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Occasional rain, ending late today; not much change in temperature. Temperatures today— Highest, 47, at 4 p.m.; lowest, 33, at 4:10 am. Prom the Unites Sturt weamer Bureau Resort, Pull Detalli on Pace A-3. Closing N. Y. Markets—Solos. Page 20. NIGHT FINAL 90th YEAR. No. 35,709. WASHINGTON, D. €., THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1942-FIFTY-TWO PAGES. THREE CENTS. , UNARMED : . LINER FIGHTS OFF SUBS . ■ " ■ -■ ' ' -■ ____ ___t A - Senate Passes Huge Navy Bill, Loan lo China Only 5 Minutes Needed For $26,495,265,474 Supply Measure (Earlier Story on Page A-4.) Br the Asfocuted Pres*. The Senate completed legisla tive action in five minutes today on a $26,495,265,474 naval supply bill, boosting Congress’ total military appropriations to ap proximately $39,000,000,000 in the first month of this session. This action followed swiftly on a 74-to-0 vote by which it passed and sent to the White House a measure making $500,000,000 in financial aid available to China, the fund to be administered by the Secretary of the Treasury under direction of the President. The huge naval bill, largest meas ure of Its kind ever to win final ap proval of a legislative body, now goes to President Roosevelt for his expected early signature. Congress previously had voted and the Presi dent approved $12,550,000,000 Army airplane appropriation. 25,063 New Airplanes. As finally approved, the Navy measure carried approximately $8, 000.000,000 in cash and contract au thority to produce 25,063 additional airplanes and equipment for the Navy in the next six months. Ship construction would entail ex penditures of $8,206,000,000. fleet op erations would cost $6,923,000,000 and $1,339,000,000 would go into ord nance and personnel payments. Only 20 minutes of debate pre ceded Senate passage of the China aid measure. Bill Speedily Approved. Passed yesterday by the House, the bill was approved speedily by the Senate Foreign Relations Com mittee after about two hours of tes timony during which Secretary of War Stimsan. Secretary of Navy Knox. Secretary of Treasury Mor genthau and Secretary of Commerce Jones supported its provisions. Committee members said the money to be made available could be used for a direct loan, the estab lishment of credit for China in this country and for the support of the Chinese currency. This aid would be in addition to lease-lend help, they explained. Chicago's Mayor Declares He Won't Run for Senate By th* Associtted Press. CHICAGO. Feb. 5 —Mayor Edward J. Kelly said today he did not Intend to become a candidate for United States Senator this year. "I am not a candidate for Senator and I am not going to run for Sen ator," he declared at a* luncheon meeting of the State Street Council, an organization of the city's lead ing merchants. His statement appeared to set at ! rest the liveliest rumor of the bud ding political campaign—that Presi dent Roosevelt had urged him to become a candidate. The seat is now held by C. Way land Brooks, a Republican, who has announced his candidacy for re-election. On the Democratic side, Alderman Paul Douglas of Chicago has entered the campaign and State's Attorney Thomas J. Courtney of Cook County said he would run if he received organization indorsement. Captain of Repulse Is Made Rear Admiral By the Associated Preas. LONDON, Feb. 5.—The British Admiralty announced tonight the promotion to rear admiral of Capt. W. G. Tennant, commander of the battle cruiser Repulse, which was sunk by the Japanese off the Malayan coast December 10. Admiral Tennant, who has just returned to England, was received by King George VI. He was one of five captains to be promoted. Anti-French Drive Laid To British in Near East By the Associated Preas. VICHY, Feb. 5—Political circles charged the British tonight with trying to drive French influence permanently out of the Near East as the Iranian Minister here, Mohsen Rais, notified the French Foreign Office that he had been recalled. This followed similar breaks with Vichy by Iraq and Egypt. All were attributed by political quarters to British pressure. 11 Dies to Bare Spying of Jap Army in U. S. By the Associated Press. - Pre-war activities of 8,000 mem bers of five Japanese military organ izations in the United States will highlight a “yellow paper” soon to be published by the House Commit tee on Un-American Activities, com mittee attaches said today, . Chairman Dies told the House some time ago the committee was working on the Jap report and said at that time the Pearl Harbor at tack might have been averted if the committee had been allowed to dis close the operations of the Jap anese espionage system last Septem ber. Hearings to develop the case against the Japs, committee mem bers said, were deferred by admin istration request because peace negotiations were then in progress between the United States and Ja pan. The “Yellow Paper.” committee members said, also will disclose ef forts of Japs to obtain detailed in formation about the Los Angeles water supply system. Small Firms Facing Bankruptcy, Senate Committee Warns * Procurement Agencies Blamed for Neglect; 0. P. M. Called Ruthless (Earlier Story on Page C-12.) By the Associated Press. A Senate committee, blaming war procurement agencies for neglect, reported today that “small business enterprise in the United States is facing bank ruptcy and chaos along a wide front.” The report, bv a committee in vestigating problems of small busi ness. was accompanied by a request for legislation to create a division of small business production within the War Production Board to give small business "a definite and effective voice in administration of the war effort." “Deliberate” Neglect. “Those engaged in the business of procurement," the committee said, “particularly in the Office of Pro duction Management (now the War Production Board*, the Army, the Navy and the Treasury, have pre ferred to deal with large business rather than small business and have made no special effort to distribute beyond the largest business units the contracts they have to dis pose of. "In some cases, the fact that the procurement officers have always been associated with large business has even made the neglect seem de liberate, but in general all of the contract departments have failed to recognize the vital role of small business * • • in the winning of this war.” “The zero hour has come for small business. The experiences of the past have been thoroughly dis heartening. For two years the progress of the military effort has steadily drained away the reserve strength of many small manufac turing concerns until today they are down to their last resources in raw materials. O. P. M. Called Ruthless. "For many a small business, this is the last stand. Everything, there fore, depends on prompt action by the chairman of the recently-created War Production Board. If the new War Production Board plan fails, the wholesale bankruptcy of small business is certain.” The committee, asserting that the O. P. M. had been “utterly ruthless toward little business" and that “there is no sign that the War Pro duction Board will take a materially different attitude,” said that 56 qf the Nation’s 184.230 manufacturing establishments have been awarded over 75 per cent of Army and Navy contracts.” ” Chairman Murray told the 8enate that under the committee’s bill the proposed new division would make a comprehensive Inventory of the small business capacity of the United States to determine how it could best be used in war production. 2 Billion in Machine Tools Needed, W. P. B. Says By the Associated Press. The War Production Board dis closed today that President Roose velt’s “blueprint for victory” would require production of $2,000,000,000 worth of machine tools and related metal working machinery this year, compared with a present production rate of about $1,100,000,000. The 1941 output of machine tools was valued at $840,000,000 by the 250 major producers and the 200 less important firms. Simultaneously, it was learned that William H. Harrison, W. P. B. production director, in presenting these requirements, told the board yesterday that interchange of ma chine tools between individual plants and factories, already ordered in the automobile industry, would be extended to other fields as part of a concentrated drive to widen the serious machine tool bottleneck. Mr. Harrison also disclosed that England is shipping used tools to the United States and that the board would place “sustained em phasis on more extensive use” of the imports. . Report Favors Dormitories for U. S. Workers House Unit Also Asks For Early Action on 50 Million in Housing (Earlier Story on Page A-l.) Temporary dormitories for unmarried Government workers was recommended late today by the House Public Buildings and Grounds Committee. The com mittee in a formal report, urged quick action on a bill it has unanimously approved, author izing an appropriation of $50, 000,000 for emergency housing of Federal employes in the District and metropolitan area and con struction of necessary public works for the expanded war time population. The report, filed in the House by Chairman Lanham of the Buildings and Grounds Committee declared: 'Temporary dormitories for un married workers will afford oppor tunity for association with fellow workers, minimize the problem of transportation, keep the amount of Federal expenditure within reason able bounds and relieve the situa tion with reference to normal real estate activities when the emergency is over.” Chairman Lanham said he would ask the House to give privileged status to the housing bill by apply ing to the Rules Committee tomor row for a special rule to expedite action on the measure. Hospital Situation Alarming. The committee declared in the re port that aside from the acute hous ing needs it had been “impressed” with the inadequacy of Washington’s hospital facilities. It also stressed the shortage of school facilities, wa ter and sewer services and fire pro tection control. According to present plans, about >40,000.000 of the >30.000.000 author ized in the bill would be used for construction of homes for Govern ment employes in the lower-income brackets. The remaining >10,000,000 is expected to be advanced to the Commissioners to provide urgently needed public works such as schools, hospital facilities and extensions of the water, sewer, refuse and fire pro- j tection services. The report said, in part: “There is universal agreement among all who have given study to it that the necessity for Govern ment assistance and action with respect to housing and public works at the seat of Government is un questionably urgent, and that with respect to meeting the housing shortage now becoming emergent, no conceivable program of private enterprise will be adequate. May Come Up Tomorrow. ‘Tn respect to the necessary and accompanying public works, it is of importance that advantage be taken for the reorganization of the Government departments for the war effort. While definite steps have been taken in this direction, the end is not yet in sight." The report also declared the com mittee is “very definitely of the opin ion” that private enterprise should supply as much of the permanent housing needs as possible, and that “the defense housing proposed in this measure should be restricted to the minimum necessary for the ad ditional personnel to be provided during the emergency in connection with the war-tim# activities.” Piling of the report formally placed the bill on the House cal endar, making possible its consider ation tomorrow under a unanimous consent agreement. Late Races Esrller Remits, Roesvsn'i. Other Selections end Entries for Tomor row, P»fe 2-X. Hialeah Park FIFTH RACK—Puree. *1.400: allow ances: 3-year-olds; l 1-16 miles on the turf. Air Current (Arcaro) 7.40 4.50 5.90 Brenner Pisa (May) 5.30 5.80 Born (Schmidl) S.io Time. i:44 4-5. Also ran—Bostee. Plret Lord and Rise Above It. SIXTH RAC*—Puree. *1.400: allow ances: 4-year-olds and up: 1 mile. aCash Baals iMehrtens) 6.80 3.50 3.00 City Talk (Day) 4.10 3.90 Poratva (McCreary) 5.10 Time, 1:38. Also ran—Commencement. Allesandro. Arestlno. High One and a Rtdins Lisht. a Howe Stable and W. M. Jefford s entry. SEVENTH RACE—Purse. #1,200: claim ing; 4-year-olds and upward: 1 3-18 miles. Inconceivable (James) 19.80 8.30 8.40 Burnlns Stick (Roberts) 5.10 4.60 Junco (Finnegan i 9.40 Time, 1:59 1-6. ■ Also ran—Trapexe Artist. Enoch Bor land. Colorado Ore. Golden Lea and Wise Hobby. Fair Grounds THIRD RACK—Purse. #600: special weights: maidens; 3-year-olds; 2 furlongs. Gabe (Cornay) 43.00 17.00 8.00 Aerial Torpedo (Cl«rk) 4.60 3.20 Valdlna Rocket (Creig) 5.80 Time, 0:28 2-5. Also ran—Glen Valley. Saintly. Silver Tin- Paddywhack. Ijo Boom. (Mid-Cookie. (Scotch Pert, (Mia Mia and Orand Gumbo, f Field. FOURTH RACE—Purse. *800; claim ing; 4-year-olds and upward; 1 mile and 70 yards. Punchdrunk (Sleto) 49 00 18.00 11.60 I Might (Longa) 10.00 7.00 (Michigan Blue (Weldaman) 6.40 Time. 1:464* Also ran—Cocklebur. Be Prepared. Selma May. Lady Ballet, (Beta, Sweet Story. Little Mom. (Lady Lieto. KlTlarney Lass. 1 Field. FIFTH RACB—Puree. *800; allow ances; 3-ytar-oldt and upward; 6 furlongs SMSMSSP * “ liS |:| * At liber*. Little NEW YORK—LADY HAWKINS SURVIVORS ESCAPE OTHER SUBS—These survivors of the Lady Hawkins, Canadian passen ger liner, sunk by a submarine January 19 with a loss of 251 lives, were landed here today by a United States liner (name withheld) which had a thrilling escape from three U-boats. Capt. Nels Helgesen of the United States liner attempted to ram the sub marine, which fled when a patrol plane arrived on the scene. Late News Bulletins C. I. 0.-Bethlehem Parleys Broken Off NEW YORK UP).—Contract negotiations between the C. I. O. Steel Workers’ Organizing Committee and the Beth lehem Steel Co. were broken off today, it was announced by Labor Department Conciliator James F. Dewey, who asked that the controversy be referred Immediately to the War Labor Board. Issues are wages and union security involving 14 plants and 90,000 workers. Life in Europe'Horrible/ Earle Says PHILADELPHIA UP).—Life in occupied Europe “is so horrible, it isn’t worth living,” George H. Earle, Minister to Bulgaria, told a charity campaign luncheon group today. Mr. Earle said Russian parachutists landed in Bulgaria while he was there to stir a revolution, but were captured, soaked with gasoline, and set afire by the Gestapo “to make them confess.” 'Bundles for Congress' Trip Called Off; Money to Buy Bonds Br th* Associtted Pres*. SPOKANE, Was^.. Feb. 5—The Athletic Round Table's “Bundles for Congress” truck Is not going to Washington. A matter of minutes before the truck was to be loaded today, Joe Albi, president, announced the trip would not be made. "We think we know a joke and how to start it,'' Mr. Albi said. "We think we know when to stop it, too. Right now the campaign is at its peak and has served its pur pose of calling national attention to the congressional pensions and in helping the country to relax a little in a critical time. "The A. R. T. Board of Director* is unanimous in feeling that the only thing we could gain in carry ing out the trip would be general censure, perhaps serious trouble and certainly would not help the coun try's conservation program. “The S3.000 the trip would have cost will be used to buy Defense bonds.” The cargo, which the Round Table will Jettison, was probably the looniest ever assembled for a trans continental trip—everything from old razor blades and moth-eaten nightcaps to worn-out artificial legs. Flour-and-Water SOS Saves Seized Ship, Wins British Medal Bt the Associated Press. LONDON, Feb. 5.—Thomas Hug gett, a steward aboard the German captured 8,046-ton tanker San Casi miro. was awarded the British Em pire Medal tonight for his feat a year ago in surreptitiously painting a 3-foot-high “SOS” deck sign which enabled British patrols to re capture the ship. The San Casimiro was taken by the German battleship Gneisenau in March in the Western Atlantic when a prize crew under Lt. Otto Grenz was put aboard her. "You’ll never get through our pa trols,” British seamen told the lieu tenant who stowed them below deck. As the tanker neared England en route to a German-held port, a Brit ish plane from the aircraft carrier Ark Royal flew over. British crewmen tried to wave table cloths from the tanker s port holes, but the Nazi crew, armed with machine guns, put a stop to that. Then Huggett got his idea. Mix ing a paste of flour and water he evaded the prize crewmen, found a bit of uninhabited deck and painted his big sign. When the Nazi commander. Lt. Grenz, discovered it, he told Hug gett: "My compliments. A nice job. Now scrub lt off.” But a British plane had spotted the sigh and in a short time the British battle cruiser Renown ap peared on the horizon and recap tured the ship despite Nazi attempts to scuttle her. Congress Pensions Hit As "Dreadful" Mistake By the Associated Press. Congressional action in setting up an ’ annuity retirement plan for members of the House and Senate was described today by Representa tive Cox, Democrat, of Georgia as a "dreadful mistake.” He said it would “put us at a dis advantage for years to come in deal ing with all retirement legislation and it should be repealed.” Congressional Medal Of Honor Proposed For Gen. MacArthur By tht Associated Press. A bill directing President Roosevelt to award the Con gressional Medal of Honor to Gen. Douglas MacArthur for his heroic fight in the Philip pines was Introduced today by Representative Thomas, Re publican, of New Jersey. He told the House it would serve as a tribute to both Gen. MacArthur and to the men serving under him. ! H . Man Who Set Wife Afire Put on Bread, Water Br the Associated Press. ORD, Nebr. 5.—Judge John L. Andersen today sentenced Charles E. Veleba, 43, to three months In jail, the first four days of each month on a bread-and-water diet after Veleba pleaded guilty to forc ing his wife to disrobe, chaining her to a bed, beating and burning her. Mrs. Veleba testified that her hus band, accusing her of infidelity, poured alcohol on her, then set it on fire. Her bums were not serious. The Velebas have been married 30 years. Veleba testified he could not re member what happened, saying ‘1 must have been crazy.” GUIDE FOR READERS Amusements. C-S-1 Comics ..C-lt-11 Editorial ...A-10 Editorial Articles_A-il Finance —A-*• Legal Notices, C*» Lost and round. A-S Obituary ...A-12 Radio.C-14 Serial 8tory .B-14 Society.B4 Sport* .C-l-2 Where to Oo.B-4 Woman’s Page, C44 (Complete Index, Page A-l.) Curfew Sponsor Asks House Probe of All U. S. Personnel Here Committee Proposed To Look Into Entire District Problem A resolution providing for cre ation of a special House commit tee of seven members to investi gate the Government personnel problem In the District was in troduced today by Representative Wilson, Republican, of Indiana. His action came as a sequel to a suggestion he made last week that girl workers in Washington go to bed at 10 p.m as a means of in creasing efficiency in the Govern ment service during the war. The resolution would give the proposed investigating committee the power of subpoena and to sit at iny time, irrespective of whether the House is in adjournment. According to the resolution, the committee would be directed to “In vestigate the entire problem of the employment and utilization of civil ian personnel of the Government in the District of Columbia, Including a study and investigation of the or ganization. personnel and activities of the Civil Service Commission, with the particular purpose of deter rlining whether or not such civilian personnel are being procured, ap pointed. assigned to duty, and util ized In an efficient and economical manner.” The committee also would be re quired to make a report and rec ommendations to the House "at the earliest practicable date during the present Congress,” The resolution does not provide any funds for use of the committee in the conduct of the inquiry. Cargo Ship Nancy Lykes Launched at Kearny, N J. B* the Associated Press. KEARNY. N. J.. Feb. 5 —The cargo ship Nancy Lykes. built for the United States Maritime Commis sion and the Lykes Brothers Steam ship Co., Inc., slipped down the ways today at the Federal Ship building <St Dry Dock Co. Mrs. Frederica Lykes Thompson of Houston, Tex,, sponsor of the ship, and daughter of James M. Lykes, president of the steamship company christened the craft. The Nancy Lykes Is one of a large group of C-2 vessels being bunt for the Maritime Commission. She measures 545 feet in length, 63 feet in breadth and 40 feet, 6 inches in depth and is propelled by high pres sure steam turbines. Virginia House Votes to Repeal Tax on Liquor B» the Associated Preu. RICHMOND, Va., Feb. 5.—The House of Delegates today voted, 73 to 30' to repeal the 10 per cent tax on liquor adopted two years ago, and then suspended constitutional readings to past* *7 to 0, the Senate bill for a single administrator to re place the three-nan Unemployment Compensation Commission. Both measures were advocated by Gov. Darden. The unemployment compensation bill now goes to him for his signature. The 10 per cent tax, applicable on the retail selling price of liquor and wine, has yielded approximately $3,400,000 a year, but State liquor board spokesmen have estimated that the 8tate will make up his revenue because of less competition from bootlegging and less buying across State lines. The liquor tax repeal bill now goes to the Senate, where passage is expected with little opposition. CAPT. NELS HELGESEN. —A. P. Wirephotos. British Sub That Sank 13 Ships Lost; Italian Submersibles Bagged 'Several' Fascist Craft Aiding Nazis in Atlantic 'Pay Penalty/ London Says By the Associated Press. LONDON, Feb. 5 —The Admi ralty tonight announced the loss of the submarine Triumph, cred ited with sinking four Axis naval units and nine supply ships, but claimed the sinking of several Italian submarines in the At lantic. The Italian undersea craft, the Admiralty said, "paid the ultimate penalty’’ after having been sent to help the German campaign in the Atlantic. The Triumph, a 1.090-ton patrol type craft, also was credited with having “probably sunk” an armed trawler, a cruiser, a supply ship and the Italian tanker Liri, all in the Mediterranean. Sister Ship of Thetis. All these successes, the Admiralty said, had been announced previous ly but had not been attributed to the Triumph. On December 26. 1939, while on North Sea patrol, the Triumph hit a German mine, but managed to make her way 300 miles through the North Sea to a repair base. The- Triumph was a sister ship of the Thetis, which sank in the Irish Sea in June, 1939, with a loss of 98 lives. She was armed with 10 torpedo tubes and had a normal complement of 53 men. One of the Italian subs, the Ad miralty said, was the Ferraris, an (See SUBMARINE, Page 2-X.) Straus Formally Quits Post as U. S. H. A. Chief Br the Associated Press. Nathan Straus today formally gave up his job as administrator of the United States Housing Au thority. Before an assembly of approxi mately 1,200 U. S. H. A. employes In the Interior Department audi torium h» announced he had sub mitted his resignation to President Roosevelt and had called the em ployes together to say ‘‘good-by.” The President has not accepted the resignation, but Mr. Straus expressed confidence he would. The employes presented Mr. Straus a scroll, .which said in part: "You are leaving behind you a record of concrete accomplishment.” Leon H. Keyserling now is serving as acting administrator. He pre viously was secretary to Senator Wagner, Democrat, of New York and served as deputy administrator and general counsel of U. S. H. A. U-Boafs Flee When Patrol Plane Arrives « Ship Reaches N. Y. With 25 Off Sunken Lady Hawkins (Earlier Submarine Story on Page A-6.) Bj the Associated Press. NEW YORK, Feb. 5.—An Amer ican passenger ship arrived today after a thrilling escape from . three Axis submarines which made crash dives when a patrol plane appeared on the scene while the unarmed ship was trying to ram one of the U-boats. Although the captain of the liner (her name was withheld by the Navy) refused comment on his at tempt to ram the undersea raiders, crew members said the U-boats were sighted on the surface last Sun day afternoon shortly after the ves sel left a West Indies port. "They crash-dived when the plane appeared and one of them was «o close he passed under the ship," a crew member said. (Third Naval District head quarters allowed publication of the story after conferring with Washington officials.) Escorted by U. S. Plane*. After the submarines disappeared American planes escorted the vessel the rest of the day as she zigzagged through dangerous waters. The liner brought in 25 survivors of the Canadian passenger liner Lady Hawkins, torpedoed and sunk January 19, with a loss of 251 lives. The survivors were Chief Officer Percy A. Kelly, eight members of his crew and 16 American defensa workers en route to a southern base when their ship was sunk. Chief Officer Kelly, a sandy-haired Nova Scotian, discounted credit given him for his cool work in guid ing a lifeboat with 71 passengers through five days of rough seas pre ceding their rescue. "It was the help of God that got us through.” he said. <The 71 and five bodies were landed at San Juan, Puerto Rico.) Feared Ruse at First. -Capt. Nels Helgesen, master of the rescue ship, said that he zigzagged away when he first saw two red flares shoot up from the lifeboat. "It's an old wheeze for a sub marine to send up distress signals." he related. "I wasn't taking any chances, but I maneuvered until I, saw the lifeboat's sail and then I was satisfied.” Vincel Peoples, 34, of St. Joseph,, Mo., foreman of the workers, said “We're still on our way to our base whenever they want to send us.” < Mr. Peoples said many persons were left floundering in the water because their lifeboat, built to carry i 63, had 76 persons on board. Billions Spent Recklessly, Criminally, Wiley Charges (Earlier Story on Page A-l.) < B> the Associated Press. Senator Wiley, Republican, of Wis consin charged today that billions < of Government dollars are being "recklessly and in many instances criminally” spent. « In the matter of profits a simple recapture clause might have saved the Nation great sums, he said on11 the Senate floor. “We have an army of useless indi viduals now on the Government pay roll, an untold number of useless boards and commissions,” Senator Wiley added. < He urged Americans to apply the slogan. “Remember Pearl Harbor" to the home front as well as tha' battle front. "We are appropriating billions of, dollars,” Senator Wiley said. “Are we alert, we in Congress, to see that this money—the people's money—is, being carefully and economically in vested in the war effort, or are we in Congress satisfied after we have, appropriated the money?” The Roberts report demonstrated that some one was asleep at the< switch at Pearl Harbor, he said, and suggested it might be a "good idea to find out whether some of us ars< asleep at the switch in Washing ton." __ < Canada and Soviet Sign Pact LONDON, Peb. 5 (JP).—Russian * Ambassador Ivan Maisky and tha Canadian High Commissioner, Vin-, cent Massey, signed an agreement today for the exchange of consular representatives by Canada and tha< Soviet Union. Capital Transit Aide Offers Way to Hide Streetcars in Raid Bj the Associated Press. CHICAGO, Peb. 5.—fltraet colored streetcars soon may appear on the American scene. An adaptation of the protec tive coloring which wild life uses to fool the hunter was among recommendations for surface lines placed before the transit industry's war emergency con ference by R. D. Voshell of the Capital Transit Co. of Washing ton. He spoke on methods for meeting air-raid and blackout conditions. Mr. Voshell recommended re painting of roofs drab green, brown or "dirty gray," because light-colored roots are easily spotted from the air, and black roofs are highly visible in bright moonlight.