordinary gov ernmental expansion, with vast cen tralization of authority at the seat of Government. In this era—from 1930 to 1940—the population rose from 486.869 to 663,153, a gain of 36.2 per cent. The rapid development of Wash ington should occasion no surprise. It is inevitable that as the Nation grows, so grows its Capital. And as Washington grows, so grow her sister suburban communities. Prince Georges and Montgomery Counties in nearby Maryland, Arlington and Fairfax Counties and the city of Alexandria across the Potomac River —all have shown a continuation of the trend to the suburbs, so marked in the 1930 census. The census figures reflect the natural extension of residential areas not only beyond the limits of the District of Columbia, but in the less congested sections of the District to the south and east of the Capitol. In it is the great eastern section of the District for which the National Capital Park and Planning Commis sion has laid out a broad plan for' public building and parkway devel opment. The new figures also serve to ac centuate some of Washington’s needs. A fast-growing city cannot afford to fall behind in the many services which its spreading popu lation demands. Educational, health, social welfare, law enforcement and other essential facilities of a great metropolis must keep pace with its citizenry. But Washington’s in equitable lump sum method of ap propriating for such services and the tendency toward haphazard legislating do not permit of intelli gent, long-range planning and de velopment of schools, welfare insti tutions, law enforcement and safety agencies and other civic establish ments and activities. One outstand ing example of this neglect is the Metropolitan Police Department, which has been given only eighty two additional patrolmen during the past ten years, although more than 176.000 persons took up residence here during that period. That is approximately one policeman for every 2,146 new residents, whereas good police practice calls for two policemen for every thousand resi dents. wasningtonians nave a right to be proud of their city’s growth. And now, more than ever, they have a right to demand of Congress the voice in their National Government to which their numerical strength, their metropolitan importance and their democratic prerogatives entitle them. Only through that voice in the National Legislature and in the national elections will Washington achieve the balanced civic progress which it must have to become the world's greatest capital city. Fishing—for What? The Coast Guard and the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Naviga tion deserve commendation for the quiet and efficient manner in which they have acted to rid our Pacific Coast of illegally operated Japanese fishing boats. For a long time there has been strong suspicion that at least some of the Japanese fisher men off California and the Panama Canal, were more interested in our coastal defenses than in fish. This was something hard to prove, but a wise government cannot afford to itake chances in such times as these. Without fanfare or any moves that possibly could be construed as 4 Involving "spy hysteria,” the Coast Guard intelligence service looked into the situation and discovered evi dence that many vessels in the Ashing Aeet off California were op erating under documents that fraud ulently listed them as American, whereas in reality they were owned by Japanese. The law requires that such vessels be owned by United States citizens. Co-operation of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation and the Justice De partment, acting on the information obtained by the Coast Guard and other sources, so far has resulted in the forfeiture of some 200 fraudu lently documented boats. Officials say practically all of the California Ashing ressels operating now are fully American owned. Espionage activities from this par ticular quarter thus have been greatly reduced, if not eliminated, by effec tive co-operation of different units of the Federal Government in routine law enforcement. Clouding the Issue As a statement of American foreign policy, President Roosevelt’s proposal that the nations of Europe and Asia operate under Monroe Doc trines of their own is inconclusive and inexact. It is a statement readily susceptible of several inter pretations, and for that reason it beclouds a vitally important ques tion which should be clariAed or left alone. Any one reading the President s pronouncement, as relayed to the press by his secretary, Stephen T. Early, might reasonably get the im pression that the United States is not interested in the disposition to be made of French Indo-China by the Asiatic powers, which, for all practical purposes, means Japan. But does that apply with equal force to China or to the Dutch East Indies? Presumably not, for this country re peatedly has protested against Japan’s attack on the Chinese, and we are on record officially as desiring maintenance of the status quo with respect to the East Indies. Nor is the confusion of thought implicit in this statement relieved by an at tempt to draw a distinction between the Monroe Doctrine as we interpret it and a so-called Monroe Doctrine that might be invoked by aggressor nations. The President’s statement was directed to a factual situation, and it has no meaning at all unless it was intended to apply to such ter ritorial readjustments in Europe and Asia as may be forcibly dictated by Germany, Italy, Russia and Japan. It is probable that Mr. Roosevelt was endeavoring to lay the ground work for the exclusion of Germany or any other totalitarian state from a territorial foothold in the Western Hemisphere, but even on this score his statement leaves much to be de sired. For example, he suggests that the United States will not take posses sion of Western Hemisphere terri tories of conquered powers and pro poses that their future status should be determined by joint action of the American republics. What if the American republicans are unable to reach agreement on this point? What will we do if a Nazi-controlled Dutch or French government attempts to use territories in this hemisphere to our disadvantage while the American republics are trying to arrive at a satisfactory settlement among them selves? In the past, Mr. Roosevelt has evi denced a clear understanding of the realities of the world in which we are living, and, in the light of this understanding, he has pursued a steadfast and courageous course de signed solely to insure the maximum of protection for America’s vital in terests. It is unfortunate that he should have departed from this course at a time when adherence to a realistic foreign policy is certain to be made more difficult by the im minence of a national election. New Industries Program If successful in its program, the Inter-American Development Com mission will contribute much toward a closer economic integration of the Americas. An outgrowth of "the Conference of Twenty-one American Republics which met at Panama last September to consider the problems arising out of the war, the com mission, headed by Undersecretary of Commerce Noble, is trying to de velop new industries in Latin America, and increase non-competi tive imports from Latin American countries. At a meeting in New York City last week, the first since its organi zation on June 2, the commission launched its program by approving two projects. One is the sponsoring of an experimental plant in Brazil for processing the mandioca root, from which tapioca is manufactured. The United States now buys its tapi I oca from the Dutch East Indies, about $9,000,000-worth a year. Brazil has an abundance of high-grade mandioca, but because of the inabil ity of Brazilian producers to process mandioca in a manner suitable for the American market, little Brazil ian tapioca is sold in this coun try. The experimental plant will be staffed by Brazilians, and technicians from the United States will give ad vice on processing the mandioca root. Under the second project approved by the commission, a group of de partment store experts will explore the possibilities of developing sources of supply in Latin America for the $50,000,000 of handicraft goods and other specialties formerly imported from Central Europe. These imports have been cut off by the war. Specialists familiar with the Amer k lean market will tell Latin American producers what plant expansions and other changes will be necessary to build up an export trade with the United States. In encouraging the establishment of new industries, the commission will, move cautiously. Its projects will be confined to the construction of plants manufacturing products that do not compete with those al ready made in the United States. It will also insist that the enterprises it sponsors be financed by both Latin American and United States capital. Though there has been a trend toward industrialization in some parts of Latin America in recent years, the production of raw ma terials remains the cornerstone of Latin America’s economy. In ex change for their raw materials, South and Central American countries have bought large quantities of Europe's manufactured products. The complementary nature of this trade has made it easier for Euro pean countries to secure barter agreements in Latin America. Because of the war, Europe’s pur chases of Latin American products have been sharply curtailed. The loss of European markets has created a serious economic problem in several Latin American countries. By en couraging the development of new industries, and increasing non-com petitive imports, the Inter-American Development Commission will strengthen the defenses of Latin America against economic penetra tion by the totalitarian powers. Mexico's Election The slaying of more than one hun dred persons and wounding of thou sands more, as reported in news dispatches from Mexicp City, is a dark side of Mexico’s presidential campaign and a sad commentary on the state of democracy in our sister republic to the South. It is regrettable that Mexico's first truly free election in nearly two decades should have resulted in far more casualties than the machine dominated and controlled elections while Calles was in power. Far-reaching repercussions of yes terday's election are to be expected. The widespread use of firearms, grenades and tear gas coupled with theft of ballot boxes in some places and closing of polling places in others may provide either side with the basis for a claim of denial of rights after the results of the voting are known. President Cardenas in renouncing any desire to run for re-election had promised a free expression of the popular will, and his candidate, Gen eral Manuel Avila Camachio, had reaffirmed that pledge. The oppo sition candidate, General Juan An dreu Almazan, recently has charged unfair tactics on the part of the ad ministration, and threatened to dis regard the results of any voting which was unfairly influenced by the administration forces. What the outcome will be must await the counting of ballots, which is set for Thursday. The returns may be issued then or held up, at the discretion of the government, until Congress reconvenes September 1. Complicating the whole situation is the presence in Mexico of a large number of Nazi-Fascist agents, as well as Communists, all united in a conspiracy to foment disorder south of the Rio Grande. Nature s Fifth Column As a sinister sign of the age, a story is reported from Hopkinsville, Kentucky, which shows that even Dame Nature may be going totali tarian and promoting her own fifth column. The wall of a restaurant there began to bulge alarmingly, threatening to overturn the struc ture. It was very puzzling. There was no apparent cause. Plasterers called in as specialists diagnosed the trouble, performed a surgical opera tion on the wall and opened it up. Inside they found a tree seven inches in diameter, with its roots five feet above the ground level. For years the restaurant had stood up against the open and more or less expected assaults of complain ing customers, dead beats, short change artists and tax collectors— only to come near destruction by an insidious extra column of Nature. Deprived of publicity and sunlight and seemingly also cut off from any possibility of nourishment from a soil in which it was not rooted, never theless the tree grew by its own de vious methods and was only checked barely in time by strenuous meas ures. Two months ago Hopkinsville and the rest of the world would have said that it could not happen; but it did. A word to the wise is sufficient. .- i i... .i If Major Brown were any other sort than the man he is, he would be downright discouraged, and who could blame him? He asked Con gress for one hundred additional po licemen; received fifteen, and now has had forty taken away from him. Russia is occupied with ominous appearing work, probably of a mili tary nature, on an island in Bering Strait not more than four miles from the nearest United States territory. Never mind; sleep sound; we have 300 brave soldiers in Alaska. The palace of the League of Na tions becomes like the enchanted castle of the Sleeping Beauty. Only the kiss of Allied victory seems likely to awaken those once busy premises. Papa JofTre won the Battle of the Marne in 1914 by using 1906 vintage taxicabs. The 1918 model tanks, however, were not so hot against the oncoming German land leviathans. A 1 Foresees Economic Peace Foundation Political Settlements Held Incapable of Preventing Forcible Readjustments By BLAIR BOLLES. It is a little more than two weeks since the grave French plenipotentiaries signed the German truce in the dining car at Compiegne. At the time men generally wondered when Adolf Hitler, the conqueror of Western Europe, would take the next and final step to ward closing the hostilities by giving the beaten nations the opportunity to «ign a treaty of peace. A German with some standing and with great wish for anonymity has revealed that Hitler will arrange no such peace until tfie Eng lish phase of the war comes to an end. Then, he said, Hitler will give to Eu rope “a permanent peace, a peace that will last for at least 25 years.” A Ger man, of course, will admit no doubt of German victory. Here is a realist's idea of the mean ing of the word “permanent” when it is applied to European peace. Europe is a heaving continent peopled by restless nations. There are few periods in Eu rope’s history when so long a time as 25 years has passed without conflict of some sort. From the truce of Com piegne to the truce of Compiegne was less than 22 years. From the peace of Versailles to the opening of the Ger man-Polish War was scarcely over 20 years. And in those 20 years the map of Europe was undergoing changes. There was no time since nations existed in* Europe that 25 years have gone by with out some European boundary change. Lasting peace in Europe is an ideal which has fascinated many great men. Charlemagne. Frederick Barbarossa, Charles V, Louis XIV and Napoleon are a few. Most of these, like Hitler, made war their preface to permanent peace. Their method was the imposition of peace upon all of Europe by one domi nant throne or nation—in the case of the first two, the Holy Roman Empire; of the third, who held about as much of Europe as anybody before Napoleon, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain; of the fourth and fifth, France. If Hitler waits until his triumph Is complete, Hitler may never have the pleasure of telling France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway and Poland, not to mention Czechia Slovakia, and, indeed, Italy, how he has determined to insure Eu rope’s permanent 25-year peace. Eng land may thwart him. Russia may de flect him. But in advance of any Hitler peace conference, it is pretty generally believed that the Nazis’ leader intends to arrange a peace for Europe based al most completely on economic considera tions. This is something new. In the past, political arrangements have guided the peacemakers. Whether economy is a less fickle lover of peace than politics we do not know. Politics, anyway, has not proved a great insurer of peace. We have to dip just a short way into the past to discover that—say, to 1800—when Na poleon was well started on his way to greatness. umiite jtiiuer, wapoieon arranged treaties of peace as he went along. And his treaties were calling always for re arrangement by new treaties, built of new wars. The catalogue of Napoleonic treaties is long. There are Luneville, 1801; Amiens, 1802; Act of Mediation, 1803; Schonbrunn, December 15, 1805; Pressburg, December 26, 1805; Tilsit, July, 1807: Fontainebleau, October. 1807; Paris, 1814; Congress of Vienna, 1815. The last two represented Napoleonic defeats. The treaty of Paris crowned the losses suffered on the march to Mos cow. The Congress of Vienna was the formal celebration by Napoleon's ene mies and the end, the continental victors over France hoped, of all the libertarian ideas born of the French Revolution and spread wide by NaDoleon's victories. The Congress of Vienna often receives credit as the discoverer of the greatest and most lasting peace insurance ever provided for Europe. The method de vised at Vienna and managed for years afterward by the Austrian Chancellor, Count Mettemich, was the same sort of method these days expect from Hitler repression, repression of the popular in stinct for liberty. There was, in truth, no European war of continental magni tude between 1815 and 1914. But there were revolutions in all the countries that spread liberty far by the 19th cen tury's end, despite Metternich’s efforts, and the wars and boundary changes were frequent. A few years after the Congress of Vienna, the Greek subjects of the Turk were at war for their independence. Belgium was carved from the Nether lands. France fought beside England against Russia. France fought Austria in Italy. The many states of Italy were combined into a nation. Prussia fought Austria, Denmark and France in three wars. Russia fought Turkey, 'and the Congress of Berlin, convoked to evolve a new system of peace, handed to the Russian victory the province of Bessa rabia, which Russia retook for herself a few days ago. The birth of the Balkan countries brought wars and insured boundary changes up to the eve of the first World War. Out of that war came a new method for keeping the peace, by the League of Nations, an institution where countries could air their complaints and, in theory, get a hearing that would set at rest the forces making for war. It was the antithesis of the Metternich repression policy. The League was born of the Covenant which is set forth at the opening of the Versailles treaty, dated June 28, 1919. Out of the Versailles and the corrol lary treaties of Neuffly, Trianon and St. Germain came many new boundaries. But war and subsequent boundary changing did not halt. Poland fought Russia. The League ordered some small territorial rearrangements. In 1936 Hit ler flouted the League and Versailles by remilitarizing the Rhineland, 17 years after the arrival of the last “permanent peace.” That was the first step toward a new peace conference. Conference there is sure to be, whetller it is con trolled by Hitler or controlled by Eng land. t' THIS AND THAT H —. . , . . .. « i.,— By Charles E. Tracewell. "ILLINOIS AVENUE. "Dear Sir: "I am looking for a couple of mocking birds and wonder If your correspondent who is serenaded all night by them down by the Soldiers' Home can help me out. "Last summer a pair of mockingbirds chose my back porch rambler for their home and built a nest on a level with the eyes, close on the other side of the screen. "Why they didn’t come right in the kitchen I don’t know. They could have had hamburger, noodles, etc. Needless to say, we became good friends and I now consider myself one of the world’s greatest authorities on mockingbirds. “Those big eyes looking at me every time I werft on the porch greatly am plified our home life. I assisted the •little people’ with their family life in every way possible, particularly one day when the last of their three kids ven tured to make his debut on the world, only to hang by a thorn. "It created plenty of excitement in all surrounding birddom. Even the wren left its nearby nest and came over to offer help. I was about to call the fire department, when instead a broom poked blindly into the rambler did the trick and released the yelling mite, much to the joy of us all. "For days afterward I used to detect the whereabouts of these feathered off spring by their high, electric ‘cheep,’ and go and talk to them. "And now I want them to come home! Instead, they're cavorting around some where else, maybe down by the Sol diers’ Home. Sincerely, C. L.” * * » » A mockingbird has a way with him, indeed; when it comes to personality, one of this species is really “there.” Mockingbirds are much better in the average garden in spring and summer than in winter. Too often in the cold months they tend to become ruffianly in their ways, driving away other birds which winter here. In spring and summer, however, they are good sports, leaving other birds alone, unless the latter come to near to the nest. This will not mean that they will not chase dogs, cats and even human beings. This they do with vim, adding another point of interest. Few observers will resent this trait, under the circum stances * * * * • There are few sights in this sport more intriguing than that of a mocker, in full flight, after a cat or dog. They fly low across the garden, the white showing in the wings, headed straight for the enemy. 1 The latter, whether on four legs or two, waits for no encounter, but always takes off as fast as he can. No one wants to dispute matters with an aroused mockingbird. Like most birds, however, the mocker's assault would not be very terrific if the other would stand its ground. Bird battles, in general, seldom amount to much. There is a great deal of wing fluttering and hopping Into the air, but seldom any casualties. This is not always true, of course. Occasionally a bird battle (almost al ways between birds of the same species) turns into a bloody conflict. In the main these battles are mostly show-oS bouts. * * * * It is a wonder that a great many birds, old as well as young, do not get caught on thorns and nails, or entan gled in vines. No doubt many such accidents occur where no help can come. In such emergencies, birds are mostly helpless. They have no way of bring ing direct aid. About all they can do is to flutter and scream close to the trapped creature. This excitement tends to excite the caught bird still farther; its struggles increase, with the result that it mostly manages to fly free. In this way it receives help from its fellows. We have never seen a case of a bird caught in domestic plants, either in thorns or in tangles of vines. So we do not believe there is the slightest danger to bird life in average plantings of any type. It must be remembered that birds have been dealing with such situations for centuries. They are very small, on the average, much smaller than we tend to think, and can get through very small spaces. They also are extremely wary. They must be to survive. They seldom put themselves into positions from which they cannot extricate themselves. w m m m It is always a good plan, in case a fledgling gets caught some way, to let the bird alone, and see how it manages to get loose. If it does not do so, then there will be time to bring it aid. The greatest danger to young birds Just out of the nest lies in four-legged and two-legged animals. In the latter classification must be included other birds. Fledglings of all species are in real danger from adult birds of other species. Grackles, in particular, seem to spe cialize in catching young cardinals on their first day out of the nest. For the first 24 hours the young birds often re main close to the nest, but definitely outside it, often perched on a cane of a rose, or branch of a shrub. While there, they are easy prey of the great strong-necked grackles, whose fiendish yellow eyes show them to be birds without mercy. Some bird lovers regard grackles as far worse than hawks, especially when it comes to the destruc tion of fledglings. Persons who become interested in cer tain bird individuals must not expect to see much of them after they have left the nest. Probably the best way to keep them around is to feed them with sun flower seed. All seed-eating birds like these, and the parents will take the | youngsters to them. Birds brought up on sunflower seed in a garden often tend to remain after they grow up. They find it “easy pickings.’’ Letters to the Editor Dislikes New Street Lamps. To the Editor of The 8t»r: I wish to register my protest against the new street lights that are being installed in Washington. They are too high. They shine brightly into our sec ond and third story bedrooms where the light is not needed and are very an noying when we want to sleep. This also means that the trees must be trimmed, reducing the shade on the sidewalks, where it is needed. With the lights one third as high there would be nine times the illumination on the streets where it is required. Then there is the expense of making this abominable and unnecessary change in our street lights. It must cost almost a hundred dollars to change one light and the taxpayers must foot the bill. We seem to forget that one of the great est, perhaps the greatest, of our needs is a balanced budget and reduced taxes so that the man at the top can continue in business and the man at the bottom can live in comfort. July 4. CHAS. M. PIDGEON. Scores Banality of Anti-War Slogans. To the Editor of The Star: The isolationism of last year is a corpse. Selling munitions has not got us into war; Hitler has proved conclu sively that one side is much worse than the other; our tremendous and costly plans for defense show that the events in Europe were far from being "none of our business.” Something is left, however; namely, a slogan into which the isolationist case has largely degenerated. "No foreign wars,” "no foreign wars,” “no foreign wars.” made banal by over-repetition. No "foreign” wars? That implies that some wars might be justifiable. And what are those, domestic or civil wars? Stripped of its smoke-screen of emo tion, the nakedness of this slogan should be clear to a child, for a child can see that there Is one place where we should fight, and that is where we can fight most successfully, and with the most help. Apparently the isolationists would Just hate winning a victory overseas, but prefer to spend centuries—a thousand years, according to Hitler—in exacting defense against a ruthless enemy who may take advantage of any temporary lapse of vigilance to pounce on us and destroy our liberties forever. Nevertheless, there is one sure way to win tumultuous applause, and that is to declare that no American boys shall shed their blood on foreign soil. All our leaders have chosen to pay, or have felt compelled to pay, homage to this dogma. Its origin can easily be found by talking to the people you meet. They at once bring up our experience with the other war. Regarding that war, they now usually believe four things: (1) Our going in was a failure. (2) We knew it would be, but were “dragged” or "forced” or "hurled” in. (3) This was done for the sake of the British, with their “propaganda,” hnd not for our owyi sake at all. (4) We went in to "make the world safe for democracy,” and (lid not do It. Theta four pillars of isolationist dogma V Letters to the Editor must bear the name and address of the writer although the use of a pseudonym for publication is permissible. The Star reserves the right to edit all letters with a view to condensation. are simply myths. “Safe for democracy” did not get us in. It was a mere slogan, and was not coined until the issue had been settled. We did go in, however, to make the world safe against German designs for “world power,” and that was our most fundamental reason. And we succeeded! The “failure” came years later, and, as the rest of us well know, was furthered by the action of our Isolationists in crippling the League of Nations. As for “British propaganda,” Wilson had said that the Allies were “fighting our fight,” and the rape of Belgium was far more important than all propaganda, including the alleged propaganda of the financial interests. If you do not believe that, ask the next 10 people you meet who can remember the other war. There is thus no justification for the blind emotion which abhors fighting across the sea, even if that were strategi cally best. In fact, however, as we really know, there is no reason whatever to fear such fighting now, for the simplest > and most conclusive of reasons—we Just cannot do it. xci, uk uie«u oi sucn impossible and Imaginary fighting in Europe has a result which is very real indeed; it inspires the attempt to paralyze all efforts to do anything against Hitler. Every attempt to do anything against the common .enemy has been fought on the ground that in some way—incomprehensible to the common man—it might cause our "involvement” in war, and that those who wish to give a green light to Hitler are the only friends of "peace.” We thus see that the isolationists, from 1920 to the present hour, have played Hitler's game. And some of them now threaten to split the Democratic party if it will not accept their policy of assisting the worst enemy this country —and democracy—has ever l*iown. July 2. WALTER P, WHITE. Warns Citizens to Think For Themselves About War. To th* Editor of The 8t*r: “To oe or not to be, that is the ques tion.” TO send our sons to fight, be gassed, wounded or die on foreign soil, or to remain at home prepared and ever ready to defend this Nation against any attack. This is the question to be decided by the citizens of these United States. Let the American people remain cool and not allow themselves to be puppets in the hands of crafty and designing minds. In the last analysis the people do rule, despite all the insidious wiles of professional politicians. This Nation is a "Government of the people, by the people and for the people,” but it is up to the people to think for themselves and assert themselves. REV. ALFRED H. TERRY. July 2. 0 "a Haskin's Answers To Readers' Questions By Frederic J. Haskin. Q. Has any one ever been elected Gov ernor of more than one State?—H. N. R. A. Sam Houston was elected Governor of Tennessee in 1827. He became the Governor of Texas in 1859, after serving as the first President of the Republic of Texas, and as the first Senator of the new State for 13 years. Q. How were enemy officers paid as prisoners of war during the first World War?—E. W. A. In general, an officer who was taken prisoner received the same rate of pay that a man of corresponding rank received In the army of the country by whom he was captured, provided that it was not higher than the rate he received -in his own country. Q. When will the Cheyenne Rodeo be held this year?—D. H. B. A. The rodeo at Cheyenne, Wyo., will be held July 23-27, 1940. Q. What was the first important dis covery made with the telescope?—C. P. G. A. The first heavenly bodies to be dis covered with a telescope were the moons or satellites of Jupiter. Galileo saw them in January, 1610. His telescope was a very small instrument that he could hold in his hand, a far cry from the 200-inch reflector whose moving parts weigh about 500 tons. Q. How many eggs can a queen bee lay in a day?—H. S. C.^ A. On occasion a vigorous young queen can lay 2,500 eggs a day, more than twice her own weight. Q. When were the partitions of Po land?—F. P. A. A. There have been four. The first was in 1772, by Russia. Prussia and Aus tria: the second, in 1793, by Russia and Prussia: the third, in 1795, again by Rus sia, Prussia and Aus'tria. Poland then ceased to exist as a nation until 1919. The fourth partition, by Russia and Ger many, with a small strip given to Lith uania, occurred in September, 1939. Q. What is heparin?—H. P. S. A. A substance occurring naturally In the body which inhibits the clotting of blood. It was so named because it can be obtained from the liver. It is now being used to prevent or check clotting in well-selected cases. Q. How old is capitalism?—G. W. E. A. A system resembling capitalism in some respects existed in the Roman Em pire 2,000 years ago. However, the be ginnings of modern capitalism are traced back to the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. Q. What percentage of English words are Latin?—W. J. M. A. It has been estimated that 20 per cent of words used in English conversa tion are derived from Latin. Q. Is the personal attack on candi dates a modem innovation in American politics?—H. P. p. A. Such tactics are a part of our po litical history. George Washington was accused of wanting tq be a king, and in the first party battle in 1796 Thomas Jefferson was assailed in the vilest fashion. He was denounced as an athe ist because of his authorship of the Virginia bill of religious liberty, accused of cowardice during the Revolution and portrayed as a person of lowest per sonal morals. His flair for ingenious in ventions was mocked, and it was said that as President he would do nothing better than invent a whirligig chair. Q. What is autarchy?—J. A. E. A. Self-government, absolute sov ereignty. Q. Are there many albino buffalo?— I. I. S. A. Albinism in the bison is very rare. Only three living specimens are known, of which one is in the National Zoologi cal Park in Washington, D. C. Q. How many biographies appear in the current “Who’s Who”?—A. N. M. A. Thirty-one thousand seven hun dred and fifty-two. This is a net gain of 207 over the preceding volume. Q. When was compulsory military training established by European pow ers?—w. P. K. A. England. 1939: Italy, 1875: France, 1783. Germany adopted it in 1813, dropped it in 1918 and resumed it in 1935. Haskin Service To Star Readers A reader can obtain the answer to any question of fact by writing to The Evening Star Information Service, Fred eric J. Haskin, director, Washington, D. C., sending stamps for reply. Inclose 10 cents in coin, wrapped in this clipping, for a copy of: Science for the Layman A 48-page booklet answering in lay man’s language questions about such subjects as the stars, the weather, ani mals and plants. Name ....... Address _____ The Eternal Flame The conqueror lays low the walls of stone; His ruthless legions trample in the dust Blossom and altar cloth and marble bust; They heed not cries of fear nor dying moan. The lust for blood is in their hearts alone; The gods of war in whom they put their trust Bid them march on, nor let their sabers rust Till tyranny is seated on the throne. But, though nten bow to numbers or to power, The inborn love of freedom will survive And in the struggle will at last prevail. Though tyrants have their evanescent hour, Man's stubborn spirit will not cease to strive; The flame on freedom's altar will not fall. ANNA M. PRIESTLEY. A A c ?